On the general structure of
ontologies of instructional models
Information Engineering Research Unit
[University of Alcalá]
• The status of “pedagogical metadata”
– IEEE LOM: InteractivityType/level, etc.
– IMS LD: Represents the structure, not the
pedagogical rationale behind
– Some classifications exist, e.g. Conole.
• What about intructional design?
– ID techniques constraint the universe of possible LD
(combinations of resources/activities)
• Instructional models
– practice-oriented theories offering explicit guidance
on how to help people learn that offer situation-
specific methods, that in turn are described in terms
of components, and that are know to be effective for
learning under some conditions (to some extent).
• Methods can be made operational
– Learning resources, e.g. an IMS LD.
Not talking of “Process models”
• E.g. ADDIE
* * produces
• A concrete learning design LD expressed in a digital
educational description language is provisionally
conformant to the IDModel A if there exist a legal
interpretation LI of A in terms of the description
language and LD fulfills all the constraints contained in
LI. methodPart *
Ontologies and rules
– “give abundant examples of the concepts treated”
– We assume a IMS LD ontology in OWL.
lr:hasPart(?lo, ?lo2) lr:hasPart(?lo, ?lo3)
lr:LearningObject(?lo1) lr:hasPart(?lo1, ?lo2)
lr:hasPart(?lo2, ?lo3) lr:hasPart(?lo1, ?lo3)
• State the objectives.
• State the kinds of learning resources.
• State sequences and relations between them.
• … these can be found in IEEE LOM to some
• Use your favorite DL+rules language.
• Practical application
Method checking generating
“give Check that the appropriate For each of the concepts
abundant number of resources of identified in the objectives,
examples” type exercise are included generate in the IMS LD
as part of the Environment method an activity to teach
of the activities. Contrast the concept, which contains
that those examples an activity that is specific for
illustrate the same exercising, and has in its
concept expressed in the Environment a
objective of each activity. KnowledgeObject of type
• Search: give me LD that complies with inst. theory X.
• “Teach broader, more inclusive concepts before
narrower, more detailed concepts that
elaborate upon them”
ld:Activity-Structure(?as1) ld:execution-order(?a1, ?o1)
ld:execution-order(?a2, ?o2) ld:execution-entity-ref(?as1,
?a1) ld:execution-entity-ref(?as1, ?a2) swrlb:lessThan(?o1,
?o2) ? COMP_showsBefore(?a1, ?a2)
COMP_showsBefore(?a1, ?a2) ConceptLearningActivity(?a1)
ld:execution-entity-ref(?as, ?a1) ld:execution-entity-
ref(?as, ?a2) concept-learning-objective(?a1, ?c1)
concept-learning-objective(?a2, ?c2) KnowledgeItem(?c1)
KnowledgeItem(?c2) concept-includes(?c2, ?c1) ?
• (some)Intructional methods can be (partially)
made operational in term of learning resources.
– Some are still too abstract (this can be a criteria for
• (different) sets of rules can be used to check
them as an aid in the instructional design
• This is largely unexplored.
• This has practical applications to design tools
and for search!.