Was It Morally Good For You_ Too by yurtgc548

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									   Was It Morally
   Good For You,
       Too?
A How-to guide to Ethical Decision
             Making
Is it possible to teach ethics?
Is it possible to teach ethics?
Two components of acting ethically:
Is it possible to teach ethics?
Two components of acting ethically:
 Figuring out the morally right thing to do
 Actually doing it
Moral Systems

What does it mean to say “X is morally right”
 or “Y is morally wrong”?
Ethical Rationalism

There is a reason why any given act is
 morally necessary, morally permissible, or
 morally forbidden, and humans can
 understand those reasons
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
       X is morally right for me if and only if I think so
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
       X is morally right for me if and only if I think so
            Problems
               Ethics is not ice cream
               We don’t just feel ethics, we think
               Moral doubt
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
       X is morally right for me if and only if I think so
            Problems
               Ethics is not ice cream
               We don’t just feel ethics, we think
               Moral doubt
            Insight
               There must be room for personal contemplation and
                reasonable disagreement between smart, caring people
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
       X is morally right in society S if and only if society
        S approves of X
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
       X is morally right in society S if and only if society
        S approves of X
            Problems
               What is a society?
               We can object to socially acceptable practices on moral
                grounds
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
       X is morally right in society S if and only if society
        S approves of X
            Problems
               What is a society?
               We can object to socially acceptable practices on moral
                grounds
            Insight
               There is often more than one way to do something
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
   Divine Command Theory
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
   Divine Command Theory
       X is morally right if and only if God approves of X
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
   Divine Command Theory
       X is morally right if and only if God approves of X
            Problems
               Who has God’s cell number? / Problem of interpretation
               Problems of soundness and completeness
               Plato’s paradox
Barriers to Ethical Rationalism
   Ethical Subjectivism
   Cultural Relativism
   Divine Command Theory
       X is morally right if and only if God approves of X
            Problems
            Insights
               Morality must be universal
               There are some sort of rules involved somehow
Parts of a moral situation
   Who did it?
   What did he do?
   What happened as a result?
   Who did he do it to?
   How is he related to that person?
Virtue Ethics
   An act X is morally right if and only if doing
    X makes me more like the ideal person I
    could be
Virtue Ethics
   An act X is morally right if and only if doing
    X makes me more like the ideal person I
    could be
       Aristotle vs. Nodding on ideal persons
Virtue Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if doing X
    makes me more like the ideal person I
    could be
       Aristotle vs. Nodding on ideal persons
       Problem
            We can be virtuous and evil
Parts of a moral situation
   Who did it? (Virtue Ethics)
   What did he do?
   What happened as a result?
   Who did he do it to?
   How is he related to that person?
Duty-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if there is a
    universal moral rule ‘always do X.’
Duty-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if there is a
    universal moral rule ‘always do X.’
       Where do the rules come from?
       Intrinsic rightness and wrongness
Duty-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if there is a
    universal moral rule ‘always do X.’
       Where do the rules come from?
       Intrinsic rightness and wrongness
            Problems
               We can act in accord with duty and be wrong
               What do we do when duties conflict?
Parts of a moral situation
   Who did it? (Virtue Ethics)
   What did he do? (Duty-based Ethics)
   What happened as a result?
   Who did he do it to?
   How is he related to that person?
Utilitarianism
   X is morally right if and only if X brings
    about the best overall consequences
Utilitarianism
   X is morally right if and only if X brings
    about the best overall consequences
       Problem
           Sally Struthers and Bono, crime syndicate bosses
Parts of a moral situation
   Who did it? (Virtue Ethics)
   What did he do? (Duty-based Ethics)
   What happened as a result?(Utilitarianism)
   Who did he do it to?
   How is he related to that person?
Rights-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if it does not
    violate anyone’s rights
Rights-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if it does not
    violate anyone’s rights
       Rights responsible for more good than any other
        moral notion
       What are rights and what do we have rights to?
Rights-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if it does not
    violate anyone’s rights
       Rights responsible for more good than any other
        moral notion
       What are rights and what do we have rights to?
            Problem
               You can be well within your rights and still be a complete
                jerk
Parts of a moral situation
   Who did it? (Virtue Ethics)
   What did he do? (Duty-based Ethics)
   What happened as a result?(Utilitarianism)
   Who did he do it to? (Rights-based Ethics)
   How is he related to that person?
Care-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if you do X
    because you believe that it will help some
    particular person with whom you have a
    relationship live a better life.
Care-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if you do X
    because you believe that it will help some
    particular person with whom you have a
    relationship live a better life.
       Male vs. female centered views
       Relationships come with moral obligations
Care-based Ethics
   X is morally right if and only if you do X
    because you believe that it will help some
    particular person with whom you have a
    relationship live a better life.
       Male vs. female centered views
       Relationships come with moral obligations
            Problem
               I have moral obligations to people I don’t know and I
                don’t like
Parts of a moral situation
   Who did it? (Virtue Ethics)
   What did he do? (Duty-based Ethics)
   What happened as a result?(Utilitarianism)
   Who did he do it to? (Rights-based Ethics)
   How is he related to that person? (Care-
    based Ethics)
What Now?
Each approach is flawed because it does not
 consider the relevance of the aspects that
 the others do cover.

How do we put them together?
Real Life Moral Dilemmas
   Most of the time, the systems all agree
   Rarely, but occasionally, they disagree
Real Life Moral Dilemmas
   Most of the time, the systems all agree
   Rarely, but occasionally, they disagree
       The BIG QUESTION
           How do we decide which system takes
            precedent?
Real Life Moral Dilemmas
   Most of the time, the systems all agree
   Rarely, but occasionally, they disagree
       The BIG QUESTION
           How do we decide which system takes
            precedent?
              It depends on the situation
Real Life Moral Dilemmas
   Most of the time, the systems all agree
   Rarely, but occasionally, they disagree
       The BIG QUESTION
           How do we decide which system takes
            precedent?
              It depends on the situation
              Not a matter of politics
Real Life Moral Dilemmas
   Most of the time, the systems all agree
   Rarely, but occasionally, they disagree
       The BIG QUESTION
           How do we decide which system takes
            precedent?
              It depends on the situation
              Not a matter of politics
              The non-eliminable need for intelligent, civil, rational
               deliberation
Play Time!
1.   Is polygamy wrong?
2.   Is there anything wrong with flag burning?
3.   Is there anything wrong with one-night stands?
4.   Is it wrong to tell off-colored jokes?
5.   Do you tell your wife, “Yes, dear. Your butt
     does look big in that”?
6.   What is wrong with cursing? In front of
     children?

								
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