United Arab Emirates - OpenNet Initiative-ag by yaofenji

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									                                                                                            2009


Internet Filtering in the

United Arab
Emirates
Overview                                             Authorities have exerted censorial
The government of the United Arab                    pressure on a wide range of activists,
Emirates (UAE) censors political and                 impeding the kind of vigorous monitoring
religious content and pervasively filters            and reporting that can draw attention to
Web sites that contain pornography or                and help curb human rights abuses. 2
content relating to alcohol and drug use,            Although the Prime Minister decreed in
gay and lesbian issues, or online dating             2007 that journalists should not face
or gambling. Online privacy and                      prison for “for reasons related to their
circumvention tools, as well as some                 work,” current media law allows
sites belonging to Nazis or historical               imprisonment of journalists and
revisionists, are blocked. Additionally,             suspension of publication for publishing
legal controls limit free expression and             “materials that cause confusion among
behavior, restricting political discourse            the public.” The government monitors
and dissent online.                                  press content, and journalists routinely
                                                     exercise self-censorship.3
Background                                                Though the emirate of Dubai has
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a                  established itself as a regional and
federation of seven emirates formed in               international hub for media by creating a
1971 after independence from Britain.                media zone authority that allows 100%
Each emirate maintains a large degree                foreign ownership and offers tax breaks.
of independence, and the UAE is                      ONI test results show that the Internet is
governed by a Supreme Council of                     filtered in this hub, and there are reports
Rulers consisting of the seven emirs of              of other forms of censorship.4 For
the emirates. Though the UAE is one of               example, Dubai authorities interrupted
the most liberal countries in the Gulf, it           the broadcast of two Pakistani TV
was until December 2006 the only state               stations, Geo News and Ary One World,
in the region not to have elected                    in November 2007. Geo News said the
bodies.1                                             decision resulted from constant
    The UAE’s economy continues to                   pressure by then Pakistani President
grow, but civil society is stagnate and              Pervez Musharraf, who had at the time
human rights progress has been slow.                 implemented a “state of emergency.”5

RESULTS AT A GLANCE
                    No evidence     Suspected         Selective      Substantial     Pervasive
Filtering            of filtering    filtering         filtering      filtering       filtering
Political                                                                
Social                                                                                  
Conflict/security                                         
Internet tools                                                                          

Other factors           Low          Medium             High       Not applicable
Transparency                            
Consistency                                               


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                                                                                                2009


KEY INDICATORS
                                                                  worst                                 best
GNI per capita, PPP (current international $)……………………...25,514    …………………          ……
Life expectancy at birth (years)……………………………………………….78.3                                                 …
Literacy rate (% of people age 15+)…………………………………………88.7           ……                                …
Human development index (out of 177)…………………………………..…39                                              …
Rule of law (percentile)……………………………………………………………..70                                             …
Voice and accountability (percentile)……………………………………….…23                  ……
Digital opportunity index (out of 181)……..………………………………….37        .                         .
Internet users (% of population)…………………….………………..............64   .                     .


Dubai allowed the two stations to                    billion which offers voice, data and
resume broadcasting later following                  entertainment on mobile networks and
negotiations with the Pakistani                      converged broadband, TV, and landline
government and Dubai Media City.6                    services.11
                                                          Competition in the broadband
Internet in the United Arab Emirates                 Internet market is limited because the
    The UAE continues to lead the Arab               two ISPs still do not share each other’s
world in adoption of information and                 networks, and Du is still unable to offer
communication technology, according to               broadband Internet or landline
a World Economic Forum report,7 and is               telephone services outside of a handful
expected to spend about $3.3 billion on              of property developments in Dubai
information technology and                           where it owns the physical telephone
communications hardware for schools,                 network.12 Because Etisalat has been
hospitals and other civil projects                   the sole telecom company for 30 years,
between 2008 and 2011.8                              it owns the national telephone network,
    According to the Internet                        based on both copper wire and new
Telecommunication Union, Internet                    fiber-optic cables.13
penetration in the UAE has increased                      In an effort to increase the number of
from 36 percent in 2006 to an                        visitors to Arabic Web sites and promote
estimated 64 percent in 2008.9 The                   and strengthen the UAE's identity, in
Arab Advisors Group states account                   March 2009 the UAE’s Ministerial
penetration to be at approximately 25                Council for Services approved a proposal
percent. ADSL/broadband accounts                     by the TRA to put the UAE country code
penetration of total population reached              top-level domain in Arabic (Emarat). The
around 11 percent by end of 2008. By                 proposal is part of the TRA’s efforts to
end of October 2008, Etisalat's ADSL                 create a national plan for operating the
accounts constituted around 36 percent               Internet in Arabic.14
of the operator's total fixed lines.10
    Etisalat remains the dominant                    Legal and regulatory frameworks
telecom provider, but in the interest of             A new draft media law is expected to be
competition, the UAE's                               issued in 2009. The highest media
Telecommunications Regulatory                        organization in the UAE, the National
Authority (TRA) facilitated the launch of            Media Council (NMC), says the draft law
the Emirates Integrated                              provides unprecedented provisions that
Telecommunications Company, named                    protect and promote freedom of
Du. Established in 2007, Du is an                    expression in the country. It also says
integrated telecommunications provider               the draft law “provides journalists
formed by a paid-up capital of USD 1.1               freedom from coercion to reveal


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sources, reflecting the government's              regulatory and policy framework.19 The
commitment to the journalistic right to           TRA is responsible for producing the
protect sources; in this particular regard,       Internet Access Management (IAM)
the pending law's protection exceeds              policy, which outlines prohibited online
that of many advanced democracies,                content categories for ISPs. These
including the United States.”15                   categories include: Internet tools for
     The pending law, passed by the               bypassing blocked content; content for
Federal National Council in January               learning criminal skills and illegal drugs;
2009, was rejected by the UAE                     content containing pornography and
Journalists Association because,                  nudity; gambling sites; sites for hacking
according to the association’s chairman,          and malicious codes; content offensive
“It has nothing to do with the concept of         to religions, phishing Internet sites;
media; it contains 45 articles which              Internet content that downloads
don't provide a proper description of the         spyware; Web sites providing unlicensed
media's duties and rights. Similarly,             voice over Internet protocol (VoIP)
there are 10 articles which talk about            service; terrorism content; and
penalties and punishments.”16                     prohibited top level domain,20 apparently
     International advocacy groups have           a reference to the top level domain of
also expressed concerns over the draft            Israel (.il), which is blocked in the UAE.
law. Human Rights Watch (HRW) says                    The UAE government has issued a
the pending draft law unlawfully restricts        federal law on combating cybercrimes.
free expression and will unduly interfere         Cyber-Crime Law No. 2 of 2006
with the media's ability to report on             considers any intentional act that
sensitive subjects, and that it includes          abolishes, destroys, or reveals secrets,
provisions that would grant the                   or that results in the republishing of
government virtually complete control in          personal or official information to be a
deciding who is allowed to work as a              crime. Individuals may be imprisoned for
journalist, as well as which media                using the Internet to defame Islamic
organizations are allowed to operate in           places of worship and traditions, insult
the country. HRW also says that the new           any recognized religion, or promote
law contains some improvement over                “sinful acts.” Anyone convicted of
the draconian media law currently in              “transcending family principles and
effect, but will continue to punish               values” or setting up a Web site for
journalists for such infractions as               groups “calling for, facilitating, and
“disparaging” government officials or             promoting ideas in breach of the general
publishing “misleading” news that                 order and public decency” may be jailed.
“harms the country's economy.”17                  21

     The Committee to Protect Journalists             In August 2007, a court in the
has also expressed concern over the               Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah sentenced
draft law in a letter they sent to the            the creator of Web site majan.net to one
President of the UAE urging him to reject         year in prison and a fine for defaming a
the law in its current form because, if           local official. The court also ordered the
passed, “it will negatively impact the            site to be shut down. In September, the
state of press freedom in the UAE.”18             same individual received a five-month
     The telecommunication services in            prison sentence and a fine in a second
the UAE are regulated by the TRA, which           defamation case involving another local
was established in 2003 by a Federal              official but was released on bail at the
Law and is tasked with ensuring                   end of September 2007. Two months
adequacy of telecommunications                    later, his two prison sentences were
services throughout the country and               overturned by an appeals court after
establishing and implementing a                   defamation complaints were withdrawn


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by the officials. In the end, he received a       make cheap international calls.
one-year suspended prison sentence                Violators have been prosecuted. For
after being convicted in a third                  example, a police officer in the emirate
defamation case.22                                of Ras Al Khaimah warned several
     In April 2009, the chief of Dubai’s          Internet café owners against the use of
police force denied allegations that the          “illegal calling cards” for making
Dubai Police had asked UAE’s                      inexpensive international phone calls.
Telecommunication Regulatory Authority            Several violating cafés were referred to
to censor Web sites which contain any of          the public prosecution for
500 objectionable keywords. Earlier               investigation.27
reports said the head of the Doha Media
Freedom Center claimed that the Dubai             Surveillance
Police had developed a list of 500                The authorities have established
keywords, by which access to certain              committees and electronic surveillance
Web sites would be blocked.23 The                 departments to monitor objectionable
police chief stated that the government           Internet activities. For example, a
does not attempt to censor Web sites              government committee was established
critical to the UAE and that the 500              in March 2009 to monitor Internet cafés
search terms designed to shield UAE               in order to ensure that Internet
Internet users against pornographic               connections in these cafés do not
content were proposed by the                      bypass filtering regimes set up by the
telecommunication regulators                      two national ISPs as per the regulations
themselves, not the Dubai Police.24               of the TRA. This move was in response to
     This denial came shortly after               speculations that some Internet cafés
Dubai’s police chief called for the               provide unfiltered Internet connections
blocking of video-sharing site YouTube            using Virtual Private Networks.28
because, he said, the site contains                    Also, an online surveillance team was
religiously inappropriate content. He also        set up by Dubai police to carry out
said that the site contains indecent              around-the-clock checks on the Internet.
material that influences the young                The team, known as e-police,
people towards delinquency. He added              investigated a total of 222 cases in
that disseminating pornography and                2008. The cases include 87 involving
offensive content is not freedom and              fraud and other financial crimes, 38
that content offered to users in the Arab         cases of illegal hacking and 92 cases of
and Muslim countries should be                    defamation and extortion. The electronic
different from that offered to users in           patrol team has set up special forums
the West because they have different              and used assumed names in an attempt
cultures. Hence, content should be                to collect information about potential
filtered centrally because it is very             criminal activity.29 This online
difficult for families to monitor Internet        surveillance department announced in
use at home.25                                    April 2009 that it managed to track
     YouTube and Google have denied               down and later arrest women who
that they are engaged in plans to censor          promote their sex services and publicize
online content in the UAE. 26                     their Dubai phone numbers online. In
     Although Etisalat and Du conform to          addition, the surveillance team
the TRA policies by automatically                 announced that it managed to track
blocking Web sites which offer free Voice         down individuals who offer inexpensive
over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services,           illegal VoIP services from their
individuals - including Internet café             apartments.30
owners - have found ways of getting
around the ban by using the Internet to


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                                                                                         2009


ONI testing results                               found to be accessible and inaccessible
ONI testing in 2008-2009 revealed that            at different times.
UAE censors have increased the scope                  The UAE censors are also apparently
and depth of Internet filtering since             sensitive to content that is critical of the
2006-2007.                                        state of the local economy or the society.
     One of the significant policy shifts         For example, the censors blocked
that happened during ONI testing is the           access to the Arabic UAE blog Mujarad
implementation of TRA-mandated                    Ensan (Arabic for “Just a man”) a few
filtering by the ISP Du, which used to            days after the anonymous blogger
offer unfettered access to the Internet in        published a post sarcastically titled
the Dubai free zones including Dubai              “Laugh with me and say: Our economy is
Media City, Dubai Internet City, and the          in a good condition.” In the text of the
residential areas affiliated with the free        blog post, he accused the UAE
zones. Du began filtering on April 14,            government of lacking transparency
2008; ONI test results show that its              when dealing with the current US
filtering is almost as extensive as that of       economic crisis, and the local papers of
the other national ISP Etisalat, which has        lying about the real status of the local
the lion’s share of the Internet user             economy. The writer also accused
market.                                           government-owned real estate
     The two ISPs were found to block             companies of publishing exaggerated
Web sites that express alternative                information about business deals to
political or religious views. For example,        create the impression that the local
in addition to blocking UAEprison.com, a          economy has not been negatively
site hosting testimonials of former               effective by the US financial crisis. 34 The
prisoners and critiques of the                    blog became accessible a few days later
government’s human rights practices,              for unknown reasons.
and the site of the U.S.-based Arab                   Another example is the blocking of
Times (arabtimes.com), ONI found that             the blog Secret Dubai Diary
the censors blocked the Web site called           (secretdubai.blogspot.com), which was
“Save Zack Shahin”                                also found blocked in earlier testing. This
(www.savezackshahin.com), an online               blog is apparently blocked because it
campaign calling for the release of U.S.          offers critical review of social life in UAE.
citizen Zack Shahin from a UAE prison.                Similar to earlier testing results,
The site encourages Americans to send             several sites presenting unorthodox
letters to members of Congress to help            perspectives on Islam (thekoran.com,
Shahin. Shahin is a former chief                  islamreview.com, secularislam.org) were
executive of a Dubai property developer           blocked, along with a handful of sites
and was charged, together with a former           promoting minority faiths (albrhan.org,
UAE minister, in April 2009 with seizing          ansarweb.net). Among the few sites
public money and harming state                    considered “extremist” that are filtered
interest.31                                       in the UAE: hinduunity.org, a site
     Another example is the blocking of           advocating Hindu solidarity and
the site UAE Torture (uaetorture.com),            resistance to Islam, and
which posted video clips of a UAE royal           kahanetzadak.com, a site devoted to the
family member allegedly torturing an              founder of the militant Jewish Defense
Afghan businessman. The story drew the            League.
attention of international media such as              ONI testing shows that the censors
ABC,32 as well as human rights                    have expanded the filtering in these
advocates such as Human Rights                    categories to include previously
Watch.33 Blocking of this site has been           accessible Web sites such as the
inconsistent however, and it has been             presumably UAE-based atheist blogs Ben


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                                                                                         2009


Kerishan, (benkerishan.blogspot.com),               the UAE in June 2008, apparently
The Land of Sand (thelandofsands.com),              because it was categorized as a dating
and Ben Short (benshort.blogspot.com).              site in the database of Secure
Also currently blocked are Wikipedia                Computing, a commercial filtering
pages which contain information about               product. The UAE uses SmartFilter, a
religiously sensitive content such as the           product of Secure Computing, to block
film Fitna, produced by Dutch politician            access to various content categories
Geert Wilders and considered offensive              including dating, porn, sex, and
to Islam, and the Wikipedia page about              gambling.36 Secure Computing was
the Islamic prophet Muhammad,                       acquired by McAfee in 2008.37 Access
possibly because the page displays                  to the site was restored a few weeks
drawings of the Prophet, considered                 later.
offensive to most Muslims.                               Similar to earlier testing results,
     In March 2009, the censors blocked             recent ONI testing revealed pervasive
access to the Web site Ahmed and Salim              filtering of pornographic and gay and
(ahmedandsalim.com), an Israeli Web                 lesbian sites. Results also reveal
site which posted video episodes                    blocking of previously accessible Arabic
considered offensive to Arabs and                   forums, which are commonly used to
Muslims. The UAE has also blocked                   facilitate the exchange of Arabic explicit
access to the YouTube pages where the               content.
video clips appear.                                      Compared to earlier testing, fewer
     The UAE's TRA ordered the blocking             Web pages relating to sexual health
of the Web site and the YouTube links               education were found to be blocked. For
only a few days after the content                   example, previously filtered sites such as
appeared online, apparently because, in             circumcision.org and sexualhealth.com
addition to the content perceived                   were found accessible, though other
offensive to Islam, one of the characters           sites in the same categories are still
is dressed in traditional Gulf attire, and          blocked. Some Web sites containing
the UAE flag appears in several                     provocative attire (lingerie.com) were
scenes.35                                           still filtered. Sites promoting alcohol and
     Interestingly, several Web sites that          drug use or facilitating online gambling
present information on Nazism,                      or dating were also blocked in large
Holocaust deniers, and historical                   numbers, and many Arabic-language
revisionists were found to be blocked               dating sites or sites that target singles
during testing. These include the Web               living the Middle East
site hitler.org and that of the Institute for       (www.arablounge.com,
Historical Review's publishing arm                  www.gaymiddleeast.com/country/uaemi
(http://www.noontidepress.com). Also                rates.htm) have been added to the
blocked was the Web site vdare.com,                 blacklist. Nudity, even if in an artistic
which is often described as anti-Semitic.           context and non-erotic, is censored (an
Meanwhile, the state continues to block             example is the Arabic magazine
access to all sites on the Israeli country          http://www.jasadmag.com).
code top-level domain “.il.”                             Internet tools, including those that
     ONI testing reveals that the UAE               facilitate hacking (thesecretlist.com),
filters still target social networking sites,       anonymizer (anonymizer.com) sites,
video and photo sharing sites,                      translation (Google Web site translator,
bookmarking services, and blogging                  not the text translator) remain blocked.
services. However, filtering of these sites         Similarly, numerous VoIP sites
has not been consistent. For example,               (Skype.com, pc2call.com) were still
Livejournal.com, a free service for                 blocked in accordance with the national
journaling and blogging, was blocked in             ban on such applications.


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                                                                                          2009


    In October 2006, the UAE unblocked            NOTES
access to several social networking and
multimedia sharing sites, including               1 “Country profile: United Arab Emirates,”
youtube.com, flickr.com, metacafé.com,               BBC News, March 11, 2009,
and myspace.com. However, sections of                http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/
these sites containing objectionable                 country_profiles/737620.stm.
                                                  2 Human Rights Watch, “United Arab
material remain unavailable. The photo-
                                                     Emirates Events of 2007,”
sharing site flickr.com was later blocked
                                                     http://hrw.org/englishwr2k8/docs/2008/
entirely.                                            01/31/uae17622.htm.
                                                  3 Human Rights Watch, “United Arab
Conclusion                                           Emirates (UAE): Events of 2008,”
The UAE continues to prevent its citizens            http://www.hrw.org/en/world-report-
from accessing a significant amount of               2009/united-arab-emirates-uae.
Internet content spanning a variety of            4 “Country profile: United Arab Emirates,”

topics. Though the vast majority of sites            BBC News, March 11, 2009,
filtered are those deemed obscene in                 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/
some way, a select few political sites are           country_profiles/737620.stm.
                                                  5 Reporters Without Borders, “Dubai Urged
blocked, as are some pertaining to
                                                     to Reverse Decision, Taken Under
Nazis, Holocaust denial and historical               Pressure from Musharraf, to Suspend
revision. The entire “.il” top-level domain          Broadcasting by Two Pakistani TV
continues to be blocked as well, which is            Stations,” November 17, 2007,
more indicative of the UAE’s opposition              http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article
to the state of Israel than to content               =24415.
contained therein.                                6 Lynne Roberts, “Pakistan TV to resume

     Additionally, the state has extended            Dubai broadcasts,” Arabian Business,
its filtering scheme to the Dubai free               November 19, 2007,
zones, which previously enjoyed                      http://www.arabianbusiness.com/50430
unfettered Internet access, and has                  2-pakistan-tv-to-resume-dubai-broadcasts.
                                                  7 Tom Gara, “UAE leads region in IT, says
increased the depth of technical filtering,
                                                     report,” The National, April 16, 2009,
blocking more sites across broader
                                                     http://www.thenational.ae/article/20090
categories.                                          416/BUSINESS/448045865/-1/ART.
     The UAE now employs SmartFilter              8 “UAE will Spend $3.3b in IT and
software to block content related to                 Communications,” Khaleej Times, March
nudity, sex, dating, gambling,                       19, 2009,
cults/occult, religious conversion, and              http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArtic
drugs. Sites pertaining to anonymizer                leNew.asp?col=&section=business&xfile=
tools, hacking, translation tools (as                data/business/2009/March/business_M
these have been used as proxies), and                arch818.xml.
                                                  9 ITU Internet Indicators 2008,
VoIP applications are also filtered in this
manner.                                              http://www.itu.int/ITU-
                                                     D/icteye/Reporting/ShowReportFrame.as
     Lastly, there are government efforts            px?ReportName=/WTI/InformationTechnol
to monitor Internet activities in public             ogyPublic&RP_intYear=2008&RP_intLang
Internet cafés to ensure connections                 uageID=1
provided there do not bypass national             10 Arab Advisors Group, “Cementing its
filtering. Electronic surveillance to                stance as the Arab World's Internet leader,
monitor objectionable online activities is           the UAE's ADSL penetration reached
publically acknowledged by the                       around 11% by end of 2008,” March 16,
authorities.                                         2009,
                                                     http://www.arabadvisors.com/Pressers/pr
                                                     esser-160309.htm-1.




                                              7
                                                                                          2009



11 UAE Interact, “United Arab Emirates                April 2009,
  Yearbook 2007: Infrastructure,”                     http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArtic
  http://www.uaeinteract.com/uaeint_misc/             le08.asp?xfile=/data/theuae/2009/April/
  pdf_2008/English_2008/eyb6.pdf.                     theuae_April599.xml&section=theuae.
12 Tom Gara, “du relies on network sharing          25 “Call to Blank Out YouTube in Emirates

  to compete,” The National, April 24, 2009,          Too,” Khaleej Times, March 10, 2009,
  http://www.thenational.ae/article/20090             http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArtic
  425/BUSINESS/704249787/1005.                        leNew.asp?col=&section=theuae&xfile=da
13 Ibid.                                              ta/theuae/2009/March/theuae_March23
14 “Ministerial Council passes UAE domain in          9.xml.
  Arabic,” WAM, March 1, 2009,                      26 Ahmed Shaaban, “Police ‘Play No Role’ in

  http://www.wam.org.ae/servlet/Satellite?            Censorship: Tamim,” Khaleej Times, April
  c=WamLocEnews&cid=1235660774085                     25, 2009,
  &p=1135099400124&pagename=WAM%                      http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArtic
  2FWamLocEnews%2FW-T-LEN-FullNews.                   le08.asp?xfile=/data/theuae/2009/April/
15 “UAE National Media Council welcomes all           theuae_April599.xml&section=theuae.
  debates on draft media law,” Gulf News,           27 Asma Ali Zain and Sebugwaawo Ismail,
  April 13, 2009,                                     “Cyber cafes work around the ban to
  http://www.gulfnews.com/nation/Media/               provide VoIP services,” Khaleej Times,
  10303708.html.                                      April 2, 2008,
16 Alia Al Theeb, “Draft media law:                   http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArtic
  Journalists ‘will insist on changes,’” Gulf         leNew.asp?xfile=data/theuae/2008/April
  News, April 28, 2009,                               /theuae_April39.xml&section=theuae&col
  http://www.gulfnews.com/nation/Media/               =.
  10308566.html.                                    28 “Shisha and internet cafes scrutinised,”
17 Human Rights Watch, “UAE: Media Law                The National, March 08, 2009
  Undermines Free Expression,” April 13,              http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/
  2009,                                               article?AID=/20090308/NATIONAL/1134
  http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/04/1                39722/-1/NEWS.
  3/uae-media-law-undermines-free-                  29 Andy Sambidge, “Dubai's e-police probe

  expression.                                         222 internet crime cases,” Arabian
18 Committee to Protect Journalists, “CPJ             Business, October 30, 2008,
  concerned about UAE draft media law,”               http://www.arabianbusiness.com/53655
  March 9, 2009,                                      6-dubais-e-police-probe-222-internet-
  http://cpj.org/2009/03/cpj-concerned-               crime-cases.
  about-uae-draft-media-law.php.                    30 “Esabah takhtalis almukalamat
19 Telecommunications Regulatory Authority            aldawliyah wa fatayat yorawijna lilda’ara
  (TRA), http://www.tra.org.ae.                       [Internet gangs steal international calls,
20 Internet Access Management (IAM) policy,           girls market their sex services online],”
  http://www.etisalat.ae/assets/document/             Emaratalyoum, April 15, 2009,
  blockcontent.pdf.                                   http://www.emaratalyoum.com/articles/2
21 “UAE cyber crimes law,” Gulf News,                 009/4/pages/14042009/04152009_4a
  November 2, 2007,                                   6c7e4ba0894c5bb31fe02a74c60295.as
  http://archive.gulfnews.com/uae/uaessen             px.
  tials/more_stories/10018507.html.                 31 “Dubai Attorney General refers suspects
22 Amnesty International Report 2008: UAE,            in Deyaar case to courts,” WAM, April 8,
  http://thereport.amnesty.org/eng/regions            2009,
  /middle-east-and-north-africa/uae.                  http://www.wam.org.ae/servlet/Satellite?
23 “Dahi dismisses web policing allegations,”         c=WamLocEnews&cid=1238851046552
  Gulf News, April 23, 2009                           &p=1135099400124&pagename=WAM%
http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/09/04            2FWamLocEnews%2FW-T-LEN-FullNews.
  /24/10307260.html.                                32 Vic Walter et al., “ABC News Exclusive:
24 Ahmed Shaaban, “Police ‘Play No Role’ in           Torture Tape Implicates UAE Royal
  Censorship: Tamim,” Khaleej Times, 25               Sheikh,” ABC News, April 22, 2009,



                                                8
                                                     2009



  http://www.abcnews.go.com/Blotter/story
  ?id=7402099&page=1.
33 Human Rights Watch, “UAE: Prosecute

  Torture by Royal Family Member,” April 28,
  2009,
  http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2009/04/2
  8/uae-prosecute-torture-royal-family-
  member.
34 Reporters Without Borders, “Popular blog

  accessible again,” October 22, 2008,
  http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article
  =29017.
35 Dominic von Riedemann, “UAE Blocks

  Ahmed and Salim Cartoon,” Suite 101,
  http://online-animated-
  films.suite101.com/article.cfm/uae_block
  s_ahmed_and_salim_cartoon.
36 OpenNet Initiative Blog, “A Blind-date with

  the Censors in UAE,” June 20, 2008,
  http://opennet.net/blog/2008/06/a-
  blind-date-with-censors-uae.
37 “McAfee, Inc. Completes Acquisition of

  Secure Computing,” November 18, 2008,
  http://www.mcafee.com/us/about/press/
  corporate/2008/20081118_120000_j.ht
  ml.




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