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					     Brainstorm!
Things that are too small to see:
Engineering to Reduce the
         Germs!
          How Small Am I?
Order the cards from largest to smallest




  Wavelength of red light   Wavelength of UV light
MRSA
Introduction to Bacteria
Slide 5: United Streaming video clip Life Science: Bacteria “Infectious
Diseases Caused by Bacteria”
http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=BD07D5B2-
DAA1-476E-B59D-E6A4F5A98631&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
 Highlights of Bacteria:
► Smallest    of free living organisms
   You can squeeze a million of them on the head
    of a pin!
► Livein our skin, intestines, nose & throat
► Control every major function in our world
     Cycle nutrients
     Produce antibiotics
     Keep us healthy
     Make us sick
Virginia Headlines!
“A county in southern
Virginia closed its 21
schools on Wednesday
to clean them to prevent
the spread of a dangerous
bacterial infection that
killed a 17-year-old high
school student, officials
said.” (Reulters)



        MRSA!
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Introducing The Super Bug
           MRSA!
►   Commonly found on the skin
    or in the nose of healthy
    people.
►   Over the years bacteria have
    become resistant to various
    antibiotics.
►   MRSA can be transmitted
    from person to person through
    close contact.
     Skin-to-skin contact when there
      is a scratch or opening in the skin
     Sharing contaminated personal
      items
     Poor personal hygiene
     Direct contact with contaminated
      environmental surfaces
     Living in crowded settings
 Are You
Infected?
What You Can’t See

CAN Hurt You!

 Like MRSA!
That brings
   us to
   The science of
VERY small things . . .
NANOSCIENCE!
  Engineers Look at
  Surface Properties
►Is   it smooth or rough?

►Is   it   sticky or non-sticky?
   What about the
properties of surfaces
  make them harbor
      bacteria?
EXPERIMENT!
 Compare surfaces!

Reach out and touch!
        Wood
        Glass
       Plastic
Which one is easier
    to clean?

Wood

             Plastic


                            Glass
  Did you notice that the surfaces
    have a different properties?

 Which one is the roughest?
     Take a Look at
Why it is the Roughest. . .
Wood Under a Microscope!



     10x magnification


                             60x magnification

Wooden Toothpick
                                                       200x magnification

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/intelplay/gallery/reflectedbrightfield.html
To Stick or Not to Stick?
►Materials needed:
  4 grades of sandpaper
  Bee Bees
  Cornstarch
  Salt
  Water
Look familiar?

             MRSA
Check Out Your Own Hair

► That’spretty
 small, right?

► Thisis a
 nanowire
 wrapped around
 a strand of
 human hair.
      Engineering
      Challenge!
►What surface in your school
 is most prone to harbor
 bacteria?

►Design   a toilet that is less
 likely to accumulate and
 shelter bacteria.
         Get to Work!
►You  have 3 minutes to work in a
 small group to design the new
 toilet seat

►Keep in mind what we have
 discussed about surface properties

►Don’tworry about the cost of
 materials

►Then    we will share our designs
Sani-Seat http://www.cleanseats.com/toilet_seats/view/video.html
What do we need to know about
 surfaces on the nano level?
► That   bacteria can be spread through touch

► Differentsurfaces can be smooth or rough;
 the rougher surfaces are the more bacteria
 they will hold

► Whenwe design a product we need to
 reduce the spread of germs.

► How can be do that? By using an ultra-
 smooth surface or by not touching the
 surface at all!
                                                Credits
►   Slides 3 & 4: Refer to (PDF) What Is Nanotechnology? By Anna M. Waldron and Carl A. Batt
    http://www.itsananoworld.org/; note the addition of the picture of MRSA found at http://www.righthealth.com
►   Slide 5: United Streaming video clip Life Science: Bacteria “Infectious Diseases Caused by Bacteria”
    http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=BD07D5B2-DAA1-476E-B59D-
    E6A4F5A98631&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US

►   Slides 7: Quote taken from Reuter’s article at http://www.reuters.com/article/domesticNews/idUSN1729913920071017
►   Slide 6 & 8: data from United Streaming video clip Life Science: Bacteria “Introduction to Bacteria” (02:32)
►   Slide 9: http://www.animationfactory.com/en/
►   Slides 14 & 15: data from NSTA 2008 Boston Conference; Foundations of Nanoscale Science: Building an Interactive
    Program to Foster and Assess Learning of Nanoscale Science Concepts Clara Cahill and Cesar Delgado
►   Slide 16: images of wooden toothpick at various magnifications
    http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/intelplay/gallery/reflectedbrightfield.html

►   Slide 17 & 19: Adapted from NSTA 2008 Boston Conference; Foundations of Nanoscale Science: Building an
    Interactive Program to Foster and Assess Learning of Nanoscale Science Concepts Clara Cahill and Cesar Delgado

►   Slide 18: Refer to (PDF) What Is Nanotechnology? By Anna M. Waldron and Carl A. Batt
     http://www.itsananoworld.org/; note the addition of the picture of MRSA found at http://www.righthealth.com

►   Slide 19: Image from NSTA 2008 Boston Conference; Foundations of Nanoscale Science: Building an Interactive
    Program to Foster and Assess Learning of Nanoscale Science Concepts Clara Cahill and Cesar Delgado

►   Slides 20, 21, & 24: Adapted from NSTA 2008 Boston Conference; Foundations of Nanoscale Science: Building an
    Interactive Program to Foster and Assess Learning of Nanoscale Science Concepts Clara Cahill and Cesar Delgado
►   Slide 23:Video clip from Sani-Seat at http://www.cleanseats.com/toilet_seats/view/video.html
Just How Small
  Is “Nano”?
►   A football field simulates magnifying
    the world by 1 million times.

►   At this scale . . .the thickness of a
    hair would be the width of the field.

►   A red blood cell would be 10 meters.

►   A staph bacterium would be just 1
    meter wide.

►   One nanometer would be just 1 mm!

				
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posted:5/10/2013
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