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Unit 10 Personality

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									   Pioneered by Abraham Maslow & Carl
    Rogers.

   Focused on ways “healthy” people strive
    for self-determination and self-realization.

   Emphasized human potential
   Developed his ideas
    by studying healthy,
    creative people
    rather than troubled
    clinical cases.

   Proposed that we
    are motivated by a
    hierarchy of needs.
   If our physiological
    needs are met, we
    become concerned
    with safety needs
   If we achieve a
    sense of security, we
    then seek to love
    and be loved.
   And so on up the
    hierarchy.
   Self-actualization
    › The process of fulfilling one’s potential.


   Self-transcendence
    › Meaning, purpose, and communion beyond
      the self.
   Believed people are
    basically good and
    have self-actualizing
    tendencies.

   People nurture our
    growth by being
    › Genuine
    › Accepting
    › Empathic
   Unconditional positive regard
    › An attitude of total acceptance.
    › An attitude that values us even when we fail.
An example
of a father
NOT offering
unconditional
positive
regard.
   “as persons are accepted and prized,
    they tend to develop a more caring
    attitude toward themselves”

   As persons are empathically heard, “it
    becomes possible for them to listen more
    accurately to the flow of inner
    experiences.”
Ideal Self                Perceived Self

  Take a few minutes        Take a few minutes
  to fantasize and          to reflect and
  describe the self you     describe how you
  would like to be.         see yourself now.
   Believed a central feature of personality
    is one’s self-concept
    › All the thoughts and feelings we have in
      response to the question, “Who am I?”

       If our self-concept is positive, we tend to act
        and perceive the world positively.
       If it is negative – if in our own eyes we fall far
        short of our ideal self, we feel dissatisfied and
        unhappy.
   Humanistic psychologists used
    questionnaires that would evaluate a
    person’s self-concept.
    › When the ideal self and the actual self are
     nearly alike, the self-concept is positive.
   Because questionnaires could be
    depersonalizing, some humanistic
    psychologists used interviews and
    personal conversations.
   Maslow’s and Roger’s ideas have
    influenced counseling, education, child-
    rearing, and management.

   Criticism
    › Humanistic psychology fails to appreciate
      the reality of our human capacity for evil.
   Can students learn when they are
    hungry?

   Why do people go on hunger strikes to
    protest a cause they believe in?

   Why are there such things as “starving
    artists”?

								
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