Tour Of The Cell by yurtgc548

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									Tour Of The Cell
      Part I
                         I. Overview
   Protein production
       Nucleus
       Ribosomes
   Cytomembrane System (Endomembrane System)
       Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
       Golgi Complex (Apparatus)
       Lysosome and other Vacuoles
       Plasma Membrane
   The Energy Converters
       Mitochondria
       Chloroplasts
   Structural Support (The Cytoskeleton)
               II. Protein Production
   A. Nucleus
       Surround by nuclear
        envelope (with pores)
            Dual membrane system
       Contains
            Chromatin (unwound
             DNA)
            Chromosomes – structures
             built before replication
            Nucleolus – Makes the
             materials need to build
             ribosomes
               II. Protein Production
   B. Ribosome
       Synthesizes proteins
            Proteins will either be excreted or stay in cell
     No outer membrane
     Free floating or bound
        III. Endomembrane System
   A. Endoplasmic Reticulum
       Two types:
          Rough ER – make, package, and sometimes alter proteins
           for secretion (has ribosomes)
          Smooth ER - synthesis of lipids, metabolism of
           carbohydrates, detoxification of poisons (no ribosomes)
                Has many enzymes in it
        III. Endomembrane System
   B. Golgi Complex (The cells shipping
    department)
     Modifies (with sugars), packages, and stores ER
      proteins
     one side receives, other side ships by means of
      pinching off vessicles
     Manufactures some other macromolecules

     Prominent in cell specialized for secretion
        III. Endomembrane System
   C. Vacuoles
     Membrane bound sacs
     Various types/functions
         Storage
         Food

         Contractile

         Central
        III. Endomembrane System
   D. Lysosomes (the cells stomach)
       Contains hydrolytic enzymes (nasty buggers)
            Breaks down carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic
             acids (hmmm….what’s left)
     Maintains low pH by forcing H+ ions in
     Hydrolytic enzymes won’t work in neutral pH like
      the cell interior (phew!)
     Prominent in white blood cells
     Also used for eating (phagocytosis)
     Cue Movie
        III. Endomembrane System
                 (Kind of)
   E. Peroxysomes
     Neutralize poisons (including alcohol)
     Carry out metabolic activities

     Produces H2O2 (why you need catalayze)
               IV. Energy Converters
   A. Mitochondria
        Site of cellular respiration (ATP production)
        Found in all eukaryotic cells
        Contain own DNA (from your mother) to control protein synthesis within its
         ribosomes
        Two membrane system
        Sites of energy release – ATP formation occurs along the inner membrane folds –
         cristae (perfect example of form and function)
        Similar to bacteria (coincidence…I THINK NOT)
             IV. Energy Converters
   Chloroplast
       Only found in photosynthetic eukaryotes
       Two outer membranes
       Semifluid stroma
       Inner thylakoid membrane system of grana filled with photosynthetic
        pigments
       Purpose is to convert sun’s energy (light) into chemical energy (glucose)
        through photosynthesis

								
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