1st Civilizations Chapter 2 by dffhrtcv3

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									1st Civilizations
   Chapter 2

   World History
   Mr. Holguin
         Student Objectives
 Students will be able to identify the events
  that marked the development of Egyptian
  civilization.
 Students will explain how the kingdoms
  developed and collapsed.
 Students will describe how the Egyptians
  developed art, religion, farming, and
  trade.
       Objectives Continued
 Students will identify and describe the
  achievements of the Sumerian empire.
 Students will characterize Sumer and
  Babylon.
 Students will describe the development of
  the Hebrew people.
            Egypt – The Nile
 Nile River- The
  longest river in the
  world at 4,160 miles.
 The Nile’s floods were
  very predictable
  which made farming
  easier.
 The Nile’s minerals
  also made for fertile
  soil.
               Ancient Egypt
 By 3000 B.C. the
  Egyptians had
  developed
  Hieroglyphics.
 They developed a
  record keeping
  system on papyrus.
 Hieroglyphics were
  first read in 1793 with
  the discovery of the
  Rosetta Stone.
Rosetta Stone
                 Kingdoms
 Egypt was once
  divided into upper
  and lower kingdoms.
 In 3200 BC, Menes
  united both regions
  and began a dynasty.
 As time passed, rulers
  were called Pharaohs
  who had absolute
  power.
        Old, Middle, and New
 Old Kingdom 2680-
  2180 BC – The Sphinx
  and the larger
  pyramids were built.
 Middle Kingdom-
  2050-1650 BC- A
  nomadic group called
  the Hyksos arrived in
  Egypt and disrupted
  order.
     New Kingdom 1570-1080 BC
   Hatshepsut- One of the
    1st known female rulers.
   Thutmose III- Improved
    trade for Egypt.
   Amenhotep IV- Tried to
    convert Egypt to
    monotheism
   Ramses II- Constructed
    many temples and
    monuments.
               Egyptian Life
 They believed in
  many gods and
  mummification.
 Peasants farmed
  cotton, wheat, barley,
  but most of the crops
  went to the pharaoh.
 The Sumerians (5000 BC-4000BC)
 The Sumerians were
  farming people who
  lived in the fertile
  crescent.
 They developed a
  writing system called
  Cuneiform with
  picture symbols.
 They used arches to
  support their
  ziggurats.
The Fertile Crescent
        Sumerian Structure
 Government- City-states were not united
  and kings and priests were at the top of
  the social structure.
 Farming- Farming was prosperous enough
  to allow for artisans and traders.
 Education- Only upper class boys went to
  school.
 Religion- Polytheistic, believed in
  underworld.
New empires in the Fertile Crescent
 Akkadians –
  conquered the
  Sumerians in 2330
  BC.
 Sargon ruled as the
  most powerful
  Akkadian king.
         Babylonians -1792 BC
 The Babylonians
  conquered the
  Akkadians under the
  rule of Hammurabi.
 The Code of
  Hammurabi was 281
  laws that ruled over
  Babylonian daily life.
 Culture and religion
  was similar to the
  Sumerians.
            More Conquering
 The Hittites- invaded      The Assyrians- They
  the Fertile Crescent in     were a warrior group
  the 1600s BC. They          who terrorized their
  were some of the first      foes.
  to smelt iron.             The Persians- 539 BC-
 They conquered and          Held a massive
  looted the city of          empire from India to
  Babylon                     Greece.
             Asia Minor (Turkey)
   The Phoenicians-
    Specialized in trade and
    sailing. Developed the
    Phoenician Alphabet
    which serves as the roots
    for western alphabets.
   The Lydians- developed a
    empire that ran a money
    economy in what is
    present day Turkey.
            The Hebrews
 Abraham was the biblical founder of the
  Hebrew people.
 The Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt and
  led out by Moses in a mass exodus.
 The Hebrews founded Israel.
 The Torah is their holy book.

								
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