1st Civilizations Chapter 2 World History Mr. Holguin Student Objectives Students will be able to identify the events that marked the development of Egyptian civilization. Students will explain how the kingdoms developed and collapsed. Students will describe how the Egyptians developed art, religion, farming, and trade. Objectives Continued Students will identify and describe the achievements of the Sumerian empire. Students will characterize Sumer and Babylon. Students will describe the development of the Hebrew people. Egypt – The Nile Nile River- The longest river in the world at 4,160 miles. The Nile’s floods were very predictable which made farming easier. The Nile’s minerals also made for fertile soil. Ancient Egypt By 3000 B.C. the Egyptians had developed Hieroglyphics. They developed a record keeping system on papyrus. Hieroglyphics were first read in 1793 with the discovery of the Rosetta Stone. Rosetta Stone Kingdoms Egypt was once divided into upper and lower kingdoms. In 3200 BC, Menes united both regions and began a dynasty. As time passed, rulers were called Pharaohs who had absolute power. Old, Middle, and New Old Kingdom 2680- 2180 BC – The Sphinx and the larger pyramids were built. Middle Kingdom- 2050-1650 BC- A nomadic group called the Hyksos arrived in Egypt and disrupted order. New Kingdom 1570-1080 BC Hatshepsut- One of the 1st known female rulers. Thutmose III- Improved trade for Egypt. Amenhotep IV- Tried to convert Egypt to monotheism Ramses II- Constructed many temples and monuments. Egyptian Life They believed in many gods and mummification. Peasants farmed cotton, wheat, barley, but most of the crops went to the pharaoh. The Sumerians (5000 BC-4000BC) The Sumerians were farming people who lived in the fertile crescent. They developed a writing system called Cuneiform with picture symbols. They used arches to support their ziggurats. The Fertile Crescent Sumerian Structure Government- City-states were not united and kings and priests were at the top of the social structure. Farming- Farming was prosperous enough to allow for artisans and traders. Education- Only upper class boys went to school. Religion- Polytheistic, believed in underworld. New empires in the Fertile Crescent Akkadians – conquered the Sumerians in 2330 BC. Sargon ruled as the most powerful Akkadian king. Babylonians -1792 BC The Babylonians conquered the Akkadians under the rule of Hammurabi. The Code of Hammurabi was 281 laws that ruled over Babylonian daily life. Culture and religion was similar to the Sumerians. More Conquering The Hittites- invaded The Assyrians- They the Fertile Crescent in were a warrior group the 1600s BC. They who terrorized their were some of the first foes. to smelt iron. The Persians- 539 BC- They conquered and Held a massive looted the city of empire from India to Babylon Greece. Asia Minor (Turkey) The Phoenicians- Specialized in trade and sailing. Developed the Phoenician Alphabet which serves as the roots for western alphabets. The Lydians- developed a empire that ran a money economy in what is present day Turkey. The Hebrews Abraham was the biblical founder of the Hebrew people. The Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt and led out by Moses in a mass exodus. The Hebrews founded Israel. The Torah is their holy book.
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