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					2004-2008
Geographic Trend Report for GMAT® Examinees

Geographic Trend Report for GMAT® Examinees

T

his Asian Geographic Trend Report for GMAT® Examinees identifies migratory trends among GMAT examinees applying to and attending graduate business school. Geographic and background data collected before each test taker completes the GMAT exam are used and combined with score-sending patterns. Together they illustrate which countries and schools are of interest to citizens of various Asian countries. Data from the most recent testing year are compared against data from four years prior to identify changes in examinee preferences.

Geographic Trend Reports were first introduced in 2005 as part of the GMAC® Research Report Series. The trend series has since grown based on requests for annual updates and specialized reports for individual regions, including Asia, Europe, and North America. If you’d like an electronic copy of this or any other Geographic Trend Report documents, visit www.gmac.com/GeographicTrends. If you have questions about this publication, please contact us at research@gmac.com.

The Asian Geographic Trend Report for GMAT Examinees is a product of the Graduate Management Admission Council® (GMAC), a global nonprofit education organization of leading graduate business schools and the owner of the Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT). The GMAT exam is an important part of the admissions process for more than 4,500 graduate management programs around the world. GMAC is dedicated to creating access to and disseminating information about graduate management education; these schools and others rely on the Council as the premier provider of reliable data about the graduate management education industry. © 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council® (GMAC®). All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of GMAC. For permission contact the GMAC legal department at legal@gmac.com. Creating Access to Graduate Business Education®, GMAC®, GMAT®, Graduate Management Admission Council®, and Graduate Management Admission Test® are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council in the United States and other countries.

CONTENTS

KEY FINDINGS .......................................................................... 2 METHODOLOGY........................................................................ 4 ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT ............................................... 5
Location of GMAT® Examinees................................................................. 5 Citizenship of GMAT® Examinees ............................................................. 6 Attractiveness of Programs in Asia .......................................................... 7 Score Reports .............................................................................................. 8

REGIONAL SCORE-SENDING PATTERNS ................................... 9
All Asian Citizens........................................................................................ 10 Indian Citizens ........................................................................................... 12 Chinese Citizens ........................................................................................ 14 South Korean Citizens .............................................................................. 16 Taiwanese Citizens ................................................................................... 18 Japanese Citizens..................................................................................... 20 Thai Citizens ............................................................................................... 22 Singaporean Citizens ............................................................................... 24 Pakistani Citizens ....................................................................................... 26 Indonesian Citizens ................................................................................... 28 Vietnamese Citizens ................................................................................. 30

AUTHORSHIP ........................................................................... 32 CONTACT INFORMATION ....................................................... 32
Acknowledgements ................................................................................. 32

APPENDIX: REGIONAL CATEGORIES ...................................... 32

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

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INTRODUCTION

T

his report presents country and regional-level analyses of student interest in graduate management education by examining data collected from Asian citizens taking the Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®) during the 2004 and 2008 testing years (TY). Emphasis

is placed on the destination of their score reports. Two important types of information relating to the geographic program preferences of examinees were derived from GMAT score-sending data. First, absolute change in the overall number of GMAT score

reports that are sent each year reflects the physical size of the annual student pipeline. Absolute change tends to fluctuate widely depending on yearly testing volume. Second, relative change measures the proportion of total scores sent to a given country or region and reveals structural changes in market share. Relative change is generally more stable over time. Understanding both types of information—absolute and relative—enhances a school’s ability to navigate the student pipeline and recruit effectively. Major differences in score-sending behavior were observed between TY 2004 and TY 2008 for many citizen groups in this report. This is not surprising given the global nature of higher education today, which is characterized by innovation and constant change. Many factors influence the attractiveness of certain programs to students and also the ability of students to pursue management education. This report identifies the aggregate effects of such dynamics.

Key Findings • Asian citizens represented 29% of GMAT tests taken globally in TY 2008 (59% when excluding US citizens). From these test takers, 257,522 score reports were sent to business schools worldwide—a 70% increase in scores sent from Asian citizens compared with TY 2004. Indian citizens sent 50% of all score reports from Asia in the most recent testing year, despite taking only 40% of the exams. This is due to the high number of score reports sent per examinee: In TY 2008, Indian citizens sent an average of 4.5 score reports per examinee, the highest average in the region. Although US schools received more score reports from Indian examinees in TY 2008 than in TY 2004, they lost in total market share over the period as Indian citizens sent a greater proportion of score reports to programs in India and Western Europe. The attraction of the United States as a scoresending destination has changed for several Asian citizen groups since TY 2004. Six of the •

•

10 groups identified in this report sent a lower proportion of their scores to US programs in TY 2008 than in TY 2004. Many of these groups, however, actually sent a greater absolute number of score reports to US programs over the period because, in many cases, the resulting growth in number of tests taken offset the decline in market share. Two citizen groups in this report sent more than 10% of their GMAT score reports to programs within their country of citizenship in TY 2008. Singaporean examinees sent 46% of their score reports to domestic programs and were the only group not to have the United States as their top study destination. Indian citizens sent 14% of their TY 2008 score reports to programs in India, up from 6% in TY 2004. Business programs in Asia have attracted an increasing number of score reports from all GMAT examinees over the last five years. In TY 2008, the top 10 countries in Asia to receive score reports were sent 39,156 scores from examinees around the world, a 215% increase when compared with TY 2004.

•

•

•

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© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

INTRODUCTION

Geographic data collected from TY 2004 and TY 2008 included the examinee’s mailing address at the time of registration and their country of citizenship. The proportion of citizens testing within their country of residence differed greatly among groups in both years.
Figure 1: GMAT® Exams Taken in the Top 10 Regions of Asia in TY 2008

GMAT® Exams Taken in TY 2008
30,000

by Citizenship 20,000

by Candidate Location

10,000

0 India China South Korea Taiwan Japan Thailand Singapore Pakistan Indonesia Vietnam

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

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METHODOLOGY

Methodology The 10 Asian citizenship groups with the greatest number of GMAT examinees were analyzed. Information was obtained from their responses to the background information questionnaire administered as part of the GMAT exam, score-reporting information from examinee records, and other registration information for testing years 2004 through 2008, each beginning July 1 and ending June 30. Although data from TY 2004 to TY 2008 are provided for general trend purposes, TY 2004 and TY 2008 data provide the primary basis for this report. Data from the 44,665 records of Asian citizen examinees in 2004 and the 71,149 records of Asian citizen examinees in 2008 who sat for the GMAT exam one or more times during these years are closely examined. In TY 2004, Central and South Asian citizens made up 14,147 of these examinees, a number which grew to 31,163 in TY 2008 (up 120%). However, for the second year in a row, only two countries in Central and South Asia made it into the top 10 countries in the Asian region for number of GMAT exams taken—India and Pakistan. When taking the GMAT, examinees have the option to submit their score through a score report to up to five schools/programs at no charge. Once examinees leave the test center, additional copies of their score report are available for a fee. Up to 10 instances of score report data are stored for every test taken. Score reports were aggregated and grouped by school location and university for TY 2004 and school location, university, and program for TY 2008. Due to a change in vendors for the GMAT exam in 2006, data analysis can be extended to the program level for TY 2008 data. Program-level data are unavailable for TY 2004; therefore, school-level data are used. Throughout this report, school names followed by “MBA” indicate full-time programs unless otherwise specified. Examinees were asked their country of citizenship at the time of registration, and this information was used to group examinees into two regional categories: the East and Southeast Asia region and the Central and South Asia region (see the Appendix for complete descriptions of these categories). Country of citizenship and score-reporting behavior are used to gauge regional trends and changes in examinee preferences regarding school locations. The top 10 schools (by score report volume) for each of the top citizenship groups are listed for the two years studied to further reveal changes. The data used take into account the tests taken, not the individual test takers. Any examinees who took the test more than once are represented in the analyses by the number of times they took the test, and the average percentage of tests taken by repeat examinees is approximately 15–22%. Furthermore, the results presented in this report are generalizations that will not apply to every student. The people of Hong Kong and Macau are now included in the “Chinese” citizenship category. As a result, Hong Kong and Macau are no longer available as separate citizenship categories and have been collapsed into the “Chinese” citizenship category for both testing years analyzed in this report. GMAT score-sending trends are used to indicate interest in studying in a particular region. Other factors, such as changes in application requirements by schools and visa policies, influence these trends as well and should be taken into consideration when evaluating this report. It is also important to note when reviewing these results that it is not mandatory for examinees to respond to the Background Information Questions in order to register for the GMAT exam. As a result, not all test takers are represented in this analysis. The percentage of “missing” or unreported background information, however, is extremely low for both analyzed testing years.

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Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT

Asian Testing Environment The number of GMAT exams taken in Asia increased significantly during the previous five testing years. Testing volume reported by location of examinees (Table 1) and by citizenship (Table 2) highlights these changes. Location of GMAT® Examinees The 20 countries/regions in Asia with the highest number of residents sitting for the GMAT exam during TY 2008 are shown in Table 1, along with historic data from TY 2004. Examinees in Asia took a total of 51,822 exams in TY 2008 and represented 21% of total exams taken worldwide.
Table 1: GMAT® Tests Taken by Location — Top 20* Countries (TY 2004 to TY 2008)
Rank 1. India 2. China 3. South Korea 4. Taiwan 5. Japan 7. Hong Kong (S.A.R. of China) 6. Singapore 8. Thailand 9. Pakistan 10. Indonesia 11. Vietnam 12. Philippines 13. Nepal 14. Malaysia 15. Kazakhstan 16. Bangladesh 17. Sri Lanka 18. Uzbekistan 19. Kyrgyzstan 20. Macau (S.A.R. of China) 20. Mongolia Total Number of Examinees Located in Asia
*By number of GMAT tests taken.

TY 2004 6,137 4,610 5,278 3,362 4,070 1,760 1,228 1,258 551 457 264 257 106 198 49 81 37 72 28 13 10 29,879

TY 2005 7,206 4,040 5,513 4,074 3,594 1,683 1,190 1,397 483 316 275 250 93 195 82 108 43 25 12 11 10 30,630

TY 2006 9,270 5,299 5,758 4,303 3,506 1,634 1,434 1,491 525 303 227 256 131 194 115 67 68 41 11 23 13 34,693

TY 2007 13,324 7,663 5,459 4,187 3,034 1,886 1,841 1,470 521 422 254 266 152 217 136 73 61 53 16 24 22 41,125

TY 2008 18,950 11,287 6,073 4,092 2,649 2,526 1,995 1,526 635 446 327 293 258 230 170 108 91 44 29 23 23 51,822

Percent of TY 2008 Asia Total 36.6% 21.8% 11.7% 7.9% 5.1% 4.9% 3.8% 2.9% 1.2% 0.9% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.04% 0.04% 100.0%

Led by persistent testing growth in India and China, the number of exams taken in Asia in TY 2008 was 73% greater than in TY 2004. The number of exams taken by residents of India and China since TY 2004 increased 209% and 145%, respectively; tests taken by these two groups represented 58% of all exams taken by Asian residents in TY 2008. Other countries that experienced triple-digit growth over the previous five testing years were Kazakhstan (247%), Sri Lanka (146%), Nepal (143%), and Mongolia (130%), although these groups have remained relatively small.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

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ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT

The only countries in Table 1 that had fewer exams taken by residents in TY 2008 relative to TY 2004 were Uzbekistan (–39%), Japan (–35%), and Indonesia (–2%). Citizenship of GMAT® Examinees There were nearly 20,000 more GMAT exams taken by Asian citizens than Asian residents in TY 2008. This disparity exists because many Asian examinees tested outside of their home country or region. The 71,149 exams taken by Asian citizens in TY 2008 represented 29% of tests taken globally, and the vast majority of these exams were taken by just a few citizen groups. Three of every four Asian examinees in TY 2008, for example, were citizens of India, China, or South Korea.
Table 2: GMAT® Tests Taken by Asian Citizenship — Top 20* Countries (TY 2004 to TY 2008)
Rank 1. India 2. China 3. South Korea 4. Taiwan 5. Japan 6. Thailand 7. Singapore 8. Pakistan 9. Indonesia 10. Vietnam 11. Malaysia 12. Nepal 13. Philippines 14. Bangladesh 15. Kazakhstan 16. Sri Lanka 17. Uzbekistan 18. Mongolia 19. Kyrgyzstan 20. Cambodia Total Number of Asian Citizens
*By number of GMAT tests taken.

TY 2004 12,267 9,646 6,453 4,203 4,679 1,909 866 1,081 1,051 449 528 224 458 279 111 122 95 54 28 26 44,665

TY 2005 13,544 8,554 6,511 5,032 4,168 2,075 889 1,020 910 436 508 261 411 328 152 138 85 52 33 23 45,239

TY 2006 16,541 10,142 6,977 5,401 3,858 2,068 979 1,077 760 434 464 367 424 270 193 167 99 54 45 29 50,453

TY 2007 21,481 13,048 6,811 5,218 3,417 2,091 1,154 1,084 981 516 505 389 458 260 213 169 129 68 39 34 58,190

TY 2008 28,570 17,420 7,591 5,173 2,935 2,146 1,548 1,268 975 690 576 544 518 275 246 207 124 76 67 53 71,149

Percent of TY 2008 Asia Total 40.2% 24.5% 10.7% 7.3% 4.1% 3.0% 2.2% 1.8% 1.4% 1.0% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 100.0%

Of the top 20 citizen groups reported in Table 2, five more than doubled their number of exams taken in TY 2008 compared with TY 2004: Nepal (143%), Kyrgyzstan (140%), India (133%), Kazakhstan (122%), and Cambodia (104%). Only three of these top twenty groups experienced a decline from TY 2004 in the number of exams taken: Japan (–37%), Indonesia (–7%), and Bangladesh (–1%). As a group, Asian citizens took 59% more exams in TY 2008 than in TY 2004.

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Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT

Attractiveness of Programs in Asia Programs in Asia successfully attracted a greater proportion of global talent in TY 2008 than in TY 2004. Table 3 shows score report volume for the top 10 countries/regions in Asia to which all GMAT examinees have sent score reports over the past five years. In TY 2004, the top 10 Asian countries received just 2% of scores sent worldwide. By TY 2008, this percentage increased to 5% driven by triple-digit growth in the number of scores received by programs in India (470%), Singapore (305%), the Philippines (121%), and China (112%). Several factors have influenced these trends. Most notably, prospective students have shown increased interest in programs within Asia, and the GMAT exam has become a more prominent part of the admissions process for Asian schools.
Table 3: Top 10* Countries in Asia to Which All GMAT® Examinees Sent Score Reports (TY 2004 to TY 2008)
Percent Change: TY 2004 to TY 2008 469.8% 304.8% 55.3% 112.4% 43.6% 121.4% –13.4% –57.7% 3.7% 18.8% 25.1% —

Rank 1. India 2. Singapore 3. Hong Kong 4. China 5. Japan 6. Philippines 7. Thailand 8. Pakistan 9. Korea 10. Taiwan Total Score Reports Sent to All Countries Average # of Schools to Which Examinees Sent Scores

TY 2004 3,117 2,696 3,170 1,533 571 337 382 428 136 69 596,768 3.0

TY 2005 5,064 3,074 3,409 1,365 575 384 467 320 145 99 567,004 2.8

TY 2006 6,896 4,505 3,182 1,892 690 1,094 393 244 146 100 601,242 2.9

TY 2007 11,484 6,752 3,933 2,144 663 827 335 162 89 62 655,506 3.0

TY 2008 17,762 10,913 4,924 3,256 820 746 331 181 141 82 746,776 3.0

* Based on number of score reports received in TY 2008.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

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ASIAN TESTING ENVIRONMENT

Figure 2: Average Number of Score Reports Sent by Asian GMAT Examinees: TY 2004 and TY 2008
Average Number of GMAT® Score Reports Sent by Citizenship, TY 2004 and TY 2008
India China All Asian Citizens Pakistan Vietnam Indonesia Taiwan Thailand Singapore Japan South Korea 0 2.0 1.9 1 TY 2004 2 TY 2008 3 4 5 2.6 3.3 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 3.8 3.6 4.5

Score Reports Significant regional differences in the average number of score reports sent per GMAT examinee were observed in TY 2008. As a consequence, some citizen groups sent a greater number of score reports relative to others, despite having taken fewer exams in comparison. Figure 2 shows the average number of score reports sent per Asian examinee in TY 2004 and TY 2008. Indian citizens took the most tests in the Asian region in TY 2008 and also sent the most score reports per examinee (4.5). In contrast, South Korean citizens sent an average of only 1.9 score reports per examinee in the most recent year. These differences explain variations among citizen groups when comparing the number of exams taken with the number of score reports sent.

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Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

REGIONAL SCORE-SENDING PATTERNS

Regional Score-Sending Patterns The remainder of this report details GMAT score-sending patterns for all Asian citizens, who cumulatively sent 257,522 score reports in TY 2008. Breakdowns for the following 10 citizen groups are also provided: • • • • • Chinese (65,732 scores sent in TY 2008) Indian (127,916) Indonesian (2,908) Japanese (5,867) Pakistani (4,175) • • • • • Singaporean (4,002) South Korean (14,771) Taiwanese (15,496) Thai (6,127) Vietnamese (2,110)

Figure 3 shows the percentage of score report submissions in TY 2008 from the various citizen groups in Asia. A comprehensive list of the countries that make up the region is available in the Appendix.
Figure 3: Percentage of GMAT Scores from Asian Citizens in TY 2008
Percentage of Asian GMAT ® Score Reports Sent in TY 2008, by Citizenship

Indonesia 1% Singapore 2% Pakistan 2%

Vietnam 1%

Other 3%

Thailand 2% Japan 2% Taiwan 6%

India 50%

South Korea 6%

China 25%

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

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ALL OF ASIA

All Asian Citizens Results in Tables 4 and 5 are heavily influenced by Indian examinees, whose scores represented 50% of the total scores sent by Asian citizens in TY 2008 (127,916 of the 257,522).

Figure 4: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—All Asia
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
80,000 71,149 70,000

60,000 50,453 50,000 44,665 45,239

58,190 51,822

41,125 40,000 29,879 30,000 30,630 34,693

20,000

10,000

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 TY 2006 TY 2007 Asian Citizens TY 2008

Examinees Located in Asia

Table 4: Top 10* Countries to Which Asian Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. Canada 3. United Kingdom 4. France 5. India 6. Hong Kong 7. Singapore 8. Australia 9. China 10. Netherlands Total Scores Sent Scores Sent 116,462 8,994 7,132 3,053 3,006 2,616 2,501 1,350 1,329 861 151,408 Percent 76.92% 5.94% 4.71% 2.02% 1.99% 1.73% 1.65% 0.89% 0.88% 0.57% 2. India 3. United Kingdom 4. Singapore 5. France 6. Canada 7. Hong Kong 8. China 9. Australia 10. Switzerland Country 1. United States TY 2008 Scores Sent 183,688 17,562 14,328 10,517 7,586 7,511 4,259 2,698 2,469 1,228 257,522 Percent 71.33% 6.82% 5.56% 4.08% 2.95% 2.92% 1.65% 1.05% 0.96% 0.48% 100%

100% Total Scores Sent

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.4 in TY 2004; 3.6 in TY 2008.

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Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

ALL OF ASIA

Table 5: Top 10* Schools/Programs to Which Asian Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. Harvard University, MBA Program 2. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 3. Stanford University, MBA 4. Columbia University, MBA 5. Northwestern University Graduate School of Management 6. New York University Stern School of Business, MBA 7. University of Chicago MBA 8. University of California—Berkeley, MBA Full Time 9. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management 10. Indian School of Business
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. Indian School of Business Post Graduate Programme in Management 2. Harvard University, MBA 3. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 4. Columbia University, MBA 5. Stanford University, MBA 6. New York University, MBA 7. INSEAD, MBA 8. University of Chicago, MBA 9. National University of Singapore, MBA 10. University of California—Berkeley, MBA

As a result of relative gains made by Asian programs in attracting score reports from Asian citizens, a significant reorganization of the top 10 schools/programs to which this group sent scores has occurred over the previous five testing years. In TY 2004, the only school represented from outside of the United States was the Indian School of Business (ISB) and it ranked tenth. By TY 2008, ISB jumped to the top of the list helped by significant increases in the number of scores sent by Indian examinees. INSEAD and the National University of Singapore also appeared on the list by TY 2008, ranking at seventh and ninth, respectively. Further data pertaining to scores sent and exams taken by citizens of the top 10 GMAT score-sending citizen groups in Asia follow.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

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INDIA

Indian Citizens There has been significant growth in the volume of GMAT tests taken in India and by Indian citizens over the last five testing years. During this period, the average annual growth rate in number of exams taken was 24% for Indian citizens and 33% for examinees located in India. In TY 2008, Indian citizens took 28,570 exams, representing nearly 12% of tests taken worldwide. This level marked a 133% increase in the number of exams taken by Indian citizens since TY 2004.
Figure 5: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—India
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
30,000 28,570

25,000 21,481 20,000 16,541 15,000 12,267 18,950

13,544

13,324

10,000 7,206 6,137 5,000

9,270

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 India Location TY 2006 Indian Citizenship TY 2007 TY 2008

Table 6: Top 10* Countries to Which Indian Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. India 3. United Kingdom 4. Canada 5. France 6. Singapore 7. Australia 8. Philippines 9. Switzerland 10. Netherlands Total Scores Sent Scores Sent 41,018 2,976 2,720 2,501 1,256 966 605 291 254 173 53,422 Percent 76.78% 5.57% 2.09% 4.68% 2.35% 1.80% 1.13% 0.54% 0.48% 0.32% 100% Country 1. United States 2. India 3. United Kingdom 4. Singapore 5. France 6. Canada 7. Australia 8. Switzerland 9. Philippines 10. Spain Total Scores Sent TY 2008 Scores Sent 81,978 17,488 8,888 6,539 4,031 3,149 1,684 835 702 649 127,916 Percent 64.20% 13.70% 6.96% 5.12% 3.16% 2.47% 1.32% 0.65% 0.55% 0.51% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 4.4 in TY 2004; 4.5 in TY 2008.

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Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

INDIA

As a result of broad increases in testing, the number of scores sent by Indian examinees to all programs more than doubled between TY 2004 and TY 2008. During this time, the score-sending preferences of Indian citizens also shifted significantly. Most notably, the propensity of Indian citizens to send scores to programs located in India rose. In TY 2004, 6% of Indian examinees sent scores to programs in India; by TY 2008, that proportion increased to 14%. Programs in the United Kingdom and Singapore also became more attractive to Indian examinees. The gain in market share by Indian, UK, and Singaporean programs came at the expense of US programs, which experienced a 13-percentage-point decrease in market share from TY 2004 to TY 2008. Because growth in the number of tests taken by Indian citizens was so strong, however, US programs still received twice as many score reports from Indian citizens in TY 2008 than in TY 2004.
Table 7: Top 10* Schools to Which Indian Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. Indian School of Business 2. Harvard University 3. University of Pennsylvania 4. Stanford University 5. Northwestern University 6. Columbia University 7. University of Chicago 8. London Business School 9. INSEAD 10. New York University
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. Indian School of Business 2. INSEAD 3. National University of Singapore 4. University of Pennsylvania 5. Harvard University 6. London Business School 7. Northwestern University 8. New York University 9. Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad 10. Stanford University

The Indian School of Business (ISB) remained the top school of choice among Indian examinees in TY 2008. Other Asian schools—including the National University of Singapore and the Indian Institute of Management in Ahmedabad—appeared on their top 10 list by TY 2008. The number of US schools in the top 10 list fell from seven in TY 2004 to five in TY 2008, and the highest-ranked US school fell from second to fourth. ISB also received the most score reports from Indian examinees in TY 2008 at the program level.

Table 8: Top 10* Programs to Which Indian Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. Indian School of Business, Post Graduate Programme 2. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 3. National University of Singapore, MBA 4. Harvard University, MBA 5. INSEAD, MBA 6. Stanford University, MBA 7. London Business School, MBA 8. New York University, MBA 9. Indian Institute of Management, One-Year Programme 10. Columbia University, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

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CHINA

Chinese Citizens After a decrease in the number of GMAT exams taken in China between TY 2004 and TY 2005, testing has experienced consistent growth. There were 81% more exams taken by Chinese citizens in TY 2008 than in TY 2004 and 145% more exams taken by candidates located in China over the same period. In TY 2008, Chinese citizens represented 7% of all exams taken worldwide and had the third-highest citizen total in the world.
Figure 6: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—China
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
20,000 17,420

18,000

16,000

14,000

13,048 11,287 9,646 8,554 7,663 10,142

12,000

10,000

8,000 5,299 4,610 4,040

6,000

4,000

2,000

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 China Location TY 2006 Chinese Citizenship TY 2007 TY 2008

Table 9: Top 10* Countries to Which Chinese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. Canada 3. Hong Kong 4. United Kingdom 5. China 6. France 7. Singapore 8. Australia 9. Netherlands 10. Belgium Total Scores Sent Scores Sent 22,440 4,705 2,439 2,186 1,244 797 315 234 200 175 35,217 Percent 63.72% 13.36% 6.93% 6.21% 3.53% 2.26% 0.89% 0.66% 0.57% 0.50% 100% Country 1. United States 2. Hong Kong 3. Canada 4. United Kingdom 5. France 6. China 7. Singapore 8. Australia 9. Netherlands 10. Switzerland Total Scores Sent 65,732 TY 2008 Scores Sent 50,358 3,563 2,934 2,341 2,134 1,917 934 282 199 97 Percent 76.94% 5.44% 4.48% 3.58% 3.26% 2.93% 1.43% 0.43% 0.30% 0.18% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.7 in TY 2004; 3.8 in TY 2008.

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Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

CHINA

Unlike several other citizen groups in Asia, Chinese examinees sent an increasing proportion of their score reports to programs in the United States between TY 2004 and TY 2008. In TY 2008, 77% of their score reports went to US programs, up from 64% in TY 2004. Much of this shift in market share can be attributed to declines in the number and proportion of score reports sent to programs in Canada, which fell from 13% of all scores in TY 2004 to just 4% in TY 2008. Market share for programs in the United Kingdom also decreased over this period. Programs in China continued to have difficulty attracting domestic students from the GMAT pipeline in TY 2008, as less than 3% of scores sent by Chinese examinees went to Chinese schools.
Table 10: Top 10* Schools to Which Chinese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. Harvard University 2. China Europe International 3. University of Pennsylvania 4. Columbia University 5. Stanford University 6. New York University 7. York University 8. University of Toronto 9. Chinese University 10. Yale University
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. Columbia University 2. New York University 3. Harvard University 4. University of Pennsylvania 5. Stanford University 6. Hong Kong University of Science and Technology 7. University of California—Berkeley 8. University of Southern California 9. Chinese University of Hong Kong 10. University of Chicago

Chinese examinees continued to send the bulk of their score reports to schools in the United States in TY 2008. In total, eight of the top 10 schools to which they sent scores were in the United States. The Chinese University of Hong Kong and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology rounded off the list. The MBA program at the China Europe International Business School (CEIBS) was the tenth-ranked program by Chinese citizens in TY 2008 and the only non-US program in their top 10.

Table 11: Top 10* Programs to Which Chinese Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. Harvard University, MBA 2. Columbia University, MBA 3. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 4. Stanford University, MBA 5. New York University, MBA 6. University of Chicago, MBA 7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 8. University of California Berkeley, MBA 9. Yale University, MBA 10. CEIBS (China Europe International Business School), MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

15

SOUTH KOREA

South Korean Citizens The number of South Korean GMAT tests taken—both by citizenship and candidate location—has averaged modest annual growth since TY 2004. South Korean citizens took 7,591 GMAT exams in TY 2008, the fourth-highest number of GMAT exams taken by any citizen group that year.
Figure 7: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—South Korea
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
8,000 6,977 7,000 6,453 6,511 6,073 6,000 5,278 5,000 5,513 5,758 5,459 7,591 6,811

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 South Korea Location TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008

South Korean Citizenship

Table 12: Top 10* Countries to Which South Korean Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. United Kingdom 3. Canada 4. France 5. Korea 6. Switzerland 7. Australia 8. Netherlands 9. Spain 10. China/Singapore Total Scores Sent Scores Sent 12,583 298 241 183 128 37 26 18 15 13 13,616 Percent 92.41% 2.19% 1.77% 1.34% 0.94% 0.27% 0.19% 0.13% 0.11% 0.10% 100% Country 1. United States 2. United Kingdom 3. China 4. France 5. Canada 6. Singapore 7. Korea 8. Australia 9. Switzerland 10. Spain Total Scores Sent TY 2008 Scores Sent 12,670 602 393 309 144 125 100 66 56 52 14,771 Percent 85.94% 4.08% 2.67% 2.10% 0.98% 0.85% 0.68% 0.45% 0.38% 0.35% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 2.1 in TY 2004; 1.9 in TY 2008.

16

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

SOUTH KOREA

Citizens of South Korea sent the majority of their score reports to programs in the United States in both years analyzed, but the proportion of scores sent to the US decreased from 92% in TY 2004 to 86% in TY 2008. Programs in Canada also lost a share of the South Korean examinee market over this period. These declines were due to increased interest by South Korean citizens in programs located in the United Kingdom, China, France, and Singapore. Programs in South Korea continued to receive minimal score reports from domestic citizens—less than 1% of total scores sent by South Korean examinees went to South Korean programs in TY 2008.
Table 13: Top 10* Schools to Which South Korean Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. Harvard University 2. University of Pennsylvania 3. Columbia University 4. Stanford University 4. University of Texas Austin 6. New York University 6. University of California—Berkeley 8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 9. Northwestern University 10. University of Michigan—Ann Arbor
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. University of Pennsylvania 2. Columbia University 3. Harvard University 4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 5. New York University 6. University of California—Berkeley 7. Stanford University 8. Northwestern University 9. Cornell University 10. University of Chicago

Despite the decline in market share for US schools noted above, all of the top 10 schools and programs to which South Korean citizens sent score reports in TY 2008 were located in the United States. All of the top programs to which South Koreans sent scores in TY 2008 were MBA programs.

Table 14: Top 10* Programs to Which South Korean Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 2. Columbia University, MBA 3. Harvard University, MBA 4. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 5. Stanford University, MBA 6. New York University, MBA 7. University of California—Berkeley, MBA 8. Northwestern University, MBA 9. University of Chicago, MBA 10. University of California—Los Angeles, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

17

TAIWAN

Taiwanese Citizens The number of exams taken by Taiwanese citizens and examinees located in Taiwan has fallen slightly from a peak reached in TY 2006, yet the number of exams taken in TY 2008 was well above TY 2004 levels. A decrease in the average number of score reports sent by Taiwanese citizens, however, resulted in fewer score reports sent in TY 2008 relative to TY 2004.
Figure 8: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—Taiwan
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
6,000 5,401 5,032 5,000 4,203 4,000 3,362 4,303 4,074 4,187 5,218 5,173

4,092

3,000

2,000

1,000

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 Taiwan Location TY 2006 Taiwnese Citizenship TY 2007 TY 2008

Table 15: Top 10* Countries to Which Taiwanese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. United Kingdom 3. Canada 4. France 5. Netherlands 6. Taiwan 7. Germany 8. Australia 9. Japan 10. China Total Scores Sent 16,318 Scores Sent 15,330 319 209 128 114 46 23 22 21 20 Percent 93.95% 1.95% 1.28% 0.78% 0.70% 0.28% 0.14% 0.13% 0.13% 0.12% 100% Country 1. United States 2. United Kingdom 3. France 4. Netherlands 5. Canada 6. Spain 7. China 8. Taiwan 9. Hong Kong 10. Japan Total Scores Sent 15,496 TY 2008 Scores Sent 14,278 353 187 141 128 80 58 48 40 37 Percent 92.37% 2.28% 1.21% 0.91% 0.83% 0.52% 0.38% 0.31% 0.26% 0.24% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.9 in TY 2004; 3.0 in TY 2008.

18

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

TAIWAN

The score-sending preferences of Taiwanese examinees remained somewhat stable from TY 2004 to TY 2008. Programs in the United States and United Kingdom continued to attract the overwhelming majority of Taiwanese scores—US and UK programs received nearly 95% of those sent in TY 2008. Spain and Hong Kong also appeared as top 10 destinations in TY 2008, replacing Germany and Australia. Canada experienced the greatest decline in scores received from Taiwanese examinees, falling from third to fifth on their list.
Table 16: Top 10* Schools to Which Taiwanese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. City University of New York—Baruch 2. University of Illinois—Urbana 3. University of Texas—Dallas 4. New York University 5. San Francisco State University 6. University of California—Berkeley 7. University of California—Los Angeles 8. State University of New York at Buffalo 9. Columbia University 10. University of Texas—Austin
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. New York University 2. University of California—Los Angeles 3. University of Illinois—Urbana Champaign 4. University of South California 5. Columbia University 6. University of California—Berkeley 7. Boston University 8. University of Washington—Seattle 9. University of Pennsylvania 10. University of Texas—Austin

As in TY 2004, all of the top 10 schools and individual programs to which Taiwanese examinees sent score reports in TY 2008 were located in the United States.

Table 17: Top 10* Programs to Which Taiwanese Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. New York University, MBA 2. University of California—Los Angeles, MBA 3. Columbia University, MBA 4. University of California—Berkeley, MBA 5. University of Southern California, MBA 6. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 7. University of Illinois—Urbana Champaign, MBA 8. Boston University, MBA 9. Stanford University, MBA 10. University of California—Riverside, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

19

JAPAN

Japanese Citizens Since TY 2004, Japan has averaged an annual decline of more than 10% in number of GMAT exams taken. This decline resulted in 1,700 fewer Japanese citizens in the GMAT student pipeline in TY 2008 relative to TY 2004.
Figure 9: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—Japan
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
5,000 4,679

4,500

4,168 3,858 4,070 3,417 3,594 3,506 3,034 2,935

4,000

3,500

3,000

2,500

2,649

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 Japan Location TY 2006 Japanese Citizenship TY 2007 TY 2008

Table 18: Top 10* Countries to Which Japanese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. United Kingdom 3. France 4. Japan 5. Canada 6. Netherlands 7. Spain 8. Switzerland 9. Italy 10. Australia Total Scores Sent 9,272 Scores Sent 7,709 469 317 188 140 107 73 47 42 34 Percent 83.14% 5.06% 3.42% 2.03% 1.51% 1.15% 0.79% 0.51% 0.45% 0.37% 100% Country 1. United States 2. United Kingdom 3. France 4. Japan 5. Spain 6. Canada 7. Switzerland 8. Singapore 9. Netherlands 10. Hong Kong Total Scores Sent TY 2008 Scores Sent 4,527 422 259 186 83 73 66 65 64 36 5,867 Percent 77.16% 7.19% 4.41% 3.17% 1.41% 1.24% 1.12% 1.10% 1.09% 0.61% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 2.0 in TY 2004; 2.0 in TY 2008.

20

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

JAPAN

Sharp declines in the number of tests taken have reduced overall score sending by Japanese citizens, who already had one of the lowest averages in the region for number of scores sent per examinee. Switzerland and Spain were the only countries to receive more score reports from Japanese examinees in TY 2008 than they did in TY 2004. The proportion of scores sent to US programs by Japanese citizens fell from 83% in TY 2004 to 77% in TY 2008. At the same time, programs in Japan, the United Kingdom, France, and other areas of Western Europe posted relative gains. By TY 2008, Singapore and Hong Kong joined Japan as the only other Asian destinations in the top 10 for Japanese citizens.
Table 19: Top 10* Schools to Which Japanese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. Northwestern University 2. University of California—Berkeley 3. Columbia University 4. Stanford University 5. University of Pennsylvania 6. Harvard University 7. Cornell University 8. University of California—Los Angeles 9. University of Southern California 10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. Stanford University 2. University of California—Berkeley 3. Columbia University 4. University of California—Los Angeles 5. University of Pennsylvania 6. Northwestern University 7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8. New York University 9. Harvard University 10. INSEAD

In TY 2004, all of the top 10 schools to which Japanese citizens sent score reports were located in the United States. In TY 2008, INSEAD appeared at number 10 (ninth when examining at the program level). Stanford University was the top school destination for Japanese score reports in TY 2008, climbing from fourth overall in TY 2004. The unique program to receive the most score reports from Japanese examinees in TY 2008 was the MBA program at the University of California-Berkeley.

Table 20: Top 10* Programs to Which Japanese Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. University of California—Berkeley, MBA 2. Stanford University, MBA 3. Columbia University, MBA 4. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 5. University of California—Los Angeles, MBA 6. Northwestern University, MBA 7. Harvard University, MBA 8. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 9. INSEAD, MBA 10. New York University, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

21

THAILAND

Thai Citizens Thailand has remained a relatively stable testing region over the previous five years, growing marginally since TY 2004. This growth, however, did not translate into increased score-sending numbers because the average number of score reports sent per examinee decreased from 3.2 to 2.9 over this period. As a consequence, the total number of scores sent in TY 2008 by Thai citizens was nearly identical to the number sent in TY 2004.
Figure 10: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—Thailand
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
2,500

2,000 1,909

2,075

2,068

2,091

2,146

1,500 1,491 1,397 1,258 1,000 1,470 1,526

500

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 Thailand Location TY 2006 Thai Citizenship TY 2007 TY 2008

Table 21: Top 10* Countries to Which Thai Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. Thailand 3. United Kingdom 4. Canada 5. Australia 6. Germany 7. France 8. Singapore 9. Japan 10.Switzerland Total Scores Sent 6,121 Scores Sent 5,253 322 164 115 50 41 38 27 20 19 Percent 85.82% 5.57% 2.68% 1.88% 0.82% 0.67% 0.62% 0.44% 0.33% 0.25% 100% Country 1. United States 2. Thailand 3. United Kingdom 4. France 5. Canada 5. China 7. Japan 8. Singapore 9. Switzerland 10. Australia Total Scores Sent 6,127 TY 2008 Scores Sent 5,258 280 249 52 50 50 38 31 23 19 Percent 86.06% 4.58% 4.08% 0.85% 0.82% 0.82% 0.62% 0.51% 0.38% 0.31% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.2 in TY 2004; 2.9 in TY 2008.

22

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

THAILAND

When compared with other citizen groups in Asia in TY 2008, Thai citizens sent a moderate number of score reports to domestic programs. In that year, nearly 5% of score reports went to programs in Thailand, down slightly from TY 2004. Programs in the United States still generated the greatest interest among Thai examinees and captured 86% of their score reports in TY 2008. The United Kingdom saw a notable increase during this period, while programs in Canada and Australia experienced decreases in the proportion of scores received by Thai examinees.
Table 22: Top 10* Schools/Programs to Which Thai Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. Chulalongkorn University 2. San Francisco State University 3. University of Illinois—Urbana 4. San Diego State University 5. University of California—Berkeley 6. California State University—Long Beach 7. Northwestern University 8. Thammasat University 9. California State University—Los Angeles 9. California State University—Fullerton/University of Texas Arlington
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. Chulalongkorn University 2. University of California—Berkeley 3. Northwestern University 4. University of California—Los Angeles 5. New York University 6. University of Illinois—Urbana Champaign 7. Massachusetts Institute of Technology 8. University of Pennsylvania 9. Columbia University 10. Depaul University

In both TY 2004 and TY 2008, the top school to which Thai examinees sent score reports was in Thailand. Thai examinees joined Indian and Singaporean examinees as the only citizen groups identified in this report to send the greatest number of their score reports to a domestic school or program in TY 2008. The remaining schools and programs on the top 10 list for Thai examinees in TY 2008 were located in the United States.

Table 23: Top 10* Programs to Which Thai Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. Chulalongkorn University, MBA 2. University of California—Los Angeles, MBA 3. University of California—Berkeley, MBA 4. Northwestern University, MBA 5. New York University, MBA 6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MBA 7. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 8. Columbia University, MBA 9. Harvard University, MBA 10. San Diego State University, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

23

SINGAPORE

Singaporean Citizens The number of exams taken by Singaporean citizens and residents has increased significantly over the last five years. There were 79% more exams taken by Singaporean citizens in TY 2008 than in TY 2004, and despite a large decrease in their average number of score reports sent per examinee—from 3.0 to 2.6— Singaporean citizens still sent 52% more score reports in TY 2008 than in TY 2004.
Figure 11: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—Singapore
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
2,500

1,995 2,000 1,841

1,500 1,228 1,190

1,434 1,548

1,000 979 866 889

1,154

500

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 Singapore Location TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008

Singaporean Citizenship

Table 24: Top 10* Countries to Which Singaporean Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. Singapore 3. United Kingdom 4. France 5. Australia 6. Canada 7. Germany 8. China 9. Hong Kong 10. Belgium/Japan/Switzerland Total Scores Sent 2,628 Scores Sent 1,249 834 224 120 73 47 16 12 12 8 Percent 47.53% 31.74% 8.82% 4.57% 2.78% 1.79% 0.61% 0.46% 0.46% 0.30% 100% Country 1. Singapore 2. United States 3. United Kingdom 4. France 5. Australia 6. Canada 7. Hong Kong 8. China 9. Switzerland 10. Spain Total Scores Sent TY 2008 Scores Sent 1,834 1,430 237 230 62 38 37 36 31 15 4,002 Percent 46.01% 35.88% 5.95% 5.77% 1.56% 0.95% 0.93% 0.90% 0.78% 0.38% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.0 in TY 2004; 2.6 in TY 2008.

24

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

SINGAPORE

Singaporean citizens were the only group studied in this report that sent more score reports to domestic programs when compared with international programs. In TY 2008, 46% of score reports sent by Singaporean citizens were sent to business programs located in Singapore, up from just 32% in TY 2004. This shift was accompanied by diminished market share for programs in English-speaking countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Despite sending 52% more score reports overall in TY 2008 relative to TY 2004, Singaporean examinees actually sent fewer scores to programs in Australia and Canada over this period.
Table 25: Top 10* Schools to Which Singaporean Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. National University of Singapore 2. Nanyang Technological University 3. Singapore Management University 4. Nanyang Technological University, MSc 5. Harvard University 6. INSEAD 7. Stanford University 8. University of Pennsylvania 9. Columbia University 10. London Business School
*Based on number of score reports received

TY 2008 1. Singapore Management University 2. National University of Singapore 3. Nanyang Technological University 4. INSEAD 5. Harvard University 6. Columbia University 7. Stanford University 8. University of Pennsylvania 9. University of Chicago 10. London Business School

The top four schools to which Singaporean examinees sent score reports in TY 2008 were located in Singapore. Additionally, seven of the top 10 programs were in Singapore—two of which were specialized master’s programs at Nanyang Technological University and Singapore Management University.

Table 26: Top 10* Programs to Which Singaporean Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. National University of Singapore, MBA Part Time 2. Nanyang Technological University, MBA Part Time 3. INSEAD, MBA 4. Harvard University, MBA 5. Singapore Management University, MBA Part Time 6. Nanyang Technological University, MSc Financial Engineering 7. National University of Singapore, MBA 8. Singapore Management University, MS Applied Finance 8. Columbia University, MBA 10. Stanford University, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

25

PAKISTAN

Pakistani Citizens The number of GMAT exams taken by Pakistani citizens increased to nearly 1,300 in TY 2008 after four years of stagnant growth. This represented the eighth-highest total in the Asian region and put Pakistani citizens at 21st in the world by number of GMAT tests taken in TY 2008.
Figure 12: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—Pakistan
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
1,400 1,268 1,200 1,081 1,020 1,000 1,077 1,084

800 635 600 551 483 525 521

400

200

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 Pakistan Location TY 2006 Pakistani Citizenship TY 2007 TY 2008

Table 27: Top 10* Countries to Which Pakistani Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. Canada 3. Pakistan 4. United Kingdom 5. France 6. Australia 7. Germany 8. Singapore 9. Netherlands 10. Spain Total Scores Sent 3,633 Scores Sent 2,120 540 389 348 49 46 30 16 11 9 Percent 58.35% 14.86% 10.71% 9.58% 1.35% 1.27% 0.83% 0.44% 0.30% 0.25% 100% Country 1. United States 2. Canada 3. United Kingdom 4. Pakistan 5. France 6. Singapore 7. Australia 8. United Arab Emirates 9. Netherlands 10. Switzerland Total Scores Sent 4,175 TY 2004 Scores Sent 2,602 583 481 171 91 61 59 27 15 13 Percent 62.43% 13.99% 11.54% 4.10% 2.18% 1.46% 1.41% 0.65% 0.36% 0.31% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 3.4 in TY 2004; 3.3 in TY 2008.

26

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

PAKISTAN

Testing growth by Pakistani examinees resulted in an increase of more than 500 scores sent between TY 2004 and TY 2008. Over this time, however, interest in programs located in Pakistan fell substantially. Pakistani examinees sent 11% of their score reports to domestic programs in TY 2004, compared with just 4% in TY 2008. While domestic programs lost market share, programs in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Singapore experienced gains in their proportion of score reports received from Pakistani examinees.
Table 28: Top 10* Schools to Which Pakistani Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. Lahore University of Management Sciences 2. Harvard University 3. McGill University 4. York University 5. University of Toronto 6. University of Pennsylvania 7. London Business School 8. National University of Science and Technology 9. Stanford University 10. Columbia University
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. Harvard University 2. Lahore University of Management Sciences 3. University of Pennsylvania 4. London Business School 5. University of Toronto 6. Columbia University 7. Stanford University 8. New York University 9. INSEAD 10. York University

Pakistani examinees had some of the most diverse program preferences of any group examined in this report. In TY 2008, the top 10 schools to which Pakistani examinees sent score reports spanned five countries. Pakistani citizens were attracted to domestic opportunities as well. Lahore University of Management Sciences received many score reports from Pakistani examinees in TY 2008 and ranked second overall. All of the top programs that Pakistani examinees sent scores to in TY 2008 were MBA programs.

Table 29: Top 10* Programs to Which Pakistani Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. University of Pennsylvania, MBA 2. Harvard University, MBA 3. Lahore University of Management Sciences, MBA 3. Stanford University, MBA 5. London Business School, MBA 6. University of Toronto, MBA 6. INSEAD, MBA 8. New York University, MBA 9. University of Western Ontario, MBA 10. Columbia University, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

27

INDONESIA

Indonesian Citizens The state of GMAT testing in Indonesia has been somewhat volatile over the previous five testing years and declined substantially between TY 2004 and TY 2006. While the number of exams taken by Indonesian examinees has not fully returned to TY 2004 levels, it has recovered from the lows experienced in TY 2006.
Figure 13: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—Indonesia
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
1,200 1,051 1,000 981 910 975

800

760

600 457 400 446

422 316

303

200

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 Indonesia Location TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008

Indonesian Citizenship

Table 30: Top 10* Countries to Which Indonesian Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. Netherlands 3. Singapore 4. Australia 5. United Kingdom 6. Canada 7. Belgium 8. France 9. Germany 10. India Total Scores Sent Scores Sent 2,284 154 124 118 75 61 54 40 29 22 3,060 Percent 74.64% 5.03% 4.05% 3.86% 2.45% 1.99% 1.76% 1.31% 0.95% 0.72% 100% Country 1. United States 2. Singapore 3. United Kingdom 4. Netherlands 5. Australia 6. France 7. Japan 8. Switzerland 9. Canada 10. China Total Scores Sent TY 2008 Scores Sent 1,950 351 153 96 90 87 41 33 26 25 2,908 Percent 67.38% 12.13% 5.29% 3.32% 3.11% 3.01% 1.42% 1.14% 0.90% 0.86% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 2.9 in TY 2004; 3.0 in TY 2008.

28

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

INDONESIA

The score-sending preferences among Indonesian examinees have changed significantly since TY 2004. Belgium, Germany, and India fell off their top 10 and were replaced by Japan, Switzerland, and China. Over this period, interest in programs in the United States by Indonesian citizens declined, as market share among US programs dropped from 75% in TY 2004 to 67% in TY 2008. The proportion of scores sent to the Netherlands, Australia, and Canada also declined. Substantial increases in scores sent to programs in Singapore, the United Kingdom, and France were responsible for these shifts.
Table 31: Top 10* Schools to Which Indonesian Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. University of California—Berkeley 2. Harvard University 3. University of California—Los Angeles 4. Stanford University 5. University of Texas—Austin 6. San Francisco State University 7. University of Pennsylvania 8. Northwestern University 9. National University of Singapore 10. Nanyang Technological University
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. National University of Singapore 2. Nanyang Technological University 3. Singapore Management University 4. Harvard University 5. University of California—Berkeley 6. INSEAD 7. London Business School 8. University of California—Los Angeles 9. University of Southern California 10. Columbia University

Changes to the top ten schools for score reports between TY 2004 and TY 2008 from Indonesian citizens illustrate the dynamic nature of their program preferences over this time. In TY 2004, the top eight schools were located in the United States. Just four years later, only five were in the United States and the top three were all in Singapore. All of the top programs to which Indonesian citizens sent score reports in TY 2008 were MBA programs.

Table 32: Top 10* Programs to Which Indonesian Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. Harvard University, MBA 2. National University of Singapore, MBA 3. London Business School, MBA 4. Nanyang Technological University, MBA 5. University of California—Los Angeles, MBA 6. INSEAD, MBA 7. Stanford University, MBA 8. University of California—Berkeley, MBA 9. Columbia University, MBA 10. University of Pennsylvania, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

29

VIETNAM

Vietnamese Citizens The level of Vietnamese testing has accelerated since TY 2006, increasing 59% by citizenship and 44% by candidate location over the two-year period. In addition, an increase in the average number of score reports sent per Vietnamese examinee—from 2.9 to 3.1—resulted in 62% more score reports sent in TY 2008 relative to TY 2004.
Figure 14: GMAT® Exams Taken by Citizenship and Location—Vietnam
GMAT® Exams by Citizenship and Location Testing Years TY 2004 to TY 2008
800 690

700

600 516 500 449

436

434

400 327 300 264 275 227 200 254

100

0 TY 2004 TY 2005 Vietnam Location TY 2006 TY 2007 TY 2008

Vietnamese Citizenship

Table 33: Top 10* Countries to Which Vietnamese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 Country 1. United States 2. Canada 3. United Kingdom 4. Netherlands 5. Belgium 5. Germany 5. Singapore 8. Australia 9. Japan 10. France/Thailand Total Scores Sent Scores Sent 1,105 54 26 22 16 16 16 11 10 5 1,300 Percent 85.00% 4.15% 2.00% 1.69% 1.23% 1.23% 1.23% 0.85% 0.77% 0.38% 100% Country 1. United States 2. Singapore 3. United Kingdom 4. Australia 5. Canada 6. Japan 7. Netherlands 8. France 9. Belgium 10. Germany Total Scores Sent TY 2008 Scores Sent 1,837 70 47 46 22 21 16 13 9 8 2,110 Percent 87.06% 3.32% 2.23% 2.18% 1.04% 1.00% 0.76% 0.62% 0.43% 0.38% 100%

*Based on number of score reports received; average score reports sent per examinee: 2.9 in TY 2004; 3.1 in TY 2008.

30

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

VIETNAM

Vietnamese examinees sent 87% of their score reports to programs located in the United States in TY 2008, a proportion that is up from 85% in TY 2004. Programs in Singapore and Australia also received a greater share of Vietnamese score reports, while interest in Canadian programs continued to decline. By TY 2008, only 1% of Vietnamese examinees sent their scores to Canada, down from 4% in TY 2004. Japan and Singapore were the only Asian countries represented on the top 10 for Vietnamese citizens in TY 2008.
Table 34: Top 10* Schools to Which Vietnamese Citizens Sent Score Reports
TY 2004 1. University of Houston—Clear Lake 2. Washington State University 3. California State University—Fullerton 4. San Jose State University 5. California State University—Pomona (Polytechnic) 6. University of Houston University Park 7. California State University—Long Beach 8. California State University—Hayward 9. University of Houston—Victoria 10. Texas A&M University—College Station
*Based on number of score reports received.

TY 2008 1. University of Houston—Clear Lake 2. University of Houston 3. University of California—Berkeley 4. California State University—Fullerton 5. San Jose State University 6. National University of Singapore 7. University of California—Los Angeles 8. California State University—Long Beach 9. Harvard University 10. Marshall University

With the exception of the National University of Singapore, all of the top schools to which Vietnamese citizens sent GMAT score reports in TY 2008 were located in the United States, and primarily on the West Coast. Vietnamese examinees exhibited preferences for schools that were not seen as top destinations for other Asian examinees in TY 2008. The MS Finance program at the University of Houston, Clear Lake was the only non-MBA program in the top 10 for Vietnamese citizens in TY 2008.

Table 35: Top 10* Programs to which Vietnamese Citizens Sent Score Reports in TY 2008
1. University of Houston—Clear Lake, MBA 2. University of Houston—Clear Lake, MS Finance 3. University of California—Berkeley, MBA 4. University of California—Los Angeles, MBA 5. Harvard University, MBA 6. Stanford University, MBA 7. National University of Singapore, MBA 8. California State University—Fullerton, MBA Part Time 9. San Francisco State University, MBA 10. Marshall University, MBA
*Based on number of score reports received.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

31

APPENDIX

Authorship The following individuals made significant contributions to the concept and design or analysis and interpretation of data and the drafting/revising of the manuscript for intellectual content: Alex Chisholm, Senior Research Analyst, GMAC; Courtney Defibaugh, Research Analyst, GMAC. Contact Information For questions or comments regarding study findings, methodology or data, please contact the GMAC Research and Development department at research@gmac.com. Acknowledgements Rachel Edgington, Director, Market Research and Analysis, GMAC, manuscript review; Lawrence Rudner, Vice President of Research and Development, GMAC, manuscript review; Veronica Sinz, Research Publications Manager, GMAC, editorial services. Appendix: Regional Categories
EAST AND SOUTHEAST ASIA

Brunei Cambodia China, People’s Republic Hong Kong Indonesia Japan Korea, D.P.R. of (North)

Korea, Rep. of (South) Laos Macau (SAR of China) Malaysia Maldives Myanmar (Burma) Mongolia

Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Taiwan Thailand Vietnam

*Note: The East and Southeast Asia region was labeled “Asia” in previous reports.
CENTRAL AND SOUTH ASIA

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India

Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Nepal Pakistan

Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan

*Note: The Central and South Asia region was labeled “Central Asia” in previous reports.

32

© 2009 Graduate Management Admission Council®. All rights reserved.

Asian Geographic Trend Report • 2004–2008

Get Even More Data to Inform Your Decisions
avvy graduate management education professionals use GMAC® research every day to make informed business decisions. Rich data offer customizable insights into key issues that affect your recruitment success. Detailed research reports track important trends in graduate management admissions. Here are just three of the available resources: 1. The Profile of Graduate Management Admission Test Candidates is a rich source of significant demographic data about GMAT® examinees over the past five years. It’s ideal for gauging the size and characteristics of your business school’s potential applicant pool. The book can be used to find testing volume and mean GMAT Total scores by gender, undergraduate major, location, age group, citizenship, US state, intended study pace, US subgroup, and attending institution. Free electronic copies of the Profile are available at www.gmac.com/GMATProfile. 2. The GMAC Survey Series comprises five annual or biannual surveys of individuals in the graduate management education industry. The surveys explore issues relevant to graduate management programs, prospective graduate business students, recent alumni, and corporate recruiters, offering data at various depths, depending on the desire of the user and the participation of the school. Survey reports not only provide an overview of the data, they give context for and implications of the research. These reports frequently help drive strategic decision-making processes in graduate business schools. All survey reports are available free on the Web at www.gmac.com/surveys. Contact research@gmac.com for more information on how to participate in these surveys or to request free print copies of the survey reports (while supplies last). 3. Geographic Trend Reports for GMAT Examinees compare score-sending patterns of examinees and their geographic and biographical data from the most recent testing year against data from four years earlier. First introduced as part of the Research Report Series, the Geographical Trends Reports were separated into their own series in response to requests for annual updates and specialized reports on individual regions, including Asia, Europe, and North America. Geographic Trend Reports are available free on the Web at www.gmac.com/GeographicTrends.

S

Geographic Trend Report for GMAT® Examinees
Which universities receive the most score reports from citizens of Japan? Do testing trends by location differ from testing trends by citizenship? Which citizens of Asia send the most score reports? Find out the answers to these questions and many more with this publication.
By comparing the most recent GMAT® examinee data with historical data from four years prior, the Asian Geographic Trend Report is a vital resource for admissions officers looking to increase their international applicant pool. By identifying score-sending trends based on examinee citizenship, this report lets you track changes and identify global competition for your international recruitment efforts. This data, in conjunction with the Profile of Graduate Management Admission Test Candidates and GMAT Interactive Profile, can help your school plan more effective recruitment and admission activities. If you find this Asian Geographic Trend Report helpful, you may want to explore other geographic trend reports and research publications available from GMAC®, a global nonprofit organization of leading graduate business schools and the owner of the Graduate Management Admission Test® (GMAT®).

Go to www.gmac.com to learn more about:
• World, European, and other Geographic Trend Reports • The Profile of Graduate Management Admission Test ® Candidates and the GMAT ® Interactive Profile • The GMAC ® Survey Series: Application Trends Survey, MBA Alumni Perspectives Survey, mba.com Registrants Survey, Global MBA® Graduate Survey, and Corporate Recruiters Survey

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