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Tour of the Periodic Table •The main group elements are elements in the s and p blocks or Groups 1,2,13-18. •These elements are also called the representative elements because they have a wide range of properties. •The electron configuration of the main group elements is regular and consistent. All elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons. Group 1 • Group 1 elements have 1 valence electron • Group 1 is called the Alkali Metals • Properties of the alkali metals are: soft, shiny, very reactive, metals • The electron configuration of the outer energy level is ns1 • These elements are never found as pure elements in nature. Group 2 • Group 2 elements have 2 valence electrons • They are called the Alkaline Earth Metals • Properties of the Group 2 metals are: harder than group 1 metals, less reactive than group 1 but still very reactive metals, shiny, higher melting points than group 1. • Electron configuration of the valence electrons is ns2 • Calcium is probably the best-known element of this group. Group 17 • These elements are also called the halogens. • They are the most reactive nonmetals • Their valence electron configuration is ns2,p5, these elements tend to gain an electron to fill the p orbitals. • They exist as gases, a liquid and solids, all are diatomic molecules. F2,Cl2, I2,Br2 • They form compounds with the alkali metals readily. Group 18 • These elements are also known as the Noble Gases. • Their valence electron configuration is ns2,p6. • They are the most stable of all elements with the s and p orbitals of the outer energy level filled. • They are rarely found in compounds. Metals • ¾ of all elements are metals • Everything to the left of the zig-zag line are metals, except Hydrogen • Malleable, ductile, good conductors of heat and electricity, high melting points, mostly solids at room temperature. Transition Metals • Groups 3-12 • Orbitals being filled are the d of the previous energy level. • Fairly reactive, hard • Do not have identical outer electron configurations in a group Lanthanides and Actinides • Between groups 3 and 4 in periods 6 & 7 • Lanthanides are shiny, reactive metals, used in color tv to produce picture • Actinides are all radioactive elements and mostly man made Alloy • Mixture of a metal and another element • Steel is iron and carbon • Copper and tin is bronze and copper and zinc is brass • Yellow gold is gold and copper • White gold is gold and silver or platinum • Main purpose of using alloys is to get the desirable properties of all elements in the mixture.
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