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Migration of Homo Sapiens

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					Features of geography:
  • Resources (plants, animals, water, etc.)
  • Climate
  • Physical obstacles and natural barriers
  • Rivers and other aids to transportation


    How was geography important to
               prehistoric man?
  Is it still important today? If so, how?
      Climate change leads to the
        Neolithic Revolution…
• Herd animals move north; less available
• Less water locked up in ice; More rain
• Warmer weather, longer growing seasons
• More emphasis on “gathering” gradually
  leads to the domestication of plants
• Domestication = purposeful planting +
  genetic alteration through (un)natural
  selection
             From Dandelion to
             Puffball to spread
             its seeds…


But how
does Corn
spread its
seeds?
Mr. Kagan
has to open
the ear, cut
the kernals,
plow the
ground,
fertilize the
soil, then
plant.
Dandelion              Corn

 Which is a better plant for
   success in the wild?
Which is a better plant for an
      agriculturalist?
           Why?
   Key changes of the Neolithic
           Revolution
• Domestication of plants
  – Wheat, Rice, Barley, Maize, Potatoes
  – Planting and Mutation
• Domestication (taming) of Livestock
  – Goats, Sheep, Pigs, Cows, Horses
  – Creation of Herds
• At first, the Plants (Women) - Animals
  (Men) division of labor remains
    … but Neolithic doesn’t happen
           everywhere…

• Only possible where the geographic
  conditions are favorable
• Grains don’t grow in Sub-Saharan Africa
  and tse-tse fly kills off livestock
• Too short a growing season in North Asia
  … and Neolithic doesn’t happen at
     the same time everywhere

• Northern Europe is cold and the soil is too
  thick for plowing.
• Lack of domesticatable animals and fewer
  good crops slows Neolithic in Americas
Corn and its predecessor crop Teosinte
  … and Neolithic doesn’t happen at
     the same time everywhere

• Northern Europe is cold and the soil is too
  thick for plowing.
• Lack of domesticatable animals and fewer
  good crops slows Neolithic in Americas
• Eurasia goes East-West; while Africa and
  the Americas go North-South - why does
  this matter?
Primary zone for early settlements
   How did geography affect settlement
             distribution?

Look for:
• Climate suitable for wheat, rice and other
  productive grains
• Advances in one region can spread if there
  is a similar climate or growing season
• Cold season (winter) reduces bugs that
  transmit disease and kill livestock
“Consequences” Questions for Groups:

 1. We’ve decided we liked gatherer-hunter
    life better. What obstacles exist to going
    back?
 2. We never switched to settlement in the
    first place. Why is our traditional way of
    life still imperiled?
 3. There’s not enough good crop land here
    for all these people. What happens now?

				
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posted:5/13/2013
language:English
pages:13