Work Values and Attitudes by dffhrtcv3

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									Work Values and Attitudes
     Major topics:
1.     Work-related values (Hofstede, 1980)
2.     Work ethics and attitudes
3.     Power and decision-making process
4.     Business communication style
5.     Status
6.     Case studies
7.     American, Chinese and German business values
          Hofstede’s
Work-related Value Dimensions
    Cultural consequences: International
    differences in work-related values (1980)
   Large or small power distances
   Individualism or collectivism
   Masculinity or femininity
   Strong or weak uncertainty avoidance
                Power Distances
   Power distance is an attempt to measure cultural attitudes
    about inequality in social relationships.
   It emphasizes the emotional and social distance between
    people who occupy different places in a hierarchy.
   Formalized rituals signaling respect, attentiveness and
    agreement
   High Power distance countries: the Philippines, Mexico,
    India, African and Latin American countries
   Low power distance countries: Australia, Denmark,
    European countries
 Individualism and Collectivism
  It measures the extent to which the interests of the
  individual are considered to be more important
  than the interests of the group.
Rules and principles are impersonal and universal.
  (individualists)
Decisions are made on the basis of relationships.
  They expect people who are involved in a group
  relationship to have duties and obligations to one
  another. (collectivists)
Individualists emphasize:
   Concern for clarity, directness
   Truth telling, straight talk
   Meeting personal needs and goals rather
    than group
   Self-referent messages, more “I” than “we”
   More independent
   Linear pattern of conversation
Collectivist emphasize:
   Indirect communication
   Concern for others’ feelings, avoiding
    hurting others, saving face
   Avoiding negative evaluation from a hearer
   Less goal direction
   More interdependent, group concerned
   Fewer linear patterns of conversation
      Masculinity and femininity
    It measures the extent to which everyone in a
    society embraces values that have traditionally
    been associated with men, that is
   assertiveness, competitiveness and toughness (Cf.
    modesty, cooperation and tenderness)
   Ambition, achievement and material success (Cf.
    catering for people and cooperation)
   Reward the strong (Cf. sympathy for the weak)
Masculine countries: Japan, Australia, Great
  Britain, Germany
Feminine countries: Sweden, Norway, the
  Netherlands, Denmark
         Uncertainty Avoidance
   It measures the extent to which people in a particular
   society are able to tolerate the unknown of life. It also
   measures tolerance for ambiguity.
 Are the unknown and unfamiliar seen as threatening or is

   the unknown merely curious and perhaps even stimulating
   and interesting?
Strong UA: Increase the number of rules of behavior to
   compensate for the uncertainty.(Greece, Japan, France)
Weak UA: Seem comfortable dealing with diversity and
   ambiguity.(Singapore, Sweden, Hong Kong)
              American Work
            Ethics and Attitudes
   Religion motivation: material success is a sign of
    God’s favor. Those who achieved success are
    among God’s “chosen” and would go to heaven.

   Achievement motivation: a strong value is placed
    on productiveness. This achievement orientation
    (or the tendency to “do” and “make”) results in
    part from American materialism, which is an
    outcome of the work ethic.
               Chinese Work
             Ethics and Attitude
   Chinese people view work as essential for having
    membership in a community. Work is necessary
    for them to gain social acceptance in the society.
   So Chinese work ethic is based on social pressure
    and community belonging.

Now look at the handouts!
 Attitude toward work

 It’s just a saying
              Power and
       Decision-making Process
   Representatives or top management of
    American companies are empowered to
    make decisions. (efficient)
   Chinese decision-making process is
    generally slow and time-consuming, for it
    usually involves many people at different
    levels. (group decision)
                     Status
   Status exists in all societies but varies in
    fundamental ways. Cross cultural
    differences in the way in which we perceive
    status, gain status and react to status differ
    from culture to culture.
   Ascribed-status refers to those cultures that
    base status upon external qualities such as age,
    wealth, education or gender. If one has the right
    external characteristics, status is ascribed to
    them. In such cultures there is little room for
    others to gain status through actions and
    achievements.
   Achieved-status, as its title suggests, is earned.
    Internal qualities are valued more than external
    ones. Therefore, status is achieved through
    accomplishments such as hard work and
    contributions to a company or community. In such
    cultures status is malleable, in that it can be lost as
    quickly as it is gained and status can shift to other
    individuals.
           Status and Hierarchy
   In ascribed-status cultures there tends to be rigid
    hierarchies that define roles, practices and
    processes. For example, employees will tend to
    focus solely on their own responsibilities and
    generally not offer suggestions to those above
    them in the hierarchy, as to do so would be
    disrespectful. In such organizations, change is
    very rarely bottom up.
   In achieved-status cultures, hierarchies exist
    but are less formal. The egalitarian nature of
    such cultures usually means that more value
    is placed on development and progression
    rather than respect for status. Consequently,
    lower level employees would generally feel
    empowered to make suggestions directly to
    seniors.
                 Status and Formality
    The formality of a culture is usually a good indication
    of the significance of status. The use of names between
    colleagues is one of the more observable
    manifestations of status in the workplace.

   In ascribed-status cultures colleagues will generally
    address each other using titles and surnames.
    Professionals, such as doctors, architects and lawyers,
    would expect to be addressed by their professional
    titles. First names are usually only used between family
    and friends.
   In achieved-status cultures, people
    commonly use first names. This is because
    individuals will usually feel of equal worth
    with one another and see no need to
    demonstrate deference to a more senior
    ranked colleague.
         Status and Management
   A manager in an achieved-status culture will
    usually take on the role of a mentor. The manager
    will be a reference point and will guide those
    under him/her to develop their skills and perform
    their duties with minimal guidance. Subordinates
    can and do challenge a manager’s decision.
   In contrast, in ascribed-status cultures, the
    manager is expected to give orders and know all
    the answers. The manager is seen to be
    experienced, knowledgeable and able to deal with
    problems effectively. Rather than a mentor, the
    manager in such a culture takes on more of a
    parental role as he/she is expected to take care of
    employees by ascribing duties and overseeing how
    they handle them. Manager’s decisions are
    typically not challenged.
          Status and Information
   The flow of information between people in
    companies and organizations is another area
    affected by cross cultural differences in status. In
    cultures where status is achieved, information
    usually flows easily between ranks. Directly
    approaching a senior colleague of another
    department for consultation, advice or feedback
    will have a certain amount of protocol attached to
    it, but is commonplace.
   Conversely, in achieved-status cultures
    information flow is a lot less fluid. There are only
    certain avenues one can take to either relay or gain
    information. For example, if the scenario
    mentioned above occurred in such a culture, the
    senior colleague would probably feel offended. In
    this circumstance, the correct protocol would be
    for the lower ranking colleague to approach
    his/her manager and ask them to approach the
    manager of the other department for information
    or feedback.
    Business Communication Style
   China’s process-oriented, relationship-
    based, harmony-focused (avoid
    confrontation), indirect communication
   American’s product-oriented,
    responsibility-based, honest confrontation,
    direct communication
   Case study: Business or Pleasure
            Networking

It’s not important what you know, but who
you know.
                          (Asian countries)
     American Managerial Values
   achievement and success,
   belief in hard work,
   pragmatism,
   optimism,
   rationality,
   impersonality in interpersonal work relationships,
   equality of opportunity,
   acceptance of competition, and
   individualism
      Chinese Business Values
Emphasize
 Kinship

 Interpersonal connections

 Respect for elders

 Hierarchy

 The Iron Rice Bowl mentality

 Expect lifelong employment and advancement

  according to seniority
       German Business Values
   Do not have a very strong concept of
    management
   Highly skilled and responsible workers
   A strong sense of pride in work
                    Saturday Shift
Mr. Jones: It looks like we’re going to have to keep the
                  production line running on Saturday.
Mr. Wu: I see.
Mr. Jones: Can you come in on Saturday?
Mr. Wu: Yes. I think so.
Mr. Jones: That’ll be a great help.
Mr. Wu: Yes. Saturday’s a special day, did you know?
Mr. Jones: How do you mean?
Mr. Wu: It’s my son’s birthday.
Mr. Jones: How nice. I hope you all enjoy it very much.
Mr. Wu: Thank you. I appreciate your understanding.
           A New Procedure
Ms. Cooper: The new tracking procedure hasn’t
            worked, has it?
Mr. Wong: There were some small problems.
Ms. Cooper: Whose idea was it anyway?
Mr. Wong: We need to learn from this lesson.
Mr. Cooper: Yes. It came from Mr. Tung’s
           division, didn’t It?
Mr.Wong: Many people worked on the
          proposal.
A Teacher in the United States:
Likes to help people to learn
Dislikes low salary
Has too much work to do at night
Likes the stimulation of the other teachers
Is intellectually stimulated
          The Duncan Scale of
              Job Prestige
physicians, lawyers and judges, architects,
aeronautical engineers, social scientists, natural scientists,
salaried managers in manufacturing,
authors, stock and bond salespeople, teachers,
insurance agents and brokers, actors, librarians,
athletes, clergymen, bank tellers, nurses, plumbers,
bus drivers, bakers, automobile mechanics,
members of the armed forces, waiters and waitresses,
farmers, taxi-drivers, peddlers,
manufacturing laborers, coal miners

								
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