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B. Herren Presentation - Bee-BOL

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					Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
       Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
                                                                 Knowing the
                                                                 taxonomy of a bee
                                                                 assists in knowing
                                                                 many aspects of its
                                                                 ecology and natural
                                                                 history - where it
                                                                 nests, for example,
                                                                 and how it may be
                                                                 affected by climate.


Bee experts are too few to provide identification services all around the
world. Furthermore, a beginner trying to identify bees faces immense
challenges.


Yet this taxonomic impediment is not insurmountable.



                     Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                            Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
1.   Needs of end-users
2.   User-friendly tools
3.   Proposed process of incorporating catalogues, keys, and barcoding
     in the Global Pollination Project
4.   Pollination Information Management System




                      Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                             Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Needs of end-users




      a. Immediate, generalised information
      b. Natural history information; nesting habits, floral associates
      c. Geographic distribution
      d. User-friendly means of identification, often only to genus.



                        Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                               Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
1. Needs of end-users: Immediate, generalised information




                      Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                             Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
1. Needs of end-users: Natural history information


                                                               Names are only important
                                                               to end-users as a means
                                                               of accessing information
                                                               on what a bee needs, to
                                                               survive:
                                                               nesting requirements,
                                                               food sources,
                                                               environmental tolerances



                      Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                             Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
1. Needs of end-users: Geographic distributions


                                                     “Pruning” identification
                                                     tools to make them
                                                     relevant to specific
                                                     locations and regions
                                                     may be the most helpful
                                                     ways to make
                                                     identification tools
                                                     relevant to end-users.


                      Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                             Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
1. Needs of end-users: User-friendly means of identification, often only
to genus
2. User-friendly tools: Web-based, illustrated identification guides




                        Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                               Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
2. User-friendly tools Web-based, illustrated identification guides




                                                                         It is possible,
                                                                         with newly
                                                                         developed tools
                                                                         to create locally
                                                                         relevant, well-
                                                                         ill ustrated
                                                                         interactive keys
                                                                         for each region
                                                                         where bee
                                                                         identifications
                                                                         are required.




                        Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                               Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
2. User-friendly tools Web-based, illustrated identification guides
                                                          Quality of illustrations
                                                          will greatly assist non-
                                                          experts to understand
                                                          diagnostic features




                        Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                               Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
2. User-friendly tools Web-based, illustrated identification guides

      Status of development of web-based, illustrated identification
      guides to Apoidea (informal survey)




                        Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                               Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
3. Proposed process of incorporating catalogues, keys, and barcoding in
     the Global Pollination Project


       “Keys are made by people who
       don’t need them, for people who
               don’t use them”
                             or something like that

                 Laurence Packer, 2008




                           Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                   Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
3. Proposed process of incorporating catalogues, keys, and barcoding in
     the Global Pollination Project


1.
        “A bee barcoding initiative is made
         by people who need it, for people
        who will use it in wise combination
         with other user-friendly tools, like
                 keys and guides”
                               or something like that




                        Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
4. Pollination Information Management System




     Pollination Information
     Management System
        What are the pollination needs of a particular crop?

        What is the current understanding of managing pollination for
        this crop?

        What studies have been carried out on the pollination of this
        crop?
        What is known about the pollinators of this crop?
        What pollinator-friendly practices can promote the
                conservation and
 management of the pollinators of
                this crop?



                          Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                  Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Crop Pollination Needs




                                                                                Klein et al.,
                                                                                2007
            Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
    Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Crop Pollination Needs

 Capsicum annuum
  Capsicum annuum
  Chili peppers
 Chilli peppers
The production of Chile peppers, C. annuum, ) increases in production
when visited by animal pollinators. Chile peppers (or red, bell or green
peppers) have a hermaphroditic, self-compatible breeding system. This
means that the flowers have both male and female parts, and can fertilise
themselves, as well as receive pollen from other flowers.

In general, Chile peppers need wind- or insect-mediated shaking to be
able to self-pollinate. In the absence of any visiting pollinators, the crop
may be capable of some passive self-pollination. The impact of animal
pollinators is estimated to be great.
Existing Knowledge Base




              Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
      Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Existing Knowledge Base




              Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
      Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
     Pollination Bibliography
Bibliographic Database:
More than 700 references on crop pollination from John
Free book;
300 references accompanying the Klein, Royal Society
paper
Bibliographic databases assembled by GEF Project
Partners in Brazil, Ghana, India, Kenya, Nepal, Pakistan
and South Africa, including grey literature and student
theses;
(around 1500 publications databased from Brazil alone)
Pollination Glossary and
Thesaurus
Allogamy;
Part of speech:
noun, singular


Definition:
fertilisation by
pollen from a
different flower


                    Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
            Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Pollination Glossary and
Thesaurus
Allogamy;                   Related                                 Autogamy;
                            Term
Part of speech:                                                     Part of speech:
noun, singular                                                      noun, singular


Definition:                                                         Definition: self-
fertilisation by                                                    fertilisation within
pollen from a                                                       a flower without
different flower                                                    the need of a
                                                                    pollinator

                    Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
            Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Pollinator Life History and
Interactions
Pesticide Toxicity to Bees
-- Review underway of the current status of information
on pesticide toxicities for pollinators


(multiple assessment systems, some purely scientific,
some regulatory-based- what are the commonalities, and
what is the best available information not just for
honeybees, but other taxa of bees?



                      Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
              Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Conclusion
Consolidating the current knowledge base on
management of pollination services, and making this
accessible to field practitioners is the first, and most
fundamental step, in building human capacity to secure
the benefits of biodiversity for improved management of
pollination services.




                     Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
             Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Acknowledgements


The International Steering Committee of the Global Pollination Project has
proposed the concept of the PIMS.


The design of the PIMS has been supported by the UNEP/GEF and the
government of Norway; Arthur Chapman (Australian Biodiversity
Information Services and Renato de Giovanni (CRIA, Brazil) have
developed the design guidelines that the FAO information technology
division are implementing.


The compilation of databases is underway through collaborations between
FAO and Rachel Kagoiya, Kenya (bibliography); University of Queensland
(glossary), University of Reading (Bee Species pages) and Oregan State
University (Pesticide Toxicity to Bees database).

                           Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
                   Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
The End
 (User)
Pollination Services
          Global Action on Pollination Services for Sustainable Agriculture
  Coordinated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

				
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posted:5/11/2013
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