Masters and Servants
Professor Ed Peile
Thursday 28th May, 2009
1. Comprehensive knowledge
2. Command of a subject or skill.
3. Control or superiority.
Bologna – Masters:
• integrate knowledge
• handle complexity
• formulate judgements
• communicate conclusions to an expert
and to a non-expert audience
• have the learning skills needed to pursue
further studies or research in a largely
self-directed, autonomous manner.
What research activity for
• ? Need to do original research?
• ? Need only understand research
methods in the field?
• ?Dissertations or projects?
• Important for would-be researchers
• Others may seek mastery without
planning to conduct personal research
• Avoid increasing ‘me-too’ research
• Focus star research teachers on the
researchers of the future.
• Shorter – more time for taught
• Examples: systematic literature reviews
• In some fields less demanding ethics
• Same quality standards
• The all-important component of M-Level
education and higher degrees.
• Supervisors require: training; dedicated
time; clear contracting; and ongoing
Responsible to or responsible for?
• Think about your own responsibilities to:
• Can you be responsible for another person’s:
• You are responsible for your own actions or
Support and Challenge
Coaching & Mentoring
• Understanding which does what
• Essential attributes of the processes
• Determining the boundaries in
Lifestyle gurus Strategic Planners
Tutors Creativity consultants
..works best when the need is the
acquisition of skills.
It is best carried out by a one-to-one trainer
who sees the person's work and can give
immediate feedback and guidance, or by a
colleague in the same function.
• works best when the need is the acquisition
• In this context, wisdom means the ability to to
achieve insight and understanding into the
• It is best carried out by an independent fellow
professional who is able to maintain a broad
perspective and be (more) objective.
…works best when the individual faces a
- personal crisis
- an important decision
- or a difficult dilemma
It is best carried out by an independent
• Understanding the learning environment -
especially the roles of others
• Understanding the learner’s needs
• Understanding own strengths and
• Promising less: delivering more.
Matching Learner Stages to Teacher
Self-directed Severe Mismatch Near match Match
Involved Mismatch Near match Match Near match
Interested Near match Match Near match Mismatch
Dependent Match Near match Mismatch Severe
Authority, Salesperson, Facilitator Delegator
Gerald Grow, 1991
• "Mark my
In his master's
steps he trod…
1 a person employed to perform domestic duties in a
household or as a personal attendant.
2a person regarded as providing
support or service for an
organization or person.
Educational Servant Leadership
The Servant Leader
"It begins with the natural feeling that one
wants to serve, to serve first.
Then conscious choice brings one to
aspire to lead…
The difference manifests itself in the care
taken by the servant-first to make sure
that other people’s highest priority
needs are being served. Greenleaf (1977)
The test of Servant
“Do those served grow as
persons, do they grow while
being served, become healthier,
wiser, freer, more autonomous,
more likely themselves to
10 characteristics of servant
• commitment to the growth of others,
• building community .
"it is not living
Leaders and Values
• Values are deeply held views that act as guiding
principles for individuals and organisations.
• When they are declared and followed they are the
basis of trust.
• When they are left unstated they are inferred from
• When they are stated and not followed trust is
Pendleton & King BMJ 2002;325:1352-1355
Avoid the Ethos Gap
• Leadership begins by defining a purpose:
a compelling future for an aligned
community of likeminded and committed
individuals who encourage one another
towards their aims. Leadership inspires and
then focuses effort.
Pendleton & King BMJ 2002;325:1352-1355
Serving the Economy
Morgan & Sørensen (1999 )
Scope for Cross-curricular
• Shared modules ? – e.g.
‘Understanding research methods’
• Harmonised regulations allow ‘mix-and-
• Standard setting and benchmarking
exercises benefit from X-fertilisation
• Student support issues are generic
• Partnerships on common-ground
• Partnerships that play to institutional strengths
• Ad-hoc thematic research & teaching
collaborations or centres
Collaborations that work:
• bottom-up not top-down
• championed at high level
• rigorously scrutinised at outset with
insistence on transparent arrangements
• innovation and experimentation
• timely disinvestment at end of project
• Special benefit from central support
• Larger groupings encourage self-
• English as second language support
spanning pre-course to in-course
• Recruitment benefits from active
Cultural normalising vs
• Judicious support and challenge
• Sensitivity to needs and wants
• Fairness and impartiality
• Balancing flexibility against precedent
• Collective faculty involvement in
• Individual accountability
Masters for educators
• Modelling the blend of craft knowledge
• Formative ethos
• Feedback modelled and practised
• Issues around compulsory accreditation
Motivation for teachers
• Evidence of pupil learning gain
appeared from the literature to be one
of the key factors encouraging teachers
to confront their practice.
Understanding the Rationale: Linking
Practice to Theory
• Teachers need theory each time they make a
serious change in their practice. (Eraut 1994)
• There is supporting evidence for this from a
number of studies which suggest that
teachers are more confident using new
methods/strategies when they are familiar
with the ‘theory’ or rationale, which underpins
• ‘Service’ philosophy aligns well with the
ethos of education.
• Looking after the needs of others is one
way of looking after our own needs
• New masters build intellectual capital
with values as well as knowledge and
skills: their time in the ‘service sector’
should be a positive experience.