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					       CO2 Capture from Flue Gas
  for Energy and Environmental Issue
                       Symposium on
CO2 Capture and Storage in Underground Geological Formations
            December 4th 2006, Ankara Bilkent Hotel


                     Shojiro Iwasaki
             Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.


                                                         CONFIDENTIAL


                              1
Two Great Issues in the World

1. [Energy]: Shortage of Oil Supply
       ⇒ CO2 Capture and EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery)

2. [Environment]: Global Warming
       ⇒ CO2 Capture and Sequestration (cf. Aquifer)


MHI Technology of CO2 capture from fired flue gas will serve
     the solution for these issues.
                                                          CONFIDENTIAL


                                2
1. Concept of CO2 Capture

   Concept of Flue Gas CO2 Recovery and EOR




                                              CONFIDENTIAL


                        3
1. Concept of CO2 Capture




Strategic Alliance with Shell in Middle East




     MHI will bring expertise related to surface facilities design of
      CO2 capture plants (i.e. industrial sources)

     Shell will bring extensive surface and subsurface capabilities,
      notably reservoir engineering, separation technology,
      transportation

     Combined strengths can tip the balance in making winning
      value propositions to host governments in the ME region
                                                                CONFIDENTIAL


                                    4
2. MHI’s Experiences Commercial Scale Plants

 1. CO2 Recovery Plant in Malaysia

                                               Plant Outline
                                               CO2 recovery capacity 160T/D (200 T/D Max)
                                               Solvent               KS-1
                                               Use of CO2 Urea production
                                               Start of operation    October, 1999
                                               Client                Petoronas Fertilizer
                                                                     (Kedah) Sdn Bhd
                                               Location               Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia
                                               Flue gas source       Stream reformer flue gas


                                               Process Description
                                               CO2 is recovered from flue gas of steam reformer of
                                               ammonia plant and delivered to CO2 compressor for
                                               urea synthesis. Recovered CO2 is used to increase
                                               urea production.
                                               The first commercial plant for flue gas CO2 recovery
                                               using this advance technology has been operating in
                                               Malaysia since October 1999 for Urea production.
                                               Performance of process is excellent in terms of low
                                               steam consumption, very low solvent degradation and
                                               low solvent loss.
    Flue gas CO2 recovery plant   (Malaysia)                                              CONFIDENTIAL


                                                  5
2. MHI’s Experiences Commercial Scale Plants

2. Commercial Project in Japan

                            Plant Outline
                            Client     A Chemical Company
                            Capacity   283T/D (330 T/D Max)
                            Solvent    KS-1
                            Feed Gas   Natural Gas and Heavy Oil Fired
                                       Boiler
                            Use of CO2 General Use




                            Process Description
                            CO2 is recovered from a natural gas fined boiler and a
                            heavy oil fired boiler. Flue gas is cooled and removed
                            SOX (When CO2 is recovered from heavy oil fired boiler)
                            before entering CO2 absorber. CO2 is liquefied and used
                            for dry ice, beverages and welding.




                                                                       CONFIDENTIAL


                              6
2. MHI’s Experiences Commercial Scale Plants

3. Commercial Project in India

                            Plant Outline
                            Client     Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co.
                            Solvent    KS-1 Solvent
                            Capacity   450 T/D x 2 units
                            Feed Gas   Natural Gas and Naphtha
                                         Reformer Flue Gas
                            Use of CO2 Urea Production
                            Start-up   2007


        Under
                            Process Description
      Construction          CO2 is recovered from steam reformer flue
                            gases. CO2 is compressed and then used for
                            urea synthesis. Flue gas is cooled and then
                            removed SOX before entering CO2 absorber.




                                                                          CONFIDENTIAL


                              7
2. MHI’s Experiences Commercial Scale Plants

4. Commercial Project in Abu Dhabi

                           Plant Outline
                            Client     Ruwais Fertilizer Industries
                                       (FERTIL)
                            Solvent    KS-1 Solvent
                            Capacity   400 T/D
                            Feed Gas Natural gas Boiler & Steam Reformer flue Gas
                            Use of CO2 Urea Production
                            Start-up   2008


        FEED
                           Process Description
       Completed            CO2 is recovered from steam reformer flue
                            gases. CO2 is compressed and then used for
                            urea synthesis. Flue gas is cooled and then
                            removed SOX before entering CO2 absorber.




                                                                      CONFIDENTIAL


                              8
2. MHI’s Experiences Commercial Scale Plants

5. Commercial Project in China

                           Plant Outline
                            Client       A Chemical Company
                            Solvent      KS-1 Solvent
                            Capacity     800 T/D
                            Feed Gas     Steam Reformer flue Gas
                            Use of CO2   Methanol Production
                            Start-up



        FEED
                           Process Description
       Completed            CO2 is recovered from steam reformer flue
                            gases. CO2 is compressed and then used for
                            methanol synthesis. Flue gas is cooled and
                            then removed SOX before entering CO2
                            absorber.




                                                                     CONFIDENTIAL


                              9
2. MHI’s Experiences

7. Nanko Pilot Plant

                       Plant Outline
                       Solvent      KS-1
                       Capacity     2 T/D
                       Feed Gas     Natural Gas Fired Boiler
                       Start-up     April, 1991
                       Location     Nanko Power Plant, Osaka, Japan
                       Purpose      Development of energy minimizing solvent
                                    Development of equipment size minimizing technology



                       Result of the Development
                        ・New Solvent KS-1 and KS-2 have been developed.
                         These two solvent can reduce steam consumption
                         about 20% than MEA.
                        ・New high efficient and very low pressure loss Packing
                         (KP-1) has been developed.
                        ・Energy efficient steam systems between Power Plant
                         and CO2 recovery have been developed.
                        ・Energy efficient process which reduce steam consumption
                         15% was demonstrated.

                                                                         CONFIDENTIAL


                               10
2. MHI’s Experiences

8. FGD 1 by 1 Scale Test Facility (1,200,000Nm3/h)




                                             CONFIDENTIAL


                          11
2. MHI’s Experiences

Large Scale CO2 Capture Plant (3000 T/D Plant)




                                                 CONFIDENTIAL


                          12
3. MHI’s Flue Gas CO2 Recovery Technology

 Process Flow for Amine Absorption
                                  Flue Gas                           CO2
                                    Outlet
                                                          Purity : 99.9 %


                           ABSORBER                 STRIPPER



                 C.W.


              Flue Gas
               Cooler

                                             C.W.
   Flue Gas
                                                                      Reboiler
                        C.W.
                                                                            Steam



                                                                   CONFIDENTIAL


                                        13
3. MHI’s Flue Gas CO2 Recovery Technology

   Features
  • KEPCO & MHI‘s proprietary Flue gas CO2 capturing Technology
  • Hindered Amine Solvent “KS-1” with the special proprietary equipment
  • Proprietary energy efficient process
  • Enables large scale unit by MHI’s FGD experiences
  • Advantages
      KS-1 solvent
      - High CO2 Loading
      - Negligible Corrosion
      - Negligible Solvent Degradation
      Process
       - Low Utility & Solvent Consumption
       - Easy operation & Maintenance
      Economy
      - Minimize Operation Costs
      - Scale of Economy by Large Scale Unit
                                                                   CONFIDENTIAL


                                         14
3. MHI’s Flue Gas CO2 Recovery Technology


   Process Comparison


                                     MEA    KS-1
    Solution Circulation Rate         1      0.6

    Regeneration Energy               1     0.68

    Degradation of the Solvent        1      0.1

    Solvent Loss                      1      0.1

    Corrosion Inhibitor              YES    NO



                                                   CONFIDENTIAL


                                15
3. MHI’s Flue Gas CO2 Recovery Technology

MHI / KANSAI’s Flue Gas CO2
Recovery Process Improvement                                                      Recovered CO2

                                               Heat Recovery
   MHI / KANSAI’s improved flue gas CO2             &                    Stripper
  recovery process was demonstrated at            Solvent
  Nanko Pilot Plant                            Regeneration
   15% of steam consumption reduction                                      CO2        Steam
  can be achieved from MHI/KEPCO’s
  conventional process

    Process Features                                      Lean solvent
  Unique concept to utilize lean solvent and
  steam condensate heat for regeneration                     Steam Condensate
  inside The stripper.

   Performance
  ・ Steam Consumption
     1.30 Ton Steam/ Ton CO2
    (660 Kcal/ Kg. CO2)
    Note: Steam = 3 BarG. Saturated
   ・ Regeneration Energy less
     than 700 Kcal/ Kg. CO2 can be
     guaranteed.                                    NANKO PILOT PLANT                 CONFIDENTIAL


                                               16
4. CO2 Recovery from Coal-fired Boiler

Characteristics of the flue gas
from coal fired boiler
  The flue gas contains more NOx, SOx, dust, halogens and heavy metals
  compared with that from natural gas-fired boiler


                                                                          Natural Gas Fired
         Flue Gas Component                  Coal Fired Flue Gas
                                                                              Flue Gas

     (1) SOx (ppm)                                    ~2000                     <0.1

     (2) NOx (ppm)                                    ~500                     ~200

     (3) Particulate Dust (mg/m3N)                 10~100                       <1

     (4) Impurities (ppm)                 HCl:1~100/HF:1~100 etc.               <0.1
                                     Heavy Metals/Such as Hg, Se and Cd
     (5) Trace Elements                                                       Not exist
                                                    etc.




                                                                                  CONFIDENTIAL


                                                 17
4. CO2 Recovery from Coal-fired Boiler

 Coal Fired Long Term Demonstration Plant

                         Plant Outline
                          Solvent     KS-1
                          Capacity    10 T/D
                          Feed Gas    Coal Fired Boiler
                          Start-up    July,2006
                          Location    J-POWER Matsushima Power Station
                                       Nagasaki, Japan




                         Process Description
                          This is the demonstration plant for CO2 recovery from
                          coal fired boiler flue gas.
                          This program is supported by Japanese Government
                          subsidy through Research Institute of Innovative
                          Technology for the Earth (RITE) and J-POWER’s
                          cooperation.




                                                                      CONFIDENTIAL


                            18

				
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