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Pioneered by Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers. Focused on ways “healthy” people strive for self-determination and self-realization. Emphasized human potential Developed his ideas by studying healthy, creative people rather than troubled clinical cases. Proposed that we are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. If our physiological needs are met, we become concerned with safety needs If we achieve a sense of security, we then seek to love and be loved. And so on up the hierarchy. Self-actualization › The process of fulfilling one’s potential. Self-transcendence › Meaning, purpose, and communion beyond the self. Believed people are basically good and have self-actualizing tendencies. People nurture our growth by being › Genuine › Accepting › Empathic Unconditional positive regard › An attitude of total acceptance. › An attitude that values us even when we fail. An example of a father NOT offering unconditional positive regard. “as persons are accepted and prized, they tend to develop a more caring attitude toward themselves” As persons are empathically heard, “it becomes possible for them to listen more accurately to the flow of inner experiences.” Ideal Self Perceived Self Take a few minutes Take a few minutes to fantasize and to reflect and describe the self you describe how you would like to be. see yourself now. Believed a central feature of personality is one’s self-concept › All the thoughts and feelings we have in response to the question, “Who am I?” If our self-concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively. If it is negative – if in our own eyes we fall far short of our ideal self, we feel dissatisfied and unhappy. Humanistic psychologists used questionnaires that would evaluate a person’s self-concept. › When the ideal self and the actual self are nearly alike, the self-concept is positive. Because questionnaires could be depersonalizing, some humanistic psychologists used interviews and personal conversations. Maslow’s and Roger’s ideas have influenced counseling, education, child- rearing, and management. Criticism › Humanistic psychology fails to appreciate the reality of our human capacity for evil. Can students learn when they are hungry? Why do people go on hunger strikes to protest a cause they believe in? Why are there such things as “starving artists”?
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