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					Food Safety and Consumer Protection


Dick Groothuis Senior Veterinary Public Health Officer
                    Contents
–   History
–   Food safety and HAZARDS
–   European Legislation
–   General Food Law
     – General Food Law
     – EFSA
     – RAS
–   Food hygiene

                               2
                                            History


    Survival is a natural attitude of living creatures




Protection from HAZARDS is sought for survival


                                                         3
                Consumer Protection

Safety
– Absence of Hazards
– Guarantee of absence or Hazards
– No Hazards




                                      4
                    HAZARDS

Individuals

Drives to protect from Hazards:
For individual survival
Protection from perceived hazards
Economic gains
Community survival and thereby individual survival




                                                      5
                     Hazards

Community interest
Protection of a group of people after they formed a
community and organized themselves from:
–Starvation
–Wild animals
–Neighbours




                                                      6
                     Hazards

Community interest
–Cities organized food quality
–Baker street, butcher street, butter street, corn market
–Gold coins (intrinsic value)
–Standardisation of measurements (weight, length)
–And close control over most vulnerable food: ….


                          MEAT

                                                            7
                                               History 1300
Development of enforcement
 In ancient times sale of meat was
  controlled by the local government or
  religious rules.
 In The Netherlands around 1300 it was
  allowed to slaughter animals in the cities
  by everyone everywhere.
 By the end of that century slaughtering
  was left to the butchers
 Increasing economy demanded market
  control and as a result quality
  standards.
 The local governments felt responsible
  for safe meat.

                                                              8
            Safe


  Safe




No Hazard
                   9
           Safe


  Safe




Low Risk
                  10
DALY
Disability Adjusted Life Years
–Years lived with the disability.
–Disability is weighed according to severeness
–Death is included




                                                 11
                        Hazard ranking

Figures from The Netherlands
Hazard                  number of death        DALY
Smoking                 20.000                 440.000
Overweight              8.000                  170.000
Alcohol                 2.200                  195.000
Cars/Transport          1.200                  85.000
Lightning               1                      40
Legionella              80                     560 +
Campylobacter                                  1400
Residues in food        -
(residues: vet. medicines, pesticides, preservatives, colour agents)
                                                                       12
                        Cons Protection: Food

From community (city) to Europe
Extension from history to a larger scale
However, same objectives:
–     Availability
–     Safe
–     Fair (value for money)
–     Market regulation




                                                13
                                Europe


                       Europe

             General Food Law

Basis for the assurance of a high level of protection




                                                        14
                        Cons Protection: Food

Considerations. (selection from GFL)
High level of health protection
– Free movement of safe and wholesome food
– Same safety requirements in Europe for free movement
– Water is excluded from these regulations as it is already in other
  ones
– Feed will be included
– Food production chain; from feed up to the sale and supply to the
  consumer



                                                                   15
                    Cons Protection: Food Ctnd

Considerations. (selection from GFL)
Laboratories and Risk
– Laboratory network
– Measures based on risk analysis (EFSA)
– Risk analysis; independent, objective and transparent




                                                          16
                    Cons Protection: Food Ctnd

Considerations. (selection from GFL)
Imports from third countries
– Same standards to be applied
– EU entered in international trade (WTO)
– international standards (CODEX)
– General principles for trade




                                             17
                   Cons Protection: Food Ctnd

Considerations. (selection from GFL)
Traceability

– In all stages




                                            18
                    Cons Protection: Food Ctnd

Considerations. (selection from GFL)
Information between Member States and the Commission

– Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed
– To allow appropriate action to be taken




                                                       19
Legislation




          20
                                      Legislation

                General Food Law


                 Hygiene of
                                              GMO
                 Foodstuffs     Animal
Animal Feed
                              by products   1829/2004
                  852/2004                  1830/2004
 183/2005
                  853/2004     1774/2004
                  854/2004




              Food and Feed Control
                                                    21
                                     Legislation

                   Hygiene package

                     Hygiene rules
 Hygiene of
                      for food of
 Foodstuffs                           Official controls
                     Animal origin
                                      On products of
All production,,                       Animal origin
                     Separated by
 Processing,
                       product
  distribution




                                                          22
                                  Official controls

Overview of legislation
(Just for information of numbers)
   Gen Food Law (178/2002)
   Hygiene of foodstuffs (852/2004) (H1)
   Specific rules animal origin (853/2004) (H2)
   Official controls (OC) animal origin (854/2004) (H3)
   Food and feed control (882/2004)




                                                           23
                                              Overview

    To whom are the regulations addressed?
   Gen Food Law (GFL): Everybody
       General principles of food safety
   (H1): food business operators
   (H2): food business operators handling products of animal origin.
   (H3): organisation of official controls to the CA
      What the CA has to do (obligatory)
   Off controls (OC): Competent authority.
      How the controls should be executed; performance of OC



                                                                    24
General Food Law




                   25
                  General Food Law (GFL)

Chapter I    Scope and definitions
Chapter II   General Food Law
Chapter III European Food Safety Authority
Chapter IV Rapid Alert System, Crisis




                                             26
                            GFL scope

Scope
– High level of protection
– Common principles and responsibilities
– It applies in all stages of production processing and
  distribution




                                                          27
                            GFL scope definitions

Definitions
– Food: any product intended or reasonably expected to
  be ingested by humans
– Excluded:
    –   Primary production (animal & plant)
    –   Medicinal products
    –   Cosmetics
    –   tobacco


                                                         28
                          GFL scope definitions

Definitions continued (selection)
– Food business: any undertaking carrying out activities
  related to food




                                                      29
                       General Food Law

General principles
– High level of protection, free movement, international
  standards
– Risk based (analysis, assessment, management)
– Precautionary principle
– Transparency




                                                           30
                       General Food Law
General requirements
Safety
– Unsafe: a) injurious to health; b) unfit
Injurious
   immediate – long term – offspring
   cumulative
   particular group of consumers
Unfit
Contamination, putrefaction, deterioration or decay
                                                      31
                   General Food Law
General requirements
– Presentation of food - not misleading
– Responsibilities - food business operators
– Traceability - in all stages




                                               32
              EFSA

European Food safety authority
–   Scientific advice
–   Technical support
–   Independent information
–   Communicate on risks




                                 33
                 Rapid Alert System

Information system to inform Member States,
     Commission and EFSA
– Confidential
Reporting (direct or indirect risk):
– Any measure by the CA
– Voluntary
– Rejection at import at the border of the EU


                                                34
35
36
              Food Hygiene



The food business operator shall ensure that,
       all processes under their control
  satisfy the relevant hygiene requirements
        as laid down in this regulation




                                            37
38
                     Food Hygiene
Scope
All stages of production, processing and distribution

NOT
Private domestic use
Domestic preparation
Direct supply producer to consumer/local retail




                                                    39
                    Food Hygiene
General:
Ensure hygiene requirements

Specific:
– Primary production; Annex I
– Processing etc; Annex II
   – Microbiological criteria (Regulation 2073/2005)
   – Procedures
   – Temperature control
   – Maintenance of the cold chain
   – Sampling and analysis
                                                       40
                  Food Hygiene
HACCP
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
Applicable after primary production.

Guides to Good Practice
– National guides
– Community guides



                                              41
                      Food Hygiene Annex I
Primary production
– Primary production and associated transport
– Avoid contamination
– Proper use of medicines and plant protection products
– Clean and tidy
– Record keeping
– Use guides of good hygiene practice




                                                          42
                    Food Hygiene Annex II
Construction and lay out of the establishment
Adequate equipment
Transport (internal - external)
Waste removal
Water supply
Staff hygiene
Incoming materials/products
Packaging and wrapping
Heat treatment
Training of staff
                                                43
                     Hygiene Animal origin
Scope
– Food of animal origin processed and unprocessed:
   supplement to H1
NOT:
– plant origin and processed animal origin
– Primary production
– Domestic preparation
– Direct local supply consumer/retail
– Hunters
– Retail
Activities to be regulated in national law.
                                                     44
                       Hygiene Animal Origin
Registration and approval
– Registration for all
– Approval animal origin only, but not:
   –   Primary production
   –   Transport
   –   Storage not temperature controlled
   –   Retail




                                               45
                     Hygiene Animal Origin
Food business operators
– shall comply with the relevant provisions
– Has applied a health mark on the products
– Shall ensure certificates or accompanying documents of
   products or animals




                                                           46
                                Hygiene Animal Annexes
I.      Definitions
II.     Requirements products Animal Origin
III.    Meat domestic
IV.     Wild game meat
V.      Minced meat, meat preparations, MRM
VI.     Meat products
VII.    Live bivalve molluscs
VIII.   Fishery products
IX.     Raw milk and dairy products
X.      Eggs and egg products
XI.     Frog legs and snails
XII.    Rendered animal fats and greaves
XIII.   Treated stomach, bladders and intestines
XIV.    Gelatine
XV.     collagen

                                                         47
                          Hygiene Official controls
Directed to the Competent
  authority (CA)
– Keep in mind in for actions
  of the CA
– And duties of the
  establishments
– What the CA has to do
– Professional qualifications



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