Tour of the Periodic Table
•The main group elements are
elements in the s and p blocks or
•These elements are also called the
representative elements because they
have a wide range of properties.
•The electron configuration of the main
group elements is regular and
consistent. All elements in a group
have the same number of valence
• Group 1 elements have 1 valence electron
• Group 1 is called the Alkali Metals
• Properties of the alkali metals are:
soft, shiny, very reactive, metals
• The electron configuration of the outer
energy level is ns1
• These elements are never found as pure
elements in nature.
• Group 2 elements have 2 valence electrons
• They are called the Alkaline Earth Metals
• Properties of the Group 2 metals are:
harder than group 1 metals, less reactive than
group 1 but still very reactive metals, shiny,
higher melting points than group 1.
• Electron configuration of the valence electrons is
• Calcium is probably the best-known element
of this group.
• These elements are also called the halogens.
• They are the most reactive nonmetals
• Their valence electron configuration is ns2,p5,
these elements tend to gain an electron to fill the
• They exist as gases, a liquid and solids, all are
diatomic molecules. F2,Cl2, I2,Br2
• They form compounds with the alkali metals
• These elements are also known as the
• Their valence electron configuration is
• They are the most stable of all elements
with the s and p orbitals of the outer
energy level filled.
• They are rarely found in compounds.
• ¾ of all elements are metals
• Everything to the left of the zig-zag line are
metals, except Hydrogen
• Malleable, ductile, good conductors of
heat and electricity, high melting points,
mostly solids at room temperature.
• Groups 3-12
• Orbitals being filled are the d of the
previous energy level.
• Fairly reactive, hard
• Do not have identical outer electron
configurations in a group
Lanthanides and Actinides
• Between groups 3 and 4 in periods 6 & 7
• Lanthanides are shiny, reactive metals,
used in color tv to produce picture
• Actinides are all radioactive elements and
mostly man made
• Mixture of a metal and another element
• Steel is iron and carbon
• Copper and tin is bronze and copper and
zinc is brass
• Yellow gold is gold and copper
• White gold is gold and silver or platinum
• Main purpose of using alloys is to get the
desirable properties of all elements in the