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					Masters and Servants
  Professor Ed Peile
 Thursday 28th May, 2009
Mastery (OED)

1. Comprehensive knowledge
2. Command of a subject or skill.
3. Control or superiority.
Bologna – Masters:
• integrate knowledge
• handle complexity
• formulate judgements
• communicate conclusions to an expert
  and to a non-expert audience
• have the learning skills needed to pursue
  further studies or research in a largely
  self-directed, autonomous manner.
What research activity for
Mastery?
• ? Need to do original research?

• ? Need only understand research
  methods in the field?

• ?Dissertations or projects?
Research training
• Important for would-be researchers
• Others may seek mastery without
  planning to conduct personal research
• Avoid increasing ‘me-too’ research
• Focus star research teachers on the
  researchers of the future.
Projects
• Shorter – more time for taught
  components
• Examples: systematic literature reviews
  or audits
• In some fields less demanding ethics
  approval processes
• Same quality standards
Supervision
• The all-important component of M-Level
  education and higher degrees.
• Supervisors require: training; dedicated
  time; clear contracting; and ongoing
  support.
Responsible to or responsible for?
• Think about your own responsibilities to:
  – Learner
  – Colleagues
  – Organisation
• Can you be responsible for another person’s:
  – Attitudes?
  – Responses?
  – Actions?
• You are responsible for your own actions or
  omissions
Support and Challenge
             100
              90
              80
              70
 Challenge




              60
                             Learner 1
              50
                             Learner 2
              40
              30
              20
              10
               0
                   Support
Coaching & Mentoring

• Understanding which does what
• Essential attributes of the processes
• Determining the boundaries in
  supervision
Different Animals?

            Lifestyle gurus             Strategic Planners
  Mentors
                          Befrienders
     Trainers
                                  Sounding Boards
                Supervisors
  Counsellors

                Tutors        Creativity consultants


   Therapists             Coaches
Coaching
..works best when the need is the
  acquisition of skills.
It is best carried out by a one-to-one trainer
who sees the person's work and can give
immediate feedback and guidance, or by a
colleague in the same function.
Mentoring
• works best when the need is the acquisition
  of wisdom.
• In this context, wisdom means the ability to to
  achieve insight and understanding into the
  issues discussed.
• It is best carried out by an independent fellow
  professional who is able to maintain a broad
  perspective and be (more) objective.
Counselling
…works best when the individual faces a
- personal crisis
- an important decision
- or a difficult dilemma

It is best carried out by an independent
practitioner.
Supportive supervision
• Understanding the learning environment -
  especially the roles of others
• Understanding the learner’s needs
• Understanding own strengths and
  limitations
• Promising less: delivering more.
Matching Learner Stages to Teacher
Styles

  Self-directed Severe      Mismatch     Near match      Match
  learner       mismatch
  Involved     Mismatch     Near match   Match           Near match
  learner
  Interested   Near match   Match        Near match      Mismatch
  learner
  Dependent    Match        Near match   Mismatch        Severe
  learner                                                mismatch
               Authority,   Salesperson, Facilitator     Delegator
               expert       motivator


                                                       Gerald Grow, 1991
Masters
• "Mark my
  footsteps….”

 In his master's
 steps he trod…
Servant
• noun
1 a person employed to perform domestic duties in a
   household or as a personal attendant.

2a  person regarded as providing
  support or service for an
  organization or person.
Educational Leadership

       Dean
        Staff
     Students
Educational Servant Leadership

         Students
            Staff
           Dean
The Servant Leader
"It begins with the natural feeling that one
   wants to serve, to serve first.
Then conscious choice brings one to
   aspire to lead…
The difference manifests itself in the care
   taken by the servant-first to make sure
   that other people’s highest priority
   needs are being served. Greenleaf (1977)
The test of Servant
Leadership
“Do those served grow as
 persons, do they grow while
 being served, become healthier,
 wiser, freer, more autonomous,
 more likely themselves to
 become servants?"
10 characteristics of servant
leadership
•   listening,
•   empathy,
•   healing,
•   awareness,
•   persuasion,
•   conceptualization,
•   foresight,
•   stewardship,
•   commitment to the growth of others,
•   building community            .
 Teachers
     as
  servant
  leaders
"it is not living
that is
important, but
living rightly".
Leaders and Values
• Values are deeply held views that act as guiding
  principles for individuals and organisations.
• When they are declared and followed they are the
  basis of trust.
• When they are left unstated they are inferred from
  observable behaviour.
• When they are stated and not followed trust is
  broken.

                Pendleton & King BMJ 2002;325:1352-1355
Avoid the Ethos Gap
• Leadership begins by defining a purpose:
  a compelling future for an aligned
  community of likeminded and committed
  individuals who encourage one another
  towards their aims. Leadership inspires and
  then focuses effort.

              Pendleton & King BMJ 2002;325:1352-1355
Serving the Economy
1. Extraction

2. Manufacture

3. Service
                      £
   a. Intellectual
      Services
                              Intellectual
                                Capital


                                  Human
                                  Capital
                                                     Norm-enforcing
                                    Social Capital

                                                 Horizon-expanding
Morgan & Sørensen (1999   )
Scope for Cross-curricular
Educational Management
• Shared modules ? – e.g.
  ‘Understanding research methods’
• Harmonised regulations allow ‘mix-and-
  match’ options
• Standard setting and benchmarking
  exercises benefit from X-fertilisation
• Student support issues are generic
Interdisciplinary Input
• Partnerships on common-ground

• Partnerships that play to institutional strengths

• Ad-hoc thematic research & teaching
  collaborations or centres
Collaborations that work:
• bottom-up not top-down
• championed at high level
• rigorously scrutinised at outset with
  insistence on transparent arrangements
  for resourcing
• innovation and experimentation
  carefully nurtured
• timely disinvestment at end of project
  life-cycle
International Students
• Special benefit from central support
• Larger groupings encourage self-
  support
• English as second language support
  spanning pre-course to in-course
• Recruitment benefits from active
  societies.
Cultural normalising vs
horizon-expanding
• Judicious support and challenge
• Sensitivity to needs and wants
• Fairness and impartiality
• Balancing flexibility against precedent
• Collective faculty involvement in
  decision-making
• Individual accountability
Masters for educators
• Modelling the blend of craft knowledge
  and theory
• Formative ethos
• Feedback modelled and practised
• Issues around compulsory accreditation
Classroom evidence:
Motivation for teachers
• Evidence of pupil learning gain
  appeared from the literature to be one
  of the key factors encouraging teachers
  to confront their practice.

                               Cordingley 2002
Classroom Evidence:
Understanding the Rationale: Linking
Practice to Theory
• Teachers need theory each time they make a
  serious change in their practice. (Eraut 1994)
• There is supporting evidence for this from a
  number of studies which suggest that
  teachers are more confident using new
  methods/strategies when they are familiar
  with the ‘theory’ or rationale, which underpins
  the pedagogy.
Serving masters
• ‘Service’ philosophy aligns well with the
  ethos of education.
• Looking after the needs of others is one
  way of looking after our own needs
• New masters build intellectual capital
  with values as well as knowledge and
  skills: their time in the ‘service sector’
  should be a positive experience.

				
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