Docstoc

Diversifying Rice-Based Farming Systems in the Southern

Document Sample
Diversifying Rice-Based Farming Systems in the Southern Powered By Docstoc
					Diversifying Rice-Based Farming Systems in the
 Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector Project
    with the System of Rice Intensification
(Paper for presentation in the World Rice Research Conference,
              Tokyo-Tsukuba, Japan, 4-7 November 2004)




   Felipe Rafols Jr., Allan Gayem, Ligaya Belarmino, Flor L. Magbanua,
   Rene Q. Nombre, Joel A. Basiao, Carlos S. Salazar, Edgar F. Tagarao,
        Elmer T. Nepa, Pacifico E. Calibayan, and Roger C. Lazaro
           (SPISP Stakeholders: Farmers, Staff and Consultant)



4-8 Nov. 04                Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                       1
              Outline of the Presentation
• Information on Philippines Irrigation and
  Improvements-Expectations from the
  Southern Philippines Irrigation Sector
  Project in its revitalized PIM&T.
• Motivation for establishing the Pilot
  Techno-Demo Farms with the IAs.
• Some Results todate, Extended Analysis,
  and Future Further Plans.
4-8 Nov. 04           Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP   2
SPISP SubProject Location Map

                                           Region VI
                                          Visayas West

                                           Region VII
                                         Visayas Central

                                          Region XIII
                                            Caraga
                                           Mindanao

                                           Region XII

                                             ARMM
                                           Mindanao
4-8 Nov. 04   Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP               3
      Climatic Types and Topography
• In the Visayas
  the wetter and
  drier months are
  quite distinct, and
  generally        the
  topography         is
  quite hilly.
• In Mindanao, in
  general, rainfall is
  almost uniformly
  distributed thru
  out the year with
  flat topographic
  features.

4-8 Nov. 04               Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP   4
     Innovations Introduced in SPISP
• Watershed Management: Rehabilitation and Protec-
  tion to improve water harvesting and reduce (soil
  and streambank) erosion as well as sedimentation.
• Proportional weirs, in lieu of steel gates, with an
  orifice provided to pass the conveyance loss, and
• a built-in slit, to assure that no standing water
  remains within the irrigation canal network and to
  keep snails, schistosomiasis host, from thriving.
• Canal lining reduces maintenance cost as well as
  speeds up irrigation water flow velocity that will
  prevent the snails from hanging around.
4-8 Nov. 04         Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP            5
    Motivation for SPISP, NIA & IAs
• With water savings, expand the irrigable area,
  and eventually convert part of the rice land into
  diversified crop land.
• Ultimate Purpose: To produce enough rice for
  self-sufficiency requirement and to….
• Diversify into high-valued cash crops that may
  provide cash to buy rice elsewhere whenever the
  production falls below expectation.
• Eventual Goal: Further diversification to include
  livestock and/or aquaculture farm for extra income-
  assurance/insurance plus resources for composting.
4-8 Nov. 04        Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP        6
 Options in the Pilot Techno-Demo Farms
• Margate rice production system, popularized in
  the Philippines in the 70’s, was simply an
  intermittent irrigation and drainage scheme.
• Some similarities with SRI, developed in the 80’s,
  at Madagascar, and now being promoted in Asia.
• Total Quality and Production Management
  (TQPM) proposed by the Department of
  Agriculture’s Agricultural Training Institute (ATI)
• Features: Water savings of up to 50% while crop
  yield could be at least double from present yield
  with continuously basin flooded irrigation.
4-8 Nov. 04         Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP        7
            Margate Monument
      Dipolog, Zamboanga, Mindanao
              30 years ago




                                           Courtesy of Mr. Mike D. Lopez

4-8 Nov. 04                  Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                      8
              SRI from Madagascar
              From 1 plant
              20 years ago        • A Jesuit priest, Father
                                    Henri de Laulanié, in
                                    Madagascar is
                                    considered the SRI
                                    developer helped
                                    launch the not-for-
                                    profit organization,
                                    ‘Association Tefy
                                    Saina’ meaning "to
                                    improve the mind."
4-8 Nov. 04             Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP              9
              SRI Yields in Mindanao SPs
• In Mindanao, at a one-ha.         • In Gibong Right Bank
  techno-demo farm                    Subproject at the Caraga
  established at the                  Region of Mindanao the
  CARAGA Regional                     Farmer-President of the
  Irrigation Manager’s                Federation of IAs joined in
  personal farm with poultry          following the first SRI pilot
  waste, used as a major              techno-demo farm.
  component of self-                • The SRI Inbred IR64 rice
  produced, organic matter.           variety gave a 7.50 t/ha
• The Mestizo PSBRC 72H               yield in a 35 x 35-cm plant
  Hybrid rice variety grown           spacing compared to 4.59
  the SRI way yield 8.90              t/ha from a hybrid PSB RC
  t/ha on a 40 x 40-cm. grid          72H rice planted at usual
  plant spacing.                      random spacing.
4-8 Nov. 04           Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                  10
     SRI Results in SPISP, Mindanao
Sub-          Rice      Spacing Yield                Net P/ha Water
Project       Variety   cm x cm tonsha-1             Income Saved
Area
1st Trial
Caraga        HyB72H 40 x 40              8.90        42,000   ~45-73%

2nd Trial
Gibong HyB72H Random                      4.59        23,500    N.A.
              InBIR64 25 x 25             6.50                  ditto

                        35 x 35           7.50        38,482    ditto
                        45 x 45           6.80                  ditto
4-8 Nov. 04               Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                      11
         SRI Yields at the Visayas SPs
• In the Visayas Barangay     • Also in the Visayas in
  Balicotoc, an originally      Magballo Communal
  rainfed area supplied with    Irrigation System, SRI
  irrigation pump, the Inbred   growers used registered
  C64 rice variety was grown    PSB RC18 rice variety.
  the SRI way                 • The yields ranged from
• Yield was 7.33 t/ha from      2.83 – 5.50 tons/ha (the
  35 x 35-cm plant spacing      highest from 40 x 40-cm
  surpassing the 3.67 t/ha      plant spacing), these were
  yield from 10 x 30-cm         slightly lower than the first
  spacing from the Total        attempt and attributed to
  Quality & Productivity        possible toxicity build-up
  Management (TQPM)             from long years of chemical
  approach with a booster       fertilizer and pesticide use.
  chemical fertilizer.
4-8 Nov. 04           Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP            12
          Total Quality & Productivity
          Management (TQPM) vs SRI
 • TQPM is similar to SRI with booster
   inorganic/chemical fertilizer until the organic
   fertilizers has enhanced the micro-organism
   population in the soil community.
 • The TQPM pilot techno-demo plots did show a
   quick initial response from the chemical fertilizer
   with very dark green leaves but
 • SRI plots with organic fertilizer that initially
   showed yellowing leaves eventually prevailed.

4-8 Nov. 04         Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP         13
              TQPM (left) & SRI (Right)

                                                         Booster effect obvious




        Lighter color start

4-8 Nov. 04                   Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                        14
       SRI Results in SPISP-Visayas 1/2
 Sub-Pro-ject     Variety/         Spacing            Yield     Net P/ha      Water
    Area         Cooperator        cm x cm           Tonsha-1   Income        Saved
1st Attempt      Wet Season      2003
Balicotoc        InbredC64         Random              2.66       7,592
Rainfed but      TQPM              10 x 30             3.66      11,130
Pump Assisted    SRI               35 x 35             7.33      26,512      ~ 71 %
3rd Attempt      Dry Season      2004
Magballo         PSBRC 18          Random              2.70       6,443      ~ 38 %
Communal         Hernanie          35 x 17.5           2.83       6,641      ~ 68 %
Irrigation       Domingo           35 x 35             3.04       7,521      ~ 68 %
System           J.E. Caldito      35 x 35             4.30      15,972      ~ 71%
                 Anselma           30 x 30             4.73      10,757      ~ 61 %
                 Colendres         40 x 40             5.54      15,931      ~ 61 %
Range                                               2.83-5.54   6.6 –16.0k
   4-8 Nov. 04                  Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                       15
Soil Test Results at Balicotoc & Magballo
              SRI Test Sites
                 Bacolod City, Negros Occidental: Soil Laboratory Center
       Soil Test Results and Fertilizer Recommendation for SRI Trial Participating Rice Farmers
                      Magballo-Balicotoc-Canlamay Integrated Irrigation Schemes

  Farmer-    Land Crops Soil     Indicative Nutrients Availability in the Soil    Recommendations
Cooperator's Area Grown pH     Nitrogen,N Phosphorous, P         Potassium,K   Org Fer N    P     K
   Name     Hectare          Low Med High Low Med High Deficient Sufficient (Bags)        kg/ha

Balicotoc: Site of First Trial on SRI and TQPM in the Visayas, Rainfed and Newly Opened Land for Rice, Pump Irrigated

F. Rafols Jr.     0.70    Rice    6.2         X                X                        X          10      45     40    0

A. Gayem          0.27    Rice    7.6         X           X                  X                     10      60     45    45

Magballo: Site of Second Trial on SRI in the Visayas, Irrigated with Run-of-the-River Diverted Water Since 1985

A. Collendres     0.21    Rice    6.0         X           X                  X                     10      45     45    45

J. E. Caldito     0.25    Rice    6.0         X           X                  X                     10      45     45    45

H. Domingo        0.36    Rice    7.6         X           X                  X                     10      45     45    45



4-8 Nov. 04                                    Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                                                  16
        SRI Results in SPISP-Visayas 2/2
 Sub-Project      Season/           Spacing            Yield        Net P/ha       Water
    Area         Cooperator         cm x cm           Tons/Ha       Income         Saved
4th Attempt      Wet Season       May – Jun ’04

Magballo         J. Tubola           35 x 35                3.46    12,705         N.A.
Communal         R. Abelida          35 x 35                4.76    21,286
Irrigation       A. Gilvero          30 x 30                5.60    27,878
Average                                                     4.61    20,623
Range                                                3.46 – 5.60   12.7 – 27.9 k
5th Attempt      Dry Season       Jun – Oct ‘04
Magballo         J.E. Caldito        25 x 25                4.92    13,369         N.A.
Communal         A. Collendres       25 x 25                4.81    15,531
Irrigation       H. Domingo          25 x 25                3.54      6,157
Average                                                     4.24    11,686
Range                                                3.54 – 4.92   6.1 –15.5 k

   4-8 Nov. 04                   Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                           17
         1st SRI Results Pilot Techno-Demo Farms
            at Balicotoc, the Visayas Schemes 1/2
                Spacing    Land       Production          Gross     Expenses           Net
Practices
                cm x cm    Area       (Sacks:Tons)       Income     PhP/Ha.          Income

Farmers         Random      1 Ha.          66.30         18,540       10,948           7,592
Practice                                    2.65                       (1.69)

 TQPM                      200 m²          91.50                      16,320
                10 x 30                                   27,450                       11,130
Techno-                   0.02 Ha.          3.66                      (1.68)
 Demo
                           200 m²          75.00                      15,436
                10 x 40                                   22,500                        7,064
                          0.02 Ha.          3.00                      (1.46)

                           133 m²         125.00                      29,865
                25 x 25                                   37,500                        7,634
                          0.013 Ha.         5.00                      (1.26)
  SRI
Techno-                    133 m²         183.33                      28,487
                35 x 35                                   54,999                       26,512
 Demo                     0.013 Ha.         7.33                      (1.93)

                           133 m²         154.18                      26,645
                45 x 45                                   46,254                       19,609
                          0.013 Ha.         6.17                      (1.74)
  4-8 Nov. 04                 Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                                   18
                                              Profitability (*.**) = Gross Income/Expenses)
2nd SRI Results at Magballo CIS, the Visayas SPs 2004 2/2




4-8 Nov. 04          Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP         19
            Productivity/ProfitabilityAnalysis:
                 SRI & TQPM in SPISP
                          Productivity/Profita bility a nd Cost pe r Kg. Ana lysis
                              The Visa ya s a nd Minda na o, The Philippine s
      Pa rticipa nt         Spa cing      Gross   Gross    Ne t Fa rm Profita biity Cost, Pe sos
       Va rie ty           (cm x cm) Income Ex pe nse Income Gross In/Ex              pe r Kg.
                          /Yie ld (t/ha )       Ph Pe sos/Ha .
Caraga, Minda na o
RIM Mindanao              40 x 40 cm
Hybrid PSBR72H            8.90 t/ha.    71,200      29,412     41,788        2.42            3.30
Traditional Practice      Random
Hybrid PSBR72H            4.00 t/ha.    32,000      19,770     12,230        1.62            4.94
Gibong SP, Minda na o
SRI                       35 x 35 cm
Inbred IR 64              7.50 t/ha.    63,683      25,200     38,482        2.53            3.36
Traditional Practice      Random
Hybrid PSBR72H            4.59 t/ha     42,228      18,695     23,532        2.26            4.07

Balocotoc, Visa ya s
Mr. Felipe Rafols, Jr.    35 x 35 xm
Inbred C64, SRI           7.33 t/ha     54,999      28,487     26,512        1.93            3.62
Mr. Felipe Rafols, Jr.    10 x 30 cm
Inbrid C64, TQPM          3.66 t/ha.    27,450      16,320     11,130        1.68            4.15
Balicotoc, Visayas        Random
Inbrid C64, Trad          2.65 t/ha.    18,540      10,948      7,592        1.69            3.84
Magballo, The Visa ya s
Ms. A. Colendres          40 x 40 cm
Reg. PSBRC 18, SRI        5.50 t/ha.    45,200      29,270     15,930        1.54            5.32
Mr. J.E. Caldito          35 x 35 cm
Reg. PSBRC 18, SRI        4.30 t/ha.    38,260      22,258     15,972        1.72            5.18
Mr. H. Domingo            Random
Reg. PSBRC 18, Trad.      2.70 t/ha.    23,460      17,017      6,423        1.38            6.30


  4-8 Nov. 04                       Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                            20
  Productivity & Profitability Comparative
      Analysis with SRI in Sri Lanka
                                Productivity/Profitability and Cost per Kg. Analysis
                                   Kalhota and Kurunegala Districts, Sri Lanka

 Enterprise Budgets                 Yield          Gross    Gross Net Farm Profitability Production
        Practice                  (kg./ha.)       Income Expense Income Gross In/Ex         Cost
        Season                     mean             Sri Lanka Rupees/Ha. (Farm Wage) Rupees/Kg.
      (2000-2002)
SRI
Yala (Minor Season)                      5,299 34,899             18,907       15,992       1.85           11.10
Maha (Major Season)                      5,763 36,720             20,436       16,285       1.80            8.70

Conventional
Yala                                     3,910 27,017             18,600        8,417       1.45           13.30
Maha                                     3,757 23,871             16,381        7,490       1.46           11.90


        Namara, R. E, et.al. (2003) Prospects for Adopting System of Rice
     Intensification in Sri Lanka: A Socioeconomic Assessment. International              Profitability=
          Water Management Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka,. Report No. 75             Gross Income/GrossExpense

  4-8 Nov. 04                                Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                                 21
Updated Summary of Results:Oct.04 1/2




4-8 Nov. 04   Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP   22
Updated Summary of Results:Oct.04 2/2




4-8 Nov. 04   Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP   23
What is Next in the Immediate Future?
• SPISP is already at the System Management and
  Agricultural Development Plan Implementation
  Phase in the three core subprojects.
• The plan to extend the experiences of SRI to other
  Visayas SubProjects is expected soonest and a
  wider application of the Pilot Techno-Demo results
  is already on the drawing board.
• The socio-institutional aspects would also then be
  considered, focusing on adoption and dis-adoption
  rates cited in Namara, et. al. (2003) and
• Maybe a randomized complete block research if
  only to convince the unbelieving partners.
4-8 Nov. 04        Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP       24
                That is all Folks!

              Thank you for your patience.




4-8 Nov. 04           Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP   25
  Effective Rain vs Evapotranspiration
           Eff Rain and ETo-Luzon
                                                          Water Balances in the Major Islands
200.00
150.00                                                     of the Philippines and at SPISP’s
100.00
 50.00                                                               Sub-Projects
  0.00




                                        ov
         n




         n

                                 l




                                       ec
                               ug

                                       ep
        pr
       ar
        b




                                        ct
       ay



                              Ju
      Ja




      Ju
     Fe




                                      O
      A




                                                               Obtained with FAO’s WATPOW
     M




                                      N

                                      D
                             A

                                     S
     M




                            Month

                Eto, mm/m       Eff, Rain, mm/m
                                                               & CLIMWAT Computer Program

         Eff Rain and ETo-Visayas                                   Eff Rain and ETo-Mindanao

200.00                                                     200.00
150.00                                                     150.00
100.00                                                     100.00
 50.00                                                      50.00
  0.00
                                                             0.00
                               ov
         n




         n

                                 l




                               ec
                               ug
                               ep
        pr
       ar
        b




                               ct
       ay


                              Ju
      Ja




      Ju




                                                                                          v
                                                                    n




                                                                    n

                                                                                           l




                                                                                          c
     Fe




                                                                                        ug
                                                                                        ep
                                                                   pr
                                                                  ar
                                                                  eb




                                                                                        ct
                                                                  ay


                                                                                       Ju
                             O
      A
     M




                             N




                                                                                        o
                                                                 Ja




                                                                 Ju
                             D




                                                                                        e
                             A
                             S
     M




                                                                                      O
                                                                 A
                                                                M




                                                                                      N
                                                                                      D
                                                                                      A
                                                                                      S
                                                                M
                                                                F
                            Month                                                 Month

                Eto, mm/m           Eff, Rain, mm/m                       Eto, mm/m    Eff, Rain, mm/m




  4-8 Nov. 04                                  Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                                  26
Philippine Irrigation Statistics-2003 est.
 Irrigation Number Area, ha. Per Cent Tons/ha % Crop
  System Counted Served Of Total       Yield Intensity

 National        192     690,000            51                 137

 Communal       6,700    490,000            36                 104

 Pump Lift      4,000    147,000            13

 Total
 Irrigable     10,892   1,354,000      100 ( 43%) 3.70 ave.
 Potentially
 Irrigable
                        3,130,000           (100%) 2.00 ave.
 Hectare

 4-8 Nov. 04              Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                   27
  SRI Subproject(SP) Sites’ Statistics
 Initial      Service        Rice          Diversified Cropping
Pilot SRI      Area          Crop            Crops     Intensity
  Sites         Ha.          Ha.              Ha.          %
Mindanao:
Gibong RB,      2,583       4,786                  380    200
SP, Caraga
Visayas:
Magballo         737           458                 872    181
SP, NeOcc
Can-asujan
SRIP, Cebu       772           738                 806    197
Island
4-8 Nov. 04             Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                28
Proportional Weirs with an Orifice to pass on Conveyance Loss
and a Slit to avoid standing water collecting upstream

                                                  Gibong RB Core SP, Mindanao




                Proportionate
                    Share
                                    Schistosomiasis
                                      Unfriendly             Maintain Uniform
                                                              Water Levels

Can-asujan SP Cebu, The Visayas
  4-8 Nov. 04                   Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                        29
         Comparative Mean Values of ET, P
        and Total Water Requirements (WR)
 Irrigation                EvapoTrans-                      Percolation, Totals
 technique                 piration, mm                       P, mm      WR, mm
Conventional                       765                              515                      1,280
Flooding
Water                              689                              169                         858
Saving (SRI)
Difference                           67                             346                         422
                                                                   (67%)
 Mao Zhi. (1996) Environmental impact of water saving irrigation for rice. In: M.Smith, L. S.Pereira, Eds,
 Irrigation scheduling: From theory to practice. Proc. of the ICID/FAO workshop on irrigation scheduling. 12-
 13 Sep. 1995; Rome (Italy). P141-146.
  4-8 Nov. 04                             Japan:SRI in NIA's SPISP                                     30

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:6
posted:5/12/2013
language:English
pages:30