Rise of Monarchies
Chapter 14, Section 4
Winds of Change
During the Middle Ages, clergy and nobility
believed that if everybody obeyed the feudal
laws and the rules of the R.C. Church, the
world would become a better place.
This depended upon everyone accepting
their place in society and never questioning it.
In the 11th & 12th centuries…
Trade began to increase between Europe & the
A new group of people (burghers) grew in wealth
But burghers weren’t nobles, and they certainly
didn’t consider themselves peasants. They began
to challenge the feudal system.
Burghers began to challenge feudal laws like
serving in the noble’s army.
Burghers wanted to be independent and self-
Burghers wanted peace and protection
everywhere (so they could make more $$ in
Who do they want to take back power?
As burghers demand change…
Kings, especially in England and France began
taking back power.
Kings began to unite their people or subjects
under one central government.
Kings demanded loyalty to them, not to the feudal
The Rise of Nation-States
Although kings in different countries did
different things, they all led to one thing in the
12th & 13th centuries - the creation of nation-
A kingdom becomes a nation-state when…
It develops its own system of laws.
It hires paid government officials.
It collects taxes & enforces laws.
It has a permanent army.