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					SPONGES
           Some basic sponge structure




           Increasing surface area for same volume




Asconoid
                        Leuconoid                    Syconoid
Structure of the sponge wall
Unique features



           Choanocytes




                  Spicules
Spicules

    Siliceous   Calcareous




                Collagen (= spongin)
Spicules form a meshwork for support
Sponge Classification

Phylum Class                                  Characteristics

Porifera Calcarea                             -CaCO3 spicules
                                              - all are marine

         Hexactinellida                       -SiO3 spicules
                                              - 6-rayed spicules
                                              - all are marine
                                              - “glass sponges”

         Demospongiae                          -SiO3 spicules
                                              - may have spongin
                                              - marine, brackish or fresh water

         Sclerospongiae                       - coralline sponges
                  -reassigned to Demospongiae and Calcarea (1985)
Sponges you’ll have to know and love

  Page in “Reef Creatures”       Genus              Common Name
            17               Pseudoceratina     -branching tube sponge
            17               Pseudoceratina     -branching tube sponge
            17               Pseudoceratina     -branching tube sponge
            19                  Aplysina           -Stove pipe sponge
            21                  Aplysina          -yellow tube sponge
            21                  Aplysina      -yellow tube (shallow) sponge
            25                Callyspongia      -branching vase sponge
            25                Callyspongia    -branching vase sponge (fan)
            29               Xestospongia         -giant barrel sponge
            33                 Cinachyra          - orange ball sponge
            35                  Tedania               -fire sponge
            37               Neofibrularia       - touch-me-not sponge
            38                  Aplysina              -rope sponge
            39                  Aplysina              -rope sponge
            57                  Cliona             -red boring sponge
                                 Pseudoceratina
                                     Aplysina
Sponges - Pseudoceratina           Callyspongia
                                   Xestospongia
                                    Cinachyra
                                     Tedania
                                   Neofibrularia
                                     Aplysina
                                      Cliona




        Branching tube sponges
                                  Pseudoceratina
                                   Aplysina
Sponges - Aplysina                Callyspongia
                                  Xestospongia
                                   Cinachyra
                                    Tedania
                                  Neofibrularia
                                    Aplysina
                                     Cliona




         Stovepipe/tube sponges
                                 Pseudoceratina
                                    Aplysina
Sponges - Callyspongia           Callyspongia
                                  Xestospongia
                                   Cinachyra
                                    Tedania
                                  Neofibrularia
                                    Aplysina
                                     Cliona




        Branching vase sponges
                                Pseudoceratina
                                   Aplysina
Sponges - Xestospongia           Callyspongia
                               Xestospongia
                                 Cinachyra
                                  Tedania
                                Neofibrularia
                                  Aplysina
                                   Cliona




        Giant Barrel sponges
                       Pseudoceratina
                          Aplysina
Sponges - Cinachyra     Callyspongia
                        Xestospongia
                       Cinachyra
                         Tedania
                       Neofibrularia
                         Aplysina
                          Cliona




        Ball sponges
                       Pseudoceratina
                          Aplysina
Sponges - Tedania       Callyspongia
                        Xestospongia
                         Cinachyra
                        Tedania
                       Neofibrularia
                         Aplysina
                          Cliona




        Fire sponges
                                  Pseudoceratina
                                     Aplysina
Sponges - Neofibrularia            Callyspongia
                                   Xestospongia
                                    Cinachyra
                                     Tedania
                                 Neofibrularia
                                     Aplysina
                                      Cliona




          Touch-me-not sponges
                            Pseudoceratina
                               Aplysina
Sponges - Aplysina           Callyspongia
                             Xestospongia
                              Cinachyra
                               Tedania
                             Neofibrularia
                             Aplysina
                               Cliona




             Rope sponges
                                   Pseudoceratina
                                      Aplysina
Sponges - Cliona                    Callyspongia
                                    Xestospongia
                                     Cinachyra
                                      Tedania
                                    Neofibrularia
                                      Aplysina
                                     Cliona




       Encrusting/Boring sponges

				
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posted:5/10/2013
language:Romanian
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