01-Applications of ICT.ppt - dolinski.co.uk-ag by yaofenjin

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									Applications
of ICT - 3.3.4
telecommunications and
information technology
This presentation aims to:
 Allowyou to describe the use of
 telecommunication and information
 technology in:
    Telephone Systems
    Banking
    Production Control
    Global Positioning Systems
    Navigation
    Weather Forecasting
Introduction
   This particular topic only asks you to be able to
    describe the different technologies.

   As you have already been given the identifiers all
    you need to focus on when revising is:

       Amplification
           (extending your understanding of the identifier)

       Exemplification
           (given an example of how the identifier is used)
Navigation
Mouse click has been disabled on certain slides to allow you to work through
the menu system. To override this just press space bar to continue the
presentation in a serial order.




    Telephone                                          Production
                               Banking
     Systems                                             Control


      Global
                                                        Weather
    Positioning              Navigation
                                                       Forecasting
     System
Telephone Systems
 This   section will cover:
     Voice mail
     Menus
     Ringback
     Videophone
     Caller display
     Conference call
Voice Mail
 Beforevoice mail existed, people used to
 record messages on answering machines.

     used small tapes to record
 They
 messages.

 Because messages were saved serially
 (one after the other) removing messages
 involved taping over the old message.
Voice Mail
   Voice mail systems are very sophisticated in comparison.

   They allow you to:
       Delete/Store multiple messages

       Forward messages to another voice mail inbox

       Have different messages be read out to the caller depending
        on your status (away, on holiday etc)

       Retrieve messages from another phone

       Use voice recognition to forward messages as a text message or
        email
Voice Mail
 These systems can be used by one person
  or by a company.

 Theschool has a voice mail service for
  parents who call into school.

 Ifthey leave a message the message can
  be forwarded to the voice mail inbox of
  the appropriate member of staff.
Menus
     the introduction of tone dialling
 With
 phones (digital), telephone menu systems
 were created.

 Now, a lot of companies use menu
 systems to filter customers towards the
 correct departments.
Example
                                    Thank you for calling
                                      elephant.co.uk




                                  Press 2 if you are calling
    Press 1 if you are calling
                                  about an existing claim             Press 0 for all other
       about renewing a
                                  or if you want to make a                 enquiries.
               policy.
                                          new claim.




                                        Press 1 if you are calling         Connect to customer
              Connect to sales.
                                        about an existing claim.                services.




                                         Press 2 if you are calling
                                          to make a new claim.




                                            Press 0 to return to
                                             previous menu.
Ring Back
   If try calling a friend but their phone is either
    engaged or has no signal, you can request a
    ringback.

   When your friend’s phone is no longer busy or
    has a strong enough signal to receive a call,
    your phone will ring.

   When you answer your phone your friends
    phone will start ringing.
Video Phone
   3G phones make use of high bandwidth
    connections allowing for video calls to be
    made.

   The idea has been around for a while but still
    isn’t all that popular compared to normal
    calling.

   If you have ever watched Thunderbirds you’ll
    know that when there is a problem the
    characters will talk via video calls.
Caller Display
   Mobile phones have caller displays and many
    new house phones have the same feature.

   When a call is placed the telephone number is
    displayed on a screen.

   If the number is stored in the address book the
    name of the contact will be displayed.

   Many companies withheld their telephone
    numbers because they want to make sure that
    people always call their menu driven service.
Conference call
   Most telephone calls are placed between
    two people.

   But what if a third person should be part of
    the call?

   It is possible to invite someone else into the
    conversation by dialling their telephone
    number during the call.
       (This feature often costs more and has to be set
        up through your telephone service provider)
  Activity
    Copy        and complete this table:
Identify               Amplify              Exemplify
Voice Mail
Menus
Ringback
Videophone
Caller Display
Conference Call


                                                  Return to Navigation
Banking
 This   section will cover:
     ATM (Automatic Teller Machines)
     Credit/Debit Card
     Cheques
     Internet Banking
ATMs
   Also known as a cash machine…

   ATMs allow people to withdraw money without the
    need for any other human interaction.

   They also allow you to check your balance, change
    your pin, request a new cheque book and some
    even let your top up your mobile phone!

   There are different kinds of ATMs too. Some are used
    for cash withdrawal, others for cash and cheque
    deposits and some are used only to check and print
    off full statements.
ATMs
   When you put in your card into an ATM it will read
    your sort code and account number from the
    magnetic strip or the chip device.

   It will then ask the user to enter the PIN number and
    will request the details of the account using the
    details on the card.

   These details might include:
       Has the card been lost or stolen and is it activated?
       The account’s PIN number (used to verify inputted PIN)
       The account’s current balance
       The account’s overdraft agreement
Credit/Debit Cards
 The most popular way for people to pay
 for goods and services these days is to
 pay using a credit or debit card.

    introduction of Chip and Pin systems
 The
 have made buyer goods and services
 even faster and more secure.
Difference in card types
   Credit Card:
       The bank provides a person with a temporary loan.
        When a person uses a credit card the bank pays
        for the goods or service. They then ask for the
        money at the end of the month. There are then
        two ways of paying at the end of the month,
        either by paying off the interest or by paying off
        the loan in one go.

   Debit Card:
       When a person pays for a goods or service the
        money is automatically taken from their account.
Why so popular?
   It is far safer to carry a credit/debit card around
    because if your purse or wallet is lost or stolen no one
    can use your money (unless they know your pin).

   You can also cancel cards which prevents them
    from being used. As the cards are checked every
    time they are used it is difficult to use the card.

   Also, paying for goods/services online using a credit
    card (like Master Card) provides the customer with
    insurance, meaning they can claim their money
    back through the credit card company if there is a
    problem.
Theft of cards
   The only real way to make use of someone else’s
    card is to use it online or over the telephone.

   If you don’t know the person’s PIN number you
    can’t use it in a shop.

   If you have a copy of the top of the card (done
    easily by swiping them over carbon copy paper)
    you can’t use it because most websites ask for the
    security number on the back.
Theft of cards
   If a thief had your whole card they would still need
    your billing address…but if your driver’s licence
    was in your wallet when it was stolen then they
    would have that.

   This is why it is important to keep your bank’s lost
    and stolen number handy…because the quicker
    you can cancel your cards the better!

   But…rest assured…more websites are now asking
    for additional security details when you make a
    purchase. They ask for a secondary PIN or
    Password which ‘should’ only be known to you!
Cheques
 Cheques   are still a popular way of
 transferring money from one place to
 another.

     are often used by people who pay
 They
 by post (ebay is keeping cheques alive!)

 Companies often also give refunds via
 cheques to make it seem more official!
Cheques
   Cheque books are important things to keep
    safe…but there are checks in place to ensure that
    your cheque isn’t being fraudulently used!

   The bank will keep a record of your signature which
    they compare with the signature on the cheque.

   They also check to make sure the same pen has
    been used on the cheque to ensure no one has
    tempered with it after it was written.

   They can also look to see if any ink eraser fluid has
    been used to modify the details on the cheque!
Cheques and technology
   Because of the nature of cheques, different technology is
    used to ‘read’ them.

   OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
       Used to read amount written on the cheque)
   MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Recognition)
       Used to read the account number, sort code and cheque
        number
   Sorting cheques
       Done using the sort code so they can be processed by banks
   Recoding transactions
       A record of each transaction is made which then appears on
        bank statements.
Internet Banking
   Used by more and more people, it has grown in
    popularity as more and more people connect to
    the internet.

   People now transfer money from one account to
    another, check balances and pay bills using
    internet banking…

   If you make use of online banking take a closer
    look at what you can do with it. If you haven’t got
    online banking go to a bank’s website and look at
    the demos they have!
  Activity
    Copy    and complete this table:
Identify             Amplify            Exemplify
ATM
Credit/Debit Cards
Cheques
Internet Banking




                                              Return to Navigation
Production Control
 Themanufacturing sector now makes
  heavy use of CAM (Computer Aided
  Manufacture).

 Thisessentially means that robots carry out
  the manufacturing of goods.

 Thereare, of course, some benefits and
  negatives to this.
Positives of CAM
   Robots don’t get tired meaning they can work 24/7.

   Initial costs are high but running costs are low.

   They make very few mistakes (usually only if there is a
    fault or a bug in the system).

   They are incredibly fast – Cadbury’s makes use of a
    system called Flow Wrap which allows them to wrap
    800 bars of chocolate per minute!
       (do you think they would let me use their machine to
        wrap my Christmas presents?)
Negatives of CAM
        human workers meaning higher
 Replace
 unemployment.

 Notvery flexible – they tend to be suited
 to make certain types of products.
 Humans can be retrained to make lots of
 products.
The control part…
   Sensors are used extensively to ensure that
    products are being made correctly.

   For example, when a machine fills up a bottle of
    tomato sauce, it checks the weight of the bottle
    to ensure it was filled correctly.

   If it wasn’t then it is either discarded or topped up.

   Some machines learn from mistakes and adjusts
    it’s operations automatically so that it doesn’t
    make the same mistake again.
Activity
         what Production Control Means.
 Describe
 Given an example of where and how it is
 used.




                                  Return to Navigation
Global Positioning Systems
 We have already covered GPS in the
 previous unit of work…but that was
 looking at how it worked.

 Now you need to understand how it is
 used.
Global Positioning System
 People use GPS navigation devices (Sat
 Navs) in the following ways:
    Finding the shortest route between two
     points.
    Avoiding certain types of roads.
    Travel to Points of Interest (POIs).
    Provides driver with estimated travel time
     and time of arrival.
    Some systems provide drivers with current,
     average and maximum speeds achieved.
Sat Navs
   In order for the system to work it must know the
    following things:
       Start/Current Location
       Finish location

   The system then checks previous position and current
    position to determine what direction you are
    travelling.

   It makes adjustments for positioning errors by placing
    you on the road that it believes you are on based on
    direction of travel, and distance from the road’s
    location.
    Activity
      Complete      the following table:
Feature                How is it used?           Benefit to driver
Points of Interest     The driver can find       If a driver needs to fill
                       points of interest such   up but doesn’t know
                       as Petrol Stations and    the area well they
                       Hospitals.                can use the POI
                                                 feature to find the
                                                 nearest station.
Now you list as many as you can….



                                                         Return to Navigation
Navigation
 Some  people don’t like using Sat Nav
 systems (they can be a little annoying at
 times!)

 Insteadthey prefer to use route finders
 such as the ones on Multimap and The AA
 websites.
Navigation
   In order for them to work, they need to know
    your starting location and the ending
    location.

   The user can include ‘via’ points if they wish.

   A route is then calculated based on the user’s
    preferences:
       Avoid toll roads and motorways
       Fastest route
       Shortest route
Navigation
 What  these navigation systems can’t do is
  provide you with a new route if you miss a
  turn!

     type of system is fantastic providing
 This
  you never make a mistake! 
Activity
 Describehow online route finders can be
 used by people planning a trip.




                                    Return to Navigation
Weather Forecasting
 Weather   forecasting consists of:
    Measuring and recording data
    Calculating a forecast
    Producing forecast information
Measuring and Recording
   This can be carried out in the following ways:
       Satellite images
       Temperatures
       Moisture in the atmosphere
       Humidity
       Rainfall
       Wind speed
       Wind direction
       Cloud cover
       Atmospheric pressure
       Sunshine
Measuring and Recording
   Data is collected from a variety of sources
    and from a variety of locations including:
       Satellites
       Bouys on the ocean
       Sensors on the ground

   In order for forecasts to be accurate, data
    must be collected at regular time intervals.

   The more data collected the more accurate
    the forecast can be.
Modelling a forecast
   In order to make a forecast you need to know what
    the weather has been doing!

   The data that was collected is fed into a very
    powerful computer where complex calculations are
    carried out.

   Often, various models are produced with
    predictability values attached to them.

   The weather forecaster must then decide which
    forecast they believe will be the most likely to occur.
Producing a forecast
   The output of all the number crunching is usually
    displayed to the user with these variables:
       Temperatures
       Wind speeds
       Wind direction
       Visibility
       Cloud cover
       Rain (snow) fall
       Possibility of thunder and lightning
       Pollution levels
       UV index levels
Producing a forecast
 Computers are much better at predicting
  weather patterns now.

 You can now find forecasts for up to 15
  days away!

 Thisis really useful for people who are
  planning events or for the military who are
  planning missions.
Activity
 Describe each process of weather
 forecasting:
    Collecting and recording data
    Calculating the forecast
    Producing the forecast report




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