Modules by dffhrtcv3


									Chapter 15-18

   CSC1310 Fall 2009

   Modules are the highest level program organization
    unit, usually correspond to source files and serve as
    libraries of tools.
   Each file is a module and modules import other
    modules to use the name they define.
   import: lets a client fetch a module as a whole
   from: allows to fetch particular names from module
   reload: provides a way to reload code without
    stopping Python.
Why Use Modules?

1. Code reuse
    Code in module is persistent: can be reloaded and
     run as many times as needed.
2. System namespace partitioning
    Everything “lives” in a module: code and objects are
     always implicitly enclosed by a module.
3. Implementing shared services or data
      Components shared across a system
Module Creation

   Easy to create: files that are created with
    text editor.
   Top-level assignments create module
   You can call modules anything (except
    keywords), but module filenames should end
    in .py extension
Modules Usage: import
   Clients can use the module file by running
    import statement

>>>import math         # file to be loaded
>>>print math.pi     # variable in the script
>>>print math.sqrt(4), math.log(10)

   import gives the whole module object
   Module name is necessary to fetch (use,
    call) its attributes
Modules Usage: from
   Clients can use the module file by running
    from statement

>>>from math import pi, sqrt
>>>print pi,sqrt(6)
 from copies specified names out of the
 The copied names are used directly
  without going through module.
Modules Usage: from *

   Special form of from statement (with *) gives
    copies of all names in the referenced module.

>>>from fib import *
>>>print fibTopN(6), fib(6), list, add()

   The copied names are used directly without
    going through module.
Import Runs Only Once

   Import is expensive operation, so it happens
    only on first import of from.

   Later import operations fetch an already-
    loaded module object (code is not rerun!)
import, from are Assignments
 import assigns an entire module object to a single
 from assigns one or more names to objects of the
  same name in another module.
 Name copied with from becomes a reference to a
  shared object (fetched mutable object can be
>>>from fib import list, size
>>>list[0]=“changed!”, size=12
 Cross-File Name Changes:

>>>import fib
>>>fib.size=23 #earlier “size” was 12 which is still 12

 Both import, from were extended to allow a module
  to be given a different name.
>>>import fib as f
>>>print f.multiple()
>>>from fib import multiple as mult
>>>print mult([1,2,3])

   Short synonyms for long names.
   Avoiding name clashes.
Reloading Modules

 reload function forces already loaded module code
  to be reloaded and rerun.
 Assignments in the new code change the existing
  module object in-place.
 It allows to change parts of running programs
  without stopping.
 reload is passed an existing module object, not a
>>>import fib
reload Basics

   reload runs a module file’s new code in the
    module’s current namespace.

   Impacts all files that use import.

   Impacts only future from clients only, since previous
    from clients got a copy not a reference to an object.
reload Example
 In interactive shell:
>>>import fib
>>>print fib.multiple()
   Change
    def multiple(l=list2):
       return [l[x]*x for x in range(len(l))]
 In interactive shell:
>>>print fib.multiple()
reload Example
 In interactive shell (before changes):
>>>from math import sqrt,pi
>>>print pi
 You change pi
 >>>pi = 3.0
 In interactive shell you try:
>>>reload(math) # doesn’t work, from assigned
                  name pi and sqrt, not name math
>>>print pi # from makes copy of function!
 So, you need either:
       Call it math.pi OR Rerun the from (from math import pi)
Data Hiding in Modules
   Data hiding in Python is a convention, not a syntax.
   You can not prevent changes from outside.
   Single leading underscore in name (_name) prevents
    variable from being copied with from *.
   Hiding effect can be achieved by assigning a list of
    variable name string to the global variable __all__. If
    __all__ is defined, from * copies only variable
    mentioned there; otherwise, it copies all variables
    without a single leading underscore.

Mixed Usage Modes
   Each module has a built-in attribute __name__:
     “__main__” if file is being run as a top-level program

     module’s name if file is being imported
   Module can test its own __name__ to determine
    whether it’s being run or imported(different behavior,
   In
    import fib
    def imported():
           print “It is imported”
           if __name__==“__main__”:
                print fib.fib(4)
Changing the Module Search Path

   Program can change the search path by changing a
    built-in list called sys.path
   sys.path is initialized on startup, but then you can
    delete, append, and reset its components:

>>>import sys

   Be careful: if you delete a critical directory from the
    path, you may lose access to critical utilities.
   Your settings are not retained after Python exits.
Module Design Concepts

   You’re always in a module in Python.
    Indeed, code typed in interactive prompt
    really goes to built-in module __main__
   Minimize module coupling: global variables.
   Maximize module cohesion: unified purpose.
   Modules should rarely change other modules’
    variables (function return values)
Importing Modules Dynamically
>>>import ”string”
>>>import x
 If you get name to import dynamically, you need to
  construct an import statement as a string of Python
  code and pass it to exec.
>>>exec “import”+name
 exec statement compiles a string of code and
  passes it to Python interpreter to be executed.
 __import__ loads from a string and returns the
  module object. It works quicker than exec.

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