Contaminants in Air - Publish Uwo by yaofenji

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									                            Geography 3432
                         Environment and Health

            Indoor and Outdoor Air Pollution
                          (Moeller Chapter 5)

                     •    Context
                     •    Body’s response to air pollution
                     •    CACs
                     •    CAC health effects
                     •    CAC trends
                     •    CAC sources
                     •    Indoor air pollution
                     •    Control
                     •    Regulation
Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                 Geog 3432                 1
                     Context

• acute and chronic effects
• 1930 Belgium 60 died – zinc smelter, sulfuric acid
  factory + atmospheric inversion (cold, damp)
• 1952 London 4000 died – coal
• 8 % Americans suffer
  chronic bronchitis,
  emphysema or asthma
  caused or aggravated by
  air pollution
• heart disease and air
  pollution (Global news)
Feb 6, 2013, 13:15       Geog 3432                 2
                       Body’s Response

• water soluble – typically
  removed quickly by
  body (via upper airway)
  – e.g., sulfur dioxide,
  formaldehyde
• less soluble – penetrate
  lungs/alveoli – e.g.,
  nitrogen dioxide, ozone


  Feb 6, 2013, 13:15          Geog 3432   3
         Removal of Toxins from Respiratory
                      System
Questions
• Name some ways our
  bodies remove the
  pollutants we inhale?
• What doesn’t get
  removed and why?
                                     pm 2.5
• Answers: You only                  Source: NASA
  cheat yourself if you
  peek
Feb 6, 2013, 13:15       Geog 3432                  4
                Body’s Response to Particulates
 • particle size associated with “region” reached
 • interpret graph from Moeller below
 • slow deep breathing = more deposition than fast
   shallow           deep vs shallow breathing
                                                  Particles removed
                       pm 2.5




                                                 (bronchiolar and alveolar regions)




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                        Geog 3432                   5
           Criteria Air Contaminants (CACs)
 •    Total Particulate Matter (TPM),
 •    PM10
 •    PM2.5
 •    Sulphur Oxides (SOx)
 •    Nitrogen Oxides (NOx)
 •    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
 •    Carbon Monoxide (CO)


Feb 6, 2013, 13:15        Geog 3432           6
                     Health Effects of CACs
• carbon monoxide – reduces O2 delivery, very serious to
  cardiovascular/lung disease sufferers
• nitrogen oxides – lung irritant, affects immune system –
  increased susceptibility to infection
• sulfur oxides – similar to ozone
• VOCs - cancer as well as adverse neurological,
  reproductive, and developmental effects
• particulates – repiratory function, very serious to
  cardiovascular/lung disease sufferers 30,000 excess deaths
  in US (ref: 26,000 die from flu)
• ozone – at ground: damages lung tissue, reduces lung
  function, asthmatics particularly vulnerable – atmosphere
  = protective – re: skin cancer

Feb 6, 2013, 13:15             Geog 3432                       7
                     Sources of Air Pollutants

• Question – what are the major sources of
  air pollution – make a ranked list.

See spreadsheet for details in following charts




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                  Geog 3432     8
                     Sources of CACs




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15         Geog 3432   9
         Industrial vs Other Sources of CACs
                        Canada
                                 (A) 2008 NPRI    (B) Total CAC       % from NPRI
                                 industrial       emissions (2007)    industrial
                                 Releases         excluding natural   facilities
          Substance              (tonnes)         sources (tonnes)    (A/B*100)
          Sulphur dioxide        1 562 186        1 903 423               82
          Carbon monoxide        924 318          9 152 911               10
          Oxides of nitrogen
                                 765 399          2 268 812               34
          (expressed as NO2)
          Volatile organic
                                 245 475          2 271 341               11
          compounds (VOCs)
          PM - total particulate
                                 338 760          18 502 880               2
          matter
          PM10 - particulate
                                 147 915          5 951 756                2
          matter ≤ 10 microns
          PM2.5 - particulate
                                 61 080           1 133 417                5
          matter ≤ 2.5 microns


Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                               Geog 3432                          10
                CACs and Non CACs from Industrial
                            Sources




Source: NPRI 2008




        Feb 6, 2013, 13:15     Geog 3432            11
                                                    PM2.5




             source: http://www.airqualityontario.com/science/pollutants/particulates.cfm

        • residential wood burning accounts for large
        volumes of particulates
        • over 50% likely transboundary from the U.S.
Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                       Geog 3432                          12
                     CACs Over Time




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15         Geog 3432   13
                                     CACs Over Time
                   Total Particulate Matter (TPM) Canada

          100,000,000
                                                                       TOTAL WITH OPEN
                                                                       SOURCES
           10,000,000                                                  TOTAL WITHOUT
                                                                       OPEN SOURCES
                                                                       TOTAL
Tonnnes




                                                                       TRANSPORTATION
            1,000,000
                                                                       TOTAL INDUSTRIAL
                                                                       SOURCES

             100,000
                                                                      OPEN SOURCES
                                                                      Agriculture (Animals)
                                                                      Agriculture Tilling and Wind Erosion
              10,000                                                  Construction Operations
                                                                      Dust from Paved Roads
                       90

                              95

                                     00

                                            02

                                                   05

                                                          10

                                                                 15


                                                                      Dust from Unpaved Roads
                     19

                            19

                                   20

                                          20

                                                 20

                                                        20

                                                               20




                                                                      Forest Fires
                                                                      Landfills Sites
     Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                  Geog 3432
                                                                      Mine Tailings              14
                                                                      Prescribed Burning
                                      CACs Over Time
                           PM10 Emissions Canada
         10,000,000
                                                                             TOTAL WITH
                                                                             OPEN SOURCES

                                                                             TOTAL WITHOUT
                                                                             OPEN SOURCES
          1,000,000
                                                                             TOTAL
Tonnes




                                                                             TRANSPORTATIO
                                                                             N
                                                                             TOTAL
                                                                             INDUSTRIAL
           100,000                                                           SOURCES
                                                                         OPEN SOURCES
                                                                         Agriculture (Animals)
                                                                         Agriculture Tilling and Wind Erosion
                                                                         Construction Operations
            10,000                                                       Dust from Paved Roads
                        1990   1995   2000   2002   2005   2010   2015   Dust from Unpaved Roads
                                                                         Forest Fires
                                                                         Landfills Sites
   Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                 Geog 3432
                                                                         Mine Tailings              15
                                                                         Prescribed Burning
                                           CACs Over Time
                                     PM2.5 Emissions Canada

         10,000,000



                                                                           TOTAL WITH OPEN
          1,000,000                                                        SOURCES
                                                                           TOTAL WITHOUT
Tonnes




                                                                           OPEN SOURCES
                                                                           TOTAL
                                                                           TRANSPORTATION
           100,000                                                         TOTAL INDUSTRIAL
                                                                           SOURCES
                                                                           OPEN SOURCES
                                                                           Agriculture (Animals)
             10,000                                                        Agriculture Tilling and Wind Erosion
                                                                           Construction Operations
                      90

                              95

                                     00

                                            02

                                                   05

                                                          10

                                                                 15



                                                                           Dust from Paved Roads
                    19

                            19

                                   20

                                          20

                                                 20

                                                        20

                                                               20




                                                                           Dust from Unpaved Roads
                                                                           Forest Fires
                                                                           Landfills Sites
            Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                 Geog 3432
                                                                           Mine Tailings                16
                                                                           Prescribed Burning
                     CACs Over Time




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15         Geog 3432   17
                                   CACs Over Time
                                      SOx Emissions Canada

           10,000,000



                                                                      TOTAL WITH OPEN
            1,000,000                                                 SOURCES
                                                                      TOTAL WITHOUT
  Tonnes




                                                                      OPEN SOURCES
                                                                      TOTAL
                                                                      TRANSPORTATION
             100,000                                                  TOTAL INDUSTRIAL
                                                                      SOURCES



              10,000
                       90

                              95

                                     00

                                            02

                                                   05

                                                          10

                                                                 15
                     19

                            19

                                   20

                                          20

                                                 20

                                                        20

                                                               20




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                  Geog 3432                            18
                     CACs Over Time




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15         Geog 3432   19
                                   CACs Over Time
                                     NOx Emissions Canada

           10,000,000


                                                                       TOTAL WITH OPEN
                                                                       SOURCES
            1,000,000                                                  TOTAL WITHOUT
                                                                       OPEN SOURCES
  Tonnes




                                                                       TOTAL
                                                                       TRANSPORTATION
                                                                       TOTAL INDUSTRIAL
             100,000                                                   SOURCES




              10,000
                       90

                              95

                                     00

                                            02

                                                   05

                                                          10

                                                                  15
                     19

                            19

                                   20

                                          20

                                                 20

                                                        20

                                                                20




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                  Geog 3432                             20
                                   CACs Over Time
                                     VOC Emissions Canada

           10,000,000




            1,000,000                                                 TOTAL WITH OPEN
                                                                      SOURCES
  Tonnes




                                                                      TOTAL WITHOUT
                                                                      OPEN SOURCES
                                                                      TOTAL
             100,000                                                  TRANSPORTATION
                                                                      TOTAL INDUSTRIAL
                                                                      SOURCES


              10,000
                       90

                              95

                                     00

                                            02

                                                   05

                                                          10

                                                                 15
                     19

                            19

                                   20

                                          20

                                                 20

                                                        20

                                                               20




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                  Geog 3432                            21
                     CACs Over Time




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15         Geog 3432   22
                               CACs Over Time
                                     CO Emissions Canada

           100,000,000



            10,000,000                                                TOTAL WITH OPEN
                                                                      SOURCES
                                                                      TOTAL WITHOUT
  Tonnes




                                                                      OPEN SOURCES
             1,000,000                                                TOTAL
                                                                      TRANSPORTATION
                                                                      TOTAL INDUSTRIAL
              100,000                                                 SOURCES



               10,000
                       90

                              95

                                     00

                                            02

                                                   05

                                                          10

                                                                 15
                     19

                            19

                                   20

                                          20

                                                 20

                                                        20

                                                               20




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                                 Geog 3432                             23
                     CACs Over Time




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15         Geog 3432   24
               Ground Level Ozone Formation




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15          Geog 3432         25
            Ground-Level Ozone 24hr Pattern




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15        Geog 3432           26
               Energy Consumption Increasing




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15          Geog 3432          27
                     Indoor Air Pollution

• 80-90% of time spent indoors
• may have largest pollution impact on human
  health
• same as outdoor but longer exposure with
  addition:
       –   moulds, and bacteria – e.g. legionnaires disease
       –   asbestos
       –   tobacco smoke
       –   radon

Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                Geog 3432                   28
           Control of Outdoor and Indoor Air
                       Pollution
• dilution – e.g. super stacks, not good long-term
• substitution/elimination – e.g, nuclear vs coal
  power, electric vs gasoline vehicles
• reduction – e.g., increase efficiency
• air cleaning technology – e.g., stack scrubbers
• design – re: indoor – plastic barriers, more air
  flow
• ventilation – re: indoor
• behavioural – reduce consumption (not just
  tobacco)
Feb 6, 2013, 13:15        Geog 3432                  29
                     Efficiency from Technology?




        Source: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/canenv.html
Feb 6, 2013, 13:15                         Geog 3432           30
                     Regulating Air Pollution

• “controlled” by standards not legislation
       – guidelines set by provinces not binding
•    province/feds share responsibility
•    provinces ultimately implement
•    CCME pivotal
•    much provincial discretion ultimately

Feb 6, 2013, 13:15              Geog 3432          31
               Regulating Indoor Air Pollution

• Question: what special challenges do regulators
  face trying to reduce the impacts of indoor air
  pollution on health?




Feb 6, 2013, 13:15           Geog 3432              32
        Answer – Remove Pollutants
•    macrophage cells in lungs
•    cough
•    sneeze
•    swallowing (see macrophages and mucous)
•    Go back



Feb 6, 2013, 13:15     Geog 3432               33

								
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