Diversity of Organism and Classification

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					Diversity of Organism and
      Classification
                   A great number of organism have
1.6 million have   become extinct.
been studied and
named.                At least 10 million different kinds
                        of living organisms on Earth
  Bacteria
    Fungi
  Protozoa
                                   A wide range of
    Algae
                               organisms is described as
   Plants
                                diversity of organisms
 Vertebrates
   Insects
    Other
invertebrates
5.2 Classification ( Taxonomy)
            1. Kingdom

            2. Phylum

             3. Class

             4. Order

             5. Family

             6. Genus

            7. Species
   5.2 Classification

                            Species    Species
        Species
          C                   B          A
Basic unit of biological
classification is species    Similar
Species is a group of        species    Genus
organisms which have
many common features          group
and can interbreed
with each other to          together
produce fertile
offsprings
5.2 Classification

              Genus     Genus
  Genus
    C           B         A
              Similar
              genera     Family
               group
             together
5.2 Classification

             Family     Family
  Family
    C          B          A
              Similar
             families    Order
               group
             together
5.2 Classification

              Order     Order
  Order
    C          B         A
              Similar
              orders     Class
               group
             together
5.2 Classification

              Class     Class
   Class
     C         B         A
              Similar
              classes   Phylum
               group
             together
5.2 Classification

             Phylum     Phylum
  Phylum
     C         B          A
              Similar
               phyla     Kingdom
               group
             together
              Classification system
Plant植物界                                        Animal動物界
Spermatophyta            Kingdom
種子植物門
                                                   Chordata
                           Phylum                  脊椎動物門
Angiospermae
                            Class                 Mammalia
被子植物鋼
                                                      哺乳鋼
Leguminales                 Order
荳目                         Family                   Primate
                                                      靈長類
Caesalpinaceae              Genus              Hominidae 人科
蘇木科
                          Species
Bauhinia羊蹄甲屬       (can interbreed with each
                                                  Homo 人屬
                   other to produce fertile       H.Sapiens
Blakeana洋紫荊種       offspring)                        智慧人種
           Binomial system
Organisms are grouped in the following order :


       Bauhinia blakeana
      Genus            Species
            Five kingdom System
    Fungi                                 Bacteria or
                                          prokaryotae
                Living organisms
    Protoctista                           Animalia

                        Plantae
http://www.geocities.com/RainForest/6243/diversity.html
           http://phylogeny.arizona.edu/tree/
5.2 Classification
 Five
   Kingdoms
5.3 Kingdom prokaryotae

 Five
   Kingdoms
                   Prokaryotae
                 All species of
                  bacteria
                 No defined nucleus
                 Unicellular
                 Saprophytic or
 e.g. bacilli     parasitic
 桿菌
5.4 Kingdom protoctista

 Five                     Protoctista
   Kingdoms         Contain all the organism except
                     bacteria,fungi, plants or animals
                    Unicellular or multicellular
                    Unicellular ones have a well-
                     defined nucleus
                    Some are animal-like, feeding on
                     other organisms
                    Photosynthetic ones are called
                     algae
                    Live mainly in water and soil
 e.g. Paramecium
     草履蟲
5.5 Kingdom fungi

 Five                  Fungi
   Kingdoms    Made up of tiny threads
                called hyphae
               Have no roots, stems or
                leaves
               No chlorophyll
               Either saprophytic or
                parasitic
  e.g. Mucor   Reproduce by spores
5.6 Kingdom plantae
5.6 Kingdom plantae

 Five
   Kingdoms              Plantae
 Mostly contain chlorophyll
 Food synthesis by photosynthesis
 Two main groups: non-flowering
  plants and flowering plants
5.6 Kingdom plantae

 Non-flowering plants         Mosses
             • Possess simple leaves and
               stems
             • No vascular tissues
             • No true roots, anchored to
               the ground by rhizoids
             • Found in damp shaded
               places
5.6 Kingdom plantae

 Non-flowering plants          Ferns
                • Possess roots, stems and
                  leaves
                • Process vascular tissues
                • Reproduce by spores
                • Grow in damp shaded
                  places
5.6 Kingdom plantae

 Non-flowering plants     Gymnosperms

                   • Large evergreen tree
                   • Process seeds inside
                     cones for
                     reproduction
                   • Process needle-
                     shaped leaves
5.6 Kingdom plantae
    Flowering plants (Angiosperm)

• Possess flowers for
  reproduction
• Seeds are found inside
  the fruits
• Divided into
  dicotyledons and
  monocotyledons
5.6 Kingdom plantae
    Flowering plants (Angiosperm)
    Dicotyledons         Monocotyledons
• Process two            • Process one
  cotyledons in seeds      cotyledon in seeds
• Process a network of   • Process parallel veins
  veins in leaves          in leaves
5.6 Kingdom plantae
   Flowering plants (Angiosperm)
   Dicotyledons       Monocotyledons

  * Taproot system   * Fibrous root system

  * Sunflower            * Maize
 5.6 Kingdom plantae
                     Plantae

 With flowers                        Without flowers


            With seeds                 Without seeds
1            2
                     With vascular        Without vascular
    Gymnosperms         tissues               tissues

                 3                    4
Flowering
  plants                 Ferns                Mosses
5.7 Kingdom animalia
5.7 Kingdom animalia

 Five
   Kingdoms              Animalia

  Divided into invertebrates and
   vertebrates, according to the absence
   or presence of backbone
5.7 Kingdom animalia
Invertebrates                  Sea urchin




Dragonfly   Liver fluke




                          Water flea
5.7 Kingdom animalia
                       1            5
Amphibian
                  Fish
            Vertebrates      Mammal
2                     Bird

    3
            Reptile             4
5.7 Kingdom animalia

  1                        Vertebrates
               • Aquatic poikilotherms
               • Bodies are covered with
                 wet and slimy scales

        Fish   • Use gills for breathing and
                 fins for swimming
               • Carry out external
                 fertilisation
               • e.g. sea horse, carp
5.7 Kingdom animalia
• Have moist, scaleless skin
                                  Vertebrates
• Larvae: live in water and
  use gills for breathing;
  Adults: live on land and use   Amphibian
  lungs and moist skin for
  breathing
• Poikilotherms
• Carry out external
  fertilisation
                                             2
• e.g. frog, toad
5.7 Kingdom animalia

                    3               Vertebrates

              Reptile
  •   Have hard, dry and scaly skin
  •   Use lungs for breathing
  •   Carry out internal fertilisation
  •   Poikilotherms
  •   e.g. lizard, snake
5.7 Kingdom animalia

                                   Vertebrates
                    * Feathers cover the body
Bird                * Homoiotherms
                    * Carry out internal fertilisation
   4                * Use beak for feeding
             * Legs are covered with dry scale
             * Use lungs for breathing
* Forelimbs have been modified to wings
* e.g. penguin, pigeon
5.7 Kingdom animalia

• Have hairs on skin        Vertebrates
• Born alive
                                     5
• Have diaphragm and
  mammary glands
• Use lungs for breathing
• Homoiotherms
• Carry out internal
  fertilisation
• e.g. giraffe, tiger       Mammal
5.7 Kingdom animalia
 Comparison of the
different vertebrates    Outer covering

   Fishes                Wet scales
 Amphibians             Wet, naked skin
  Reptiles                Dry scales
      Birds                Feathers
   Mammals                   Hair
5.7 Kingdom animalia
 Comparison of the         Structure for
different vertebrates       locomotion

   Fishes                     Fins
 Amphibians                  4 legs
  Reptiles                   4 legs
      Birds             2 wings & 2 legs
   Mammals                   4 legs
5.7 Kingdom animalia
 Comparison of the
different vertebrates
                        Breathing organ

     Fishes                   Gills
                        Gills in larvae;
 Amphibians             Lungs in adult
   Reptiles                  Lungs
    Birds                    Lungs
   Mammals                  Lungs
5.7 Kingdom animalia
 Comparison of the      Temperature
different vertebrates     control
   Fishes               Poikilotherms
 Amphibians             Poikilotherms
  Reptiles              Poikilotherms
      Birds             Homoiotherms
   Mammals              Homoiotherms
5.7 Kingdom animalia
 Comparison of the
different vertebrates
                        Fertilization

   Fishes                External
 Amphibians              External
  Reptiles               Internal
      Birds              Internal
   Mammals               Internal
5.7 Kingdom animalia
 Comparison of the           Embryo
different vertebrates      development

   Fishes               Outside the mother
 Amphibians             Outside the mother
  Reptiles              Outside the mother
      Birds             Outside the mother
   Mammals              Inside the mother
5.7 Kingdom animalia
 Comparison of the
different vertebrates    Other features

   Fishes
 Amphibians                  Beak
  Reptiles               Diaphragm &
      Birds             Mammary glands
   Mammals
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys




                         characteristic
                          yes       no
                                characteristic
                         A
                                yes       no

                                B          C
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys

  Dichotomous keys
          => Branching into two
For example:
                 Animalia

   Without                        With
  backbones                     backbones
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys

  Dichotomous keys

  Two types:

   * Spider keys or tree keys

   * Numbered keys
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys

                          Wings?
   Earthworm                              Centipede



    Number of legs?              Shell?
                          Butterfly
             Segments?
                                          Millipede



    Spider        Ant          Snail        Slug
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys


   Earthworm                           Centipede




                          Butterfly
                                       Millipede



    Spider       Ant           Snail     Slug
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys

                                 Spider keys
                                 or Tree keys


Without legs                       With legs

       Not more than 4            More than 4
        pairs of legs             pairs of legs


Without wings      With wings
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys

                                 Spider keys
                                 or Tree keys


Without legs                       With legs

       Not more than 4            More than 4
        pairs of legs             pairs of legs


Without wings      With wings
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys

                                 Spider keys
                                 or Tree keys


Without legs                       With legs

       Not more than 4            More than 4
        pairs of legs             pairs of legs


Without wings      With wings    Butterfly
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys
 1. With legs ……………….. Go to 2
   Without legs………………Go to 6
                                      Numbered keys
 2. More than four pairs of legs …………………… Go to 3
  Not more than four pairs of …………………….Go to 4
                              ……………………. Go to 4
 3. One pair of legs per segment..………………….. Centipede
    Two pairs of legs per segment …………………. Millipede
 4. With wings ……………………………………… Butterfly
    Without wings……………………………...…… Go to 5
 5. Body divided into two parts ……………………. Spider
    Body divided into three parts ………………….. Ant
 6. With a shell ……………………………………….Snail
   Without a shell ……………………………...……Go to 7
 7. With segments ……………………………………Earthworm
   Without segments ……………………………….. Slug
5.8 Identifying organisms with simple keys
 1. With legs ……………….. Go to 2
   Without legs………………Go to 6
                                      Numbered keys
 2. More than four pairs of legs …………………… Go to 3
  Not more than four pairs of …………………….Go to 4
                              ……………………. Go to 4
 3. One pair of legs per segment..………………….. Centipede
    Two pairs of legs per segment …………………. Millipede
 4. With wings ……………………………………… Butterfly
    Without wings……………………………...…… Go to 5
 5. Body divided into two parts ……………………. Spider
    Body divided into three parts ………………….. Ant
 6. With a shell ……………………………………….Snail
   Without a shell ……………………………...……Go to 7
 7. With segments ……………………………………Earthworm
   Without segments ……………………………….. Slug
5.9 Viruses
5.9 Viruses
                 Structure
 Nucleic acid     Head


  Protein coat   Sheath

                  Tail fibre
5.9 Viruses
              Viruses can live
              only inside the cells
              of living organisms
              (host cell)
              Outside the host,
              they cannot keep
              alive
              They are parasites!
5.9 Viruses

              Different viruses attack
              different kinds of cells:

              • Common cold
                viruses attack cells in
                the nose & throat
              • Pneumonia viruses
                attack lung tissues
Mind Map
                Diversity of organisms


           the order of biological           a tool for
           classification                    classification
                                     dichotomous key
       kingdom

       phylum

       class

       order

       family

       genus

       species
 Mind Map
                                                                                  a non-cellular entity
                                   Diversity of organisms                                        viruses

                                                         can be classified into


1. prokaryotae         2. protoctista               3. fungi          4. plantae               5. animalia
                                                                                     classified into
                     classified into

                                                                       invertebrates          vertebrates
    non-flowering plants                    flowering plants
                                                                                     classified into
                                       is also called
 classified into                                                                             1. fishes
                                              angiosperms
            mosses
                                                                                             2. amphibians
             ferns                 classified into
                                                                                             3. reptiles
                                            monocotyledons
        gymnosperms
                                                                                             4. birds
                                              dicotyledons
                                                                                             5. mammals
          Prokaryotae kingdom
         (Bacteria / prokaryotes)
            * Microscopic
            * Unicellular
            * No well-defined nucleus
            * Different shapes

* No chlorophyll
* Saprophytic or parasitic
* Live in everywhere

				
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