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									Habitat for Humanity Energy Efficiency Team
Sponsor Contact: Doug Taylor Habitat for Humanity 420 S. First Street (765) 423-4590
Donnie Austin Doug Crook Rosann Magnifico Brent Phillips Matthew Selvey Brian Waller donnie@purdue.edu dcrook1@purdue.edu rosann@ecn.purdue.edu bphillip@ecn.purdue.edu selvey@purdue.edu wallerb@purdue.edu

October 3 2000

Executive Summary
International Habitat for Humanity works to provide quality, affordable homes to low-income families. The final cost of the home is based upon the materials and the quality of the techniques used in construction. In order to reduce the cost of owning the home, the Energy Efficiency Team has conducted energy-utilization analyses of current house plans and materials. It has been determined that low-income homeowners pay, as a percentage, more for monthly utilities. This fact illustrates how important utility cost information can be for a future Habitat for Humanity homeowner. The goal of the Energy Team is to reduce annual energy bills by incorporating energy cost saving measures into Habitat for Humanity house plans. This is accomplished by the purchase of new Energy 10 software, researching new energy saving ideas, modeling these ideas, and modeling new Habitat for Humanity houses in Energy 10. The Energy Team recently purchased Energy 10 version 1.3. This new software is an upgrade to the previously owned version 1.2. The major improvement is the Weather Maker package, which gives more control over the climate files. Other improvements include corrections to errors in version 1.2 and improvements in other areas. The newest version of Energy 10 will give the Energy Team more capabilities, which will lead to better deliverables for the Habitat for Humanity organization. Several new ideas have been researched in the first half of the semester. These ideas include a whole house attic fan, window insulation, and blown insulation. Now that the team has a good idea of how these modifications will affect the energy use of the houses and how to model them in Energy 10, they can be incorporated into the house variants. The team has also looked into future energy costs to see how the modifications will affect energy costs in the future. The first half of the semester was spent preparing for Habitat for Humanity analyses. The team has learned to use the Energy 10 software and how to lower the energy costs of the houses. The second half of the semester will be spent modeling the modifications and providing quantitative

Introduction
The energy project was established with the goals of developing baseline utility cost information and energy savings strategies for homes built by Habitat for Humanity of Lafayette, Indiana (http://www.dcwi.com/~habitat). According to Habitat for Humanity International’s website (http://www.habitat.org), low-income homeowners pay (by percentage) more for utilities than middle and upper class homeowners do. This fact illustrates the large benefit utility cost information and energy cost reduction can have for current and future habitat homeowners. The baseline utility costs are provided to the web informational team throughout the semester, and will be presented on their informative website. This website enables potential homeowners the chance to see approximate utility costs associated with each of the different houses offered from Habitat for Humanity. Since these utility costs are of greater concern to lower income families, this information will help them recognize different cost issues related to owning their own home along with cost issues of different style houses. The other main goal stated for the team was the analysis of different energy saving strategies for Habitat for Humanity homes. Potential energy savings strategies are entered into an energy analysis computer program called Energy-10 [1]. This program then estimates the amount of money a homeowner can save associated with utility costs by implementing these strategies. The savings are then weighed versus the cost of implementation, comfort factors, and current housing trends to determine if the energy savings strategy is cost effective. The current semesters’ work involves updating all of the previous baseline information along with the addition of four new houses. Once all of the baseline information was set, three new energy strategies were performed based upon inputs from Doug Taylor of Habitat for Humanity. These strategies included evaluating rolled fiberglass insulation versus blown cellulose insulation, the advantages of attic fans, and implementing different types of windows.

Description of Project Tasks
The energy team has spent the last month preparing for future analysis. A newer version of Energy 10 has been purchased to improve the energy analyses of Habitat for Humanity houses. Research has been conducted to search for new energy conserving ideas. In addition, the Energy team has looked to the future by looking at expected energy rates and possible energy ideas for future analyses.

Overview of Energy-10
The primary tool used to estimate the baseline utility costs and the energy savings strategies is a software package called Energy-10. Energy-10 was produced through a partnership of the Passive Solar Industries Council, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Berkeley Solar Group. Information about Energy-10 can be found at the Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) website, http://www.sbicouncil.org. It was designed as a tool to evaluate energy usage and cost, and to provide energy saving suggestions for commercial, institutional, and residential buildings. In order to perform an energy analysis of a house, specific parameters need to be determined. By communicating with the project partner and performing necessary tests these parameters were determined. After all of the elements of the house have been put into the program, Energy-10 simulates a year of energy use, using weather data of a selected city (in this case, Indianapolis, Indiana). The simulation evaluates and predicts house energy usage and cost on an hourly basis based upon inputted house designs, climatic data, and local utility costs. These variables are then simulated, evaluated, and displayed in a series of user-friendly charts, graphs, and tables. We are getting an updated version of Energy-10, which has a few new aspects to it. The new version of Energy-10 contains a program called WeatherMaker. With WeatherMaker you can convert weather file formats, evaluate weather files in great detail, and make new weather files for any of the weather stations in the United States.

Energy 10 version 1.3
The big change in the new energy-10 software is that it comes bundled with Weather Maker. Weather Maker allows you to convert weather file formats, evaluate

weather files, and to create various weather files. This will enable the Energy Team to create a specific weather file for Lafayette, as opposed to Indianapolis, which was used previously.

Minor changes in version 1.3 of the Energy-10 software are new features and fixed errors. Some new features include; building aspect ratio can now be specified, day

lighting operations are modified, opening screen is revised, and the help file has been upgraded. Perhaps the most useful of these features, for our specific use, is the help file upgrade. Because of the lack of detail in the manual, the help file answers many of our questions.

Whole House Fans (a.k.a. attic fans)

One of our possibilities for modeling in Energy-10 was whole house fans. A whole house fan draws outside air in through your screened windows and doors and blows it out through your attic. The result is a mild cooling breeze that can lower skin temperature by 2 to 8 degrees. Whole house fans are practical and affordable and provide natural airconditioning. Whole house fans work well when outside temperature is below 82ºF. If you already have air-conditioning, a whole house fan can be used to thoroughly ventilate the house before the air-conditioning is turned on. This reduces air-conditioning operating time and costs. Whereas typical central air conditioners can cost about 20 cents per hour to operate, not including maintenance, whole-house fans run for about three to five cents per hour. This is often more than $100 savings per year.

Even if you have to use your air conditioner at times during the day, running the wholehouse fan at night helps. The circulating cool air draws heat out of the walls, furniture, cabinets, etc. This will delay how soon the air conditioner must start the following day to keep you comfortable. With this rate of return, our only task left is to model the whole house fan in Energy-10. Unfortunately this cannot be done. With the way Energy-10 is set up, we are currently not able to model them. Without being able to model the fan, all that we are left with is a good non-engineered suggestion for saving money in Habitat houses. And so because we are working on engineering projects, we are at the end of this analysis.

Window Insulation
Insulation helps to block the passage of heat, whether it's leaving your home in the cold of winter or blazing in during summer days. Conduction refers to the heat that passes from one molecule to the next as it makes its way through a solid wall. Therefore the use of insulation is needed. The heat of the sun causes radiation heat. Windows lose a lot of radiant heat unless they are equipped with a special coating. When warm air inside rises, moving toward cooler air (convection), it eventually moves to the outside, warming the outside air which, in turn, rises away from the house. Well insulated windows help prevent heat loss due to convection.

Zone 1 2 3 4 5

Roofs R19 R26 R26 R30 R33

Walls R11 R13 R19 R19 R19

Floors R11 R11 R13 R19 R21

Window Insulation Kits Lowe's of Lafayette, IN (765) 448-1900

&

Plastic Window Film Kit

These clear plastic sheets are cut to fit and placed over windows to help guard against cold drafts and radiation heat loss.

Inside Installation  Clean your window trim to remove dust and grease. This will provide a good surface against which you can  apply two-sided tape.  Apply two-sided tape around the outside of the window trim. It may be necessary at the top to mount the  tape inside of any brackets for curtain hangers. On the other hand, the plastic can be mounted outside of  inset blinds. In other words, the blinds will be between the plastic sheet and the window. This shouldn’t pose  a problem since inset blinds are installed inside the window trim.  Cut the film approximately two inches larger than the window. Remove the protective paper from the  two-sided tape along the top of the window and attach the film by stretching it and pressing it against the  tape. Uncover the remaining tape around the window and attach the film all the way around.  Use a hair dryer to shrink the film (consult the manufacturer’s directions). Using this process it is possible to  remove wrinkles and creases, thereby leaving the film almost invisible. Outside Installation Plastic film kits are available for exterior installation as well. They may include rolls of tacking strips or some other means of attachment. Some kits include plastic moldings which can be permanently attached, allowing you to remove or replace film whenever necessary. Installation is simple, and the kits include detailed instructions. A general description of the procedure follows.  Clean window trim to provide a good surface for tape adhesion.  Cut the molding to fit around the window. Cut 45 degree miters at the  corners so the pieces will meet to form 90 degree angles.

 Remove the molding inserts and attach the molding to the window trim  with two-sided tape.  Cut the film a couple of inches larger than the area encompassed by the molding strips. Temporarily tape it  across the molding frame.  Snap the molding inserts back into place. Do the top first, the bottom second and then the sides. Keep the  film taut as you install the inserts. They will hold the film tight and firmly in place.  You can leave the external film in place during the summer to decrease airconditioning costs, or you can  Remove and store it until the next winter.

Blown-in Insulation
Blown-insulation is well suited for places where it is difficult to install other types of insulation such as irregularly shaped areas, around obstructions and hard-to-reach places. Installation is easier because it can be blown through holes drilled through the wall without disturbing existing finishes. Professionals who are experienced at operating the equipment to ensure proper density and complete coverage most commonly do installation.

There are three common forms for blown insulation that vary slightly: cellulose, rock wool and fiberglass. The average installed price per R-value per square foot is about 1.2 cents for cellulose and rock wool and 1.3 cents for fiberglass. Due to the weight of the cellulose and rock wool insulation, parameters must be met to prevent the ceiling drywall from sagging. Some manufacturers include weight limit information with purchased insulation. Fiberglass is much less dense so it doesn’t

create a weight concern. The drawback is that fiberglass has more convective heat loss because it is not as dense. The higher density also allows cellulose and rock wool to settle and seal more around rafters and in corners. Rolled fiberglass insulation is well suited for existing and new walls, as well as attics. The advantage of rolled fiberglass insulation, is that it is a quick and easy, do-ityourself installation. Rolled insulation is also a lightweight material. Rolled fiberglass insulation contains an R-value of 2.3 - 2.5 per square inch.

Team Continuity Plan
At the end of the semester, half of the Energy Team will be leaving. The responsibility then falls upon the remaining team members. These members will be comfortable with Energy 10 and the files associated with it. They will also be familiar with previously modeled ideas and have new energy conserving ideas to model.

Project Roadblocks
Numerous roadblocks have been encountered this semester. The newest version of Energy 10 version 1.3 arrived on September 21, 2000. This was later than expected, and delayed the evaluation of the software. The older version was used until the newer version arrived. The Energy Team had only 1 returning member who was comfortable using Energy 10, so the first month was spent learning the software package. This includes navigating through the various input windows and inputting Habitat for Humanity house models. Another roadblock was the architectural team and the house plans. It was expected that the Energy Team would spend the first few weeks inputting new Habitat for Humanity house plans. However, Habitat is in the process of hiring a new architect. This will delay the house plans for at least a month. Finally, the insulation analysis is on hold until the team meets with Corning Insulation. After the meeting, the subject will be modeled in Energy 10 and the outcome will be reported.

Expected Semester Outcomes

The Energy Team will complete several projects by end of the semester. The Energy 10 software will be thoroughly examined. The Energy Team plans to document how it differs from the previous version and its capabilities. Several analyses are expected to be completed, including a window analysis, an insulation analysis, an expected cost analysis, and a model of Habitat for Humanity houses in other climates. Finally, the Energy Team plans to model any house plans provided by the Architectural Team.

Team Organization
The energy team consists of six-members, with a designated team leader. The team leader, Doug Crook, acts as a representative for the energy team and meets with representatives from the Architecture team and Web team to correlate progress of the Habitat team as a whole.


								
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