Growth of Monarch and Holy Roman Empire vs. Church

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					Growth of Monarch and
 Holy Roman Empire
      vs. Church

      Chapter 9.1-2
Who shall lead?
Feudal Monarchs            Nobles and the Church
• Head of society          • Levied taxes
• Limited power            • Maintained own armies
• Wanted greater control   • Maintained own court
Centralized Power
• Monarch set up
  – Bureaucracy
  – Court
  – Standing Army
  – Tax System
• Ties to middle class
  – Supported rulers for peace and unity they provided
English Monarch
• Invasion by Angles, Saxons, Vikings
• 1066: Anglo-Saxon king Edward died with no
  – Council chose brother-in-law Harold
  – Duke William of Normandy also claimed throne
     •   Raised army, won backing of pope
     •   Battle of Hastings: Normans defeated Harold
     •   William the Conqueror took the throne
     •   Blend of Norman French and Anglo-Saxons
Royal Power
•   Firm control
•   Granted fiefs to Church, Norman lords (barons)
•   Monitored building of castles
•   First allegiance to him
•   Census in 1086
•   Domesday Book
    – Listed every property in England (both large and small)
    – No one could escape
    – Aided in tax collecting
• Royal exchequer
    – Treasury
    – Collected taxes, fines, fees
Legal System
• Henry II: 1154
• Expanded existing customs into law
• Foundation of English common law
  –   Legal system based on custom and court rulings
  –   Applied to all of England
  –   Court charged a fee
  –   Preferred royal court over Church’s court
• Jury
  – Group of men sworn to speak the truth
  – Determined if cases would be brought to trial
  – 12 neighbors of an accused
Conflict with Church
• Henry vs. Church
• Right to try clergy in royal courts
• Archbishop of Canterbury opposed king
  – 4 knights murdered him
  – Henry denied any part
  – Eased attempts to regulate clergy
  – Archbishop declared a saint
Traditions of Government
• Royal authority vs. Traditional feudal rights
• John
  – Henry’s son
  – Clever, greedy, cruel, untrustworthy
  – 3 enemies
     • Phillip II of France, Pope Innocent III and English nobles
        – 1205: lost English-held lands in France to Phillip
        – Rejected Pope Innocent III’s nominee, so he was
            » English were placed under interdict
            » To save crown, John accepted England as fief of Pope
                 • Paid yearly fee to Rome
Magna Carta
• John angered nobles with taxes and abuse of
• 1215: forced him to sign Magna Carta
  –   Great Charter
  –   Affirmed feudal rights
  –   Protected from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment
  –   “due process”
  –   No new taxes
  –   “no taxation without representation”
  –   2 things
       • Nobles had certain rights
       • Monarch must obey law
• Great Council
• Evolved into Parliament
• Unified England
• Framework for English legislature
• 2-house body
• House of Lords: nobles, high clergy
• House of Commons: knights and middle class
• “power of the purse”
• Checked or limited power of monarch
French Monarchs
• Patchwork territories                    • Louis IX
• Capetians                                    – 1226
    –   Feudal nobles elected Hugh Capet       – Generous, noble, devoted to
    –   Increased royal power                    justice and chivalry
    –   Made throne hereditary                 – Declared a saint
    –   300 year succession                    – Religious
    –   Built bureaucracy                      – Persecuted heretics and Jews
         • Tax and law                         – Led French in 2 wars against
• Philip Augustus                              – Improved royal govt
    – Phillip II                               – Ended serfdom
    – Paid middle-class workers to fill        – Centralized monarch in France
      govt positions instead of nobles
         • Loyalty to king
    – New towns, standing army
    – Won war with John of England,
      took back English-ruled lands
    – Most powerful ruler in Europe
Philip IV vs. Pope
• Louis’s grandson
• Extended royal power
• Collected new taxes from clergy
• Clash with Pope Boniface VIII
• Pope forbade Philip to tax clergy
• Philip threatened to arrest any clergy that
  didn’t pay up
• Philip sent troops to seize Pope
• Pope escaped badly beaten, died later
Estates General
• Body of representatives
  – Clergy
  – Nobles
  – Townspeople
• Didn’t develop like English Parliament
Holy Roman Empire
• Duke Otto I
• King of Germany
• Took title “Holy Roman Emperor”
• Saw themselves heirs to emperors of Ancient
• Worked to control vassals
• Emperors conflicted with Popes
   Popes vs. Emperors
• Pope Gregory VII                       • Emperor Henry IV
   – Wanted Church independent of           – Argued that bishops held lands
     secular rulers                           as royal fiefs
   – Banned lay investiture                 – Felt entitled to give symbol of
      • Emperor presented bishops             office
        with ring and staff that            – Exchanged insulting notes with
        symbolized their office               pope
      • Only pope had right to install
        bishops                             – Gregory excommunicated him
                                            – Forced to make peace
                                            – Presented himself as a repentant
                                            – Gregory knew he was just trying
                                              to save throne, but forgave him
                                            – Returned later for revenge, led
                                              army to Rome, and forced pope
                                              into exile
Concordat of Worms
• Struggle for 50 years
• 1122: both sides accepted treaty
• Agreed that Church had sole power to elect
  and invest bishops
• Emperors had right to invest them with fiefs
Frederick Barbarossa
• Emperor Frederick I
• “Red Beard”
• Fought to bring N. Italy under his control
  – Italians joined forces with pope, defeated Red
• Arranged marriage between son Henry and
  Constance- heiress to Sicily and S. Italy
Frederick II
•   Son of Henry and Constance
•   Raised in Italy
•   Able and arrogant
•   Spent little time in Germany
•   Clashed with popes in Italy
•   Failed to gain cities in N. Italy
•   German nobles more independent
•   Germany fragmented into many feudal states
•   Would not achieve unity for 600 years
•   Italy also faced upheaval
•   200 years of chaos
•   Thriving cultural center left in ruins
Church Power
• Pope Innocent III
• 1198
• Triumph of Church
• Supremacy over all other rulers
• Pope clashed with rulers and often won
• Innocent ordered interdict on France when Phillip II
  tried to annul his marriage
• 1209: Innocent launched crusade (holy war) against
  Albigensians in S. France
    – Albigensians wanted to purify Church
    – 10,000+ slaughtered
• Papacy entered period of decline

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