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专题06 时态语态 1.The Simple Present Tense 1_ 结构 _Active_ do

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专题06 时态语态 1.The Simple Present Tense 1_ 结构 _Active_ do Powered By Docstoc
					专题06 时态语态
1.The Simple Present Tense
1) 结构       (Active) do;does
            (Passive) is(am,are) done
2) 主要用法:
   ①表示经常发生的动作和存在
   的状态。
   eg.I often come to school early.
   eg.There are over 50,000
   different characters in Chinese.
②表示主语的特征,性格和
能力。
eg.He is an engineer. He looks
young.
③表示客观事实,或普遍真理。
eg.The teacher told us that light
travels faster than sound.
eg.Practice makes perfect.
④在时间,条件状语从句中表
示将来的动作。
eg.I’ll tell him about it when he
returns home.
⑤表示按时刻表计划或安排好
的动作。(只限于表示起始或
移动意义的动词。begin, come,
leave, start, arrive, go, etc.
eg.I will find out when the train
leaves.
eg.The plane for San Francisco
takes off at three p.m..
3)与一般现在时连用的时间状语:
  every day, once a week, often,
  twice a week, usually, always,
  seldom, sometimes
 eg.I go to the the cinema once
 a week.
 eg.Sometimes we work until
 twelve o’clock.
1.I need one more stamp
before my collection ______.
A.has completed
B.completes
C.has been completed
D.is completed
2.—Can I help you, sir?
—Yes. I bought this radio here
yesterday, but it ______.

A. didn't work   B. won't work
C. can't work    D. doesn't work
3.---can I join your club?
---you can when you___ a bit
older.

A.get           B.will get
C.are getting   D.will have got
4.---Do you like the material?
---Yes, it ____ very soft.

A.is feeling B.felt
B.feels      D.is felt
5.I ______ ping pong quite well,
but I haven’t had time to play
since the new year.
A.will play     B.have played
C.played        D.play
6.Visitors_____ not to touch
the exhibits.

A.will request   B.request
C.are requesting D.are requested
7.The number of deaths from
heart disease will be reduced
greatly if people _______ to eat
more fruit and vegetables.

A.persuade         B. will persuade

C. be persuaded D. are persuaded
8.There are eight tips in Dr
Roger’s lecture on —sleep, and
one of them is : to bed early
unless you think it is necessary.

 A. doesn’t go B. not to go
 C. not going D. don’t go
9.The earth _____ round the sun
in 365 days.
A.moves        B.moved

C.has moved    D.move
1.Do you often clean your room?
 Is your room often cleaned?

2.People speak English in many
countries.
 English is spoken in many
 countries.
2.The Simple Past Tense
         (Active) did
 1)结构
         (Passive) was/were done
 2)主要用法:
   ①表示过去的动作或状态
   ②表示过去一段时间内经常
   或反复发生的动作也可用:
     ⑴ used to + v.
     ⑵ would + v.
eg.He used to have two brothers.
eg.When he was free, he would
go and help others.
③在条件和时间状语从句中,
表示过去将来的动作。
eg.I told him I would lend him
my bike if Mr. Smith returned
it to me the next day.
3)一般过去时常与下列时间状
语连用:
yesterday, before liberation, in
1960, two years ago, last month,
in the past, the other day,etc.
eg.I happened to meet him in the
street the other day.
1.She set out soon after dark
______ home an hour later.

A.arriving         B.to arrive
C.having arrived   D.and arrived
2.─Your phone number
again?I______quite catch it.
─It's 9568442.
A.didn't         B.couldn't

C.don't          D.can't
3.--Nancy is not coming tonight.
 --But she_____!

A.promises       B.promised

C.will promise D.had promised
4.—You haven't said a word about
my new coat, Brenda. Do you like
it?
  — I'm sorry I________anything
about it sooner. I certainly think
it's pretty on you.
A.wasn’t saying B.don’t say
C.won’t say     D.didn’t say
5.---- I hear Jane has gone to the
 Holy Island for her holiday.
 ---- Oh, how nice! Do you know
 when she ______ ?
 A.was leaving B. had left

 C. has left      D. left
6.My mind wasn' t on what he was
saying so I' m afraid I ______ half
of it.

A. was missing    B. had missed

C. will miss      D. missed
1.The tiger in the zoo frightened
the little girl.
The little girl was frightened by
the tighter in the zoo.
2.They gave him a medal for his
wonderful work.
He was given a medal for his
wonderful work.
3.The Simple Future Tense
          (Active) will do
1)结构 (Passive) will be done
2)主要用法:
  ①表示将来的动作和状态。
   eg.The farmers will begin to
   pick apples next Monday.
   eg.It will be a fine day
   tomorrow.
②表示将来的其他用法:
 ⑴be going to + v.表示打算,
 准备做的事,或即将发生或
 肯定要发生的事。
 eg.How are you going to spend
 your holidays?
 eg.It’s going to snow.
 eg.There’s going to be a lot of
 trouble about this.
 ⑵be about to + v.表示即刻要
 发生的动作。
 eg.We are about to leave.
*be about to …when…
 eg. I was about to go
 swimming when luckily our
 guide saw me and shouted at
 me “stop!”
⑶be to + v.表示安排或计划好
的动作。
eg.A new hospital is to be built in
our district.
⑷现在进行时表示按计划安排要
发生的事。限于某些动词,如:
leave, go, come, arrive, start,etc.
eg.My uncle is arriving at 3:30p.m.
tomorrow.
3)一般将来时常与下列时间状
语连用:
tomorrow, next week, in a
moment, in the future,etc.
eg.---How soon will he be back?
   ---He will be back in two weeks.
1.Let' s keep to the point or we
_______ any decisions.

A. will never reach
B. have never reached
C. never reach
D. never reached
2.Turn on the television or open
a magazine and you ______
advertisements showing happy
families
A. will often see
B. often see
C. are often seeing
D.have often seen
3.--Alice. you feed the bird
 today, _____ ?
 --But I fed it yesterday.

 A.do you        B. will you

 C. didn't you   D. don't you
4.I ____to Las Vegas before
you ____ back next week.

A.am going; come
B.shall go; come
C.am going; will come
D.shall go; will come
5.I will go with you as soon as I
____ my work.

A.will finish B.shall finish
C.finish      D.have finished
1.People will laugh at you if you
wear that dress.
You will be laughed at if you
wear that dress.
2.They won't hold the meeting
until next Friday.
The meeting won’t be held until
next Friday.
2.The doctor will ask the patient
some questions before he gives her
medicine.
The patient will be asked some
questions before she is given the
medicine.
4.The Past Future Tense
1)结构     (Active) would do
         (Passive) would be done
2)用法说明:
  不能独立使用,通常用在宾
  语从句中,表示从过去某一
  点看,在将来发生的动作或
  存在的状态。
eg.He told me that he would go
to Beijing the next month.
eg. At that time I did not know
if he would be able to finish the
work on time.
5.The Present Continuous Tense
      (Active) is/am/are doing
 1)结构
      (Passive)is/am/are
      being done
 2)主要用法:
  ①表示说话的时刻正在进行
  的动作。
What are they doing? They are
playing in the garden.
②表示现阶段正在进行的动作,
尽管此刻这个动作可能并不在
进行。
eg.The manager is typing his
letters these days.
eg. He is a teacher of physics,
but he is now teaching maths.
③表示将来发生的动作。限
于一些表示起始和移动等意
义的动词。例如:
Leave, go, come, arrive, start,etc.
eg.The train is arriving soon.
eg.They are going abroad for
holidays.
④表示满意,称赞,关切,抱
怨,不满等情感。常与always,
forever, constantly, continually等
词连用。
eg.He is always helping people.
*现在进行时所表示的动作具有临
时性,生动性,非完全性等特点。
eg.He is living in Beijing.
eg.He is walking to work because
his bicycle is being repaired.
*表示知觉,状态,具有,感
情类的动词,一般不可用于
进行时态。如:
know, see, love, remember,
like, want, realize, etc.
6.The Past Continuous Tense
           (Active)was/were doing
 1)结构
           (Passive)was/were
           being done
 2.主要用法:
 ①表示过去某一时刻正在进行
 的动作。
eg.What were you doing this
time yesterday?
eg.I was writing a letter when
she came in.
②表示过去某阶段在进行的
暂时性习惯动作。
eg.He is a doctor,but at that time
he was working in a laboratory.
③表示过去将要发生的动作,
但只限于一些表示起始和移动
意义的动词。
eg.I had thought that he was
coming to see me the next day,
but he didn’t.
eg.When I got there, they were
preparing for their trip, as they
were leaving that afternoon.
④表示过去打算实现,但没
有实现的动作。
eg.I was coming, but my car
broke down.
⑤表示刚才的情况。
eg.I was asking what you
thought of it.
eg.--Can you give me the
     right answer?
   --Sorry,I wasn’t listening.
   Would you please repeat that
   question?
⑥描写故事的背景。
eg.One day, we were walking
along a road, which went around
the foot of the hill.Suddenly, we
saw a little girl running quickly
towards us.
⑦现在进行时,表示未来动作的
用法同样适用于过去进行时。
7.The Present Prefect Tense
           (Active)have/has done
 1)结构
           (Passive)have/has
           been done
 2)主要用法:
 ①表示发生在过去的动作到
 现在为止已经完成,或刚刚
 完成。
eg.He has finished reading the
book today.
eg.There have been great changes
in Beijing in the past twenty years.
②表示发生在过去的动作一直
延续到现在。
eg.The conference has lasted for
five days.
eg.We have known each other
since we were children.
③表示动作在过去完成,构成
主语的经历。
eg.I have been to the Great Wall
three times.
eg.This is the fourth time that I have
seen the film. I like it very much.
④表示动作发生在过去,但对
现在的情况产生影响。
eg.Thank you. I have had my
supper.
eg.I have seen the film.
⑤在时间和条件状语从句中,表
示将来完成的动作。(表示这一
动作先于另一动作。
eg.I will go and see the exhibition
as soon as I have got the recorder
repaired.
eg.I will lend the book to you
when I have finished reading it.
⑥表示一段时间内重复性习
惯性动作。
eg.I have always walked to work.
eg.I have got up early all my life.
*瞬间动作的肯定式一般不可与
表示一段时间的状语一起用于
现在完成时。瞬间动词的否定
式可以与表示一段时间状语一
起用于现在完成时。
  eg.He has come here for two
  days. ×
  eg.He has not come here for
  two days. ∨
3)现在完成时常与下列时间状
语连用:
already, not…yet, now, today,
this month, this year, lately,just
before, in resent years, since…,
for two years, during the past
few years, from then on, so far,
up to/till now
eg.In the past twenty years,
great changes have taken place
in China.
8.The Past Perfect Tense
          (Active)had done
1)结构
          (Passive)had been done
2)用法说明:
  表示过去某个时间以前已经完
  成的动作或存在的状态。
  eg.He had already left when I
  got there.
eg.They showed us the machine
which they had produced.
*若句子中含有 before, after, as
soon as, until 等连词引导的时间
状语从句,通常可用一般过去时
代替过去完成时。
eg.After he finished the task, he
left for the next town.
9.The Present Perfect continuous
Tense    (Active)have/has been
1)结构     doing
         (Passive)
2)主要用法:
  表示动作从过去某一时刻开始,
  一直延续到现在,现在这个动
  作可能刚刚终止,也可能仍然
  在进行着。
eg.We have been listening to the
radio for an hour.
eg.--You look tired, don’t you?
   --Yes, I have been painting the
   room.
10.The Past Perfect Continuous
Tense    (Active)had been doing
1)结构 (Passive)
2)主要用法:
  表示过去某一时间以前一直
  在进行的动作。
  eg.It had been raining for two
  days. The fields were all under
  water.
 eg.At last they got the telegram
 they had been expecting.
11.时态呼应
    主句                 从句
现在或将来时               任何时态
 eg.He knows what I said.
 eg.Li Li tells me that she’ll come.
  主句                从句
 过去时 一般过去或过去进行
(表示主从句的动作同时发生)
 eg.I didn’t know you were
 studying here.
                 过去完成时
(表示从句动作发生在主句动
作之前)
eg.He said he had lost his key.
 过去时              过去将来时
(表示从句动作发生在主句动
作之后)
eg.He told me he would go to the
concert.
   主句                 从句
   过去时               现在时
(从句表达的是客观真理)
eg.The teacher said that the sun
rises in the east.
eg.Father told me that light travels
fast.
*当从句含有某一具体的过去时间
状语时,其谓语不用过去完成时。
eg.He told me he was born in 1954.
eg.The man said that he joined the
army in the year 1964.
--Hi,Tracy,you look tired
--I am tired.I_____the living
  room all day.

 A.painted
 B.had painted
 C.have been painting
 D.have painted
20.Shirley_____a book about China
   last year but I don't know
   whether she has finished it.

 A.has written    B.wrote

 C.had written    D.was writing
.—You haven't said a word about
  my new coat, Brenda. Do you
  like it?
 —I'm sorry I________anything
  about it sooner. I certainly think
  it's pretty on you.
  A. wasn' t saying B. don' t say
  C. won' t say       D. didn' t say
I wonder why Jenny________us
recently. We should have heard
from her by now.

A. hash' t written B. doesn' t write
C. won' t write    D. hadn' t written
─_______he sports meet might
  be put off.
─Yes,it all depends on the weather.

  A.I've been told
  B.I've told
  C.I'm told
  D.I told
As she     the newspaper,Granny
asleep.

   A.read; was falling
   B.was reading; fell
   C.was reading; was falling
   D.read; fell
You don't need to describe
her.I    her several times.

  A.had    met    B.have      met
C.met        D.meet
I don't think Jim saw me; he
into space.

 A.just stared
 B.was just staring
 C.has just stared
 D.had just stared
----    my glasses?
—Yes, I saw them on your bed a
   minute ago.

  A. Do you see
  B. Had you seen
  C.Would you see
  D. Have you seen
Helen     her keys in the office so
she had to wait until her husband
home.

  A. has left; comes
  B. left; had come
  C. had left; came
  D. had left;would come
---How are you today?
---Oh , I ___________as ill as I do
   now for a very long time.

 A.didn't fell B.wasn't feeling
 C.don't fell D.haven't felt
25.The reporter said that the UFO
   ________east to west when be
   saw it.

 A.was travelling
 B.travelled
 C.had been traveling
 D.was to travel.
I first met Lisa three years
ago.She at a radio shop at the
time.

A.has worked
B.was working
C. had been working
D. had worked
---Who is Jerry Cooper?
--- ? I saw you shaking hands
   with him at the meeting.

 A. Don't you meet him yet
 B. Hadn't you met him yet
 C. Didn't you meet him yet
 D. Haven't you met him yet
The price_____,but I doubt
whether it will remain so.

A.went down
B.B.will go down
C.has gone down
D.was going down
--Hey,look where you are going?
--Oh,I'm terribly sorry.__.

A. I'm not noticing
B. I wasn't noticing
C. I haven't noticing
D.I don't noticing

				
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