Slide 1 - Amy Benjamin Education Services

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					                                                 Reading Comprehension:
                                                 The Key to Academic Achievement
 Today’s Presentation:
                                                 Presenter: Amy Benjamin
 1. About domain-specific
    reading comprehension

 2. Anyone can be a challenged

 3. Two classic strategies

 4. The relationship between background
    knowledge strategies

 5. The effects of free voluntary reading

 6. Academic Reading Fitness: A vision
   for schoolwide reading fitness

You may access today’s visuals at (Recent Presentations)
The visuals in today’s presentation are available at:
Information processing (reading comprehension) is domain-specific:
       Domain-Specific Reading

 Period Three:
 To subtract a polynomial from another
  polynomial, the opposite of each term of
  the polynomial that is being subtracted is

Period Four:
      Once upon a midnight dreary, while I
pondered, weak and weary
      Over many a quaint and curious volume
of forgotten lore…
          Domain-Specific Reading

    Period Six:
      Which of the following phenomena best
    represents a cyclical event?

Period Seven:
      Liberty and Slavery—opposite as Heaven
and Hell—are both in the Constitution; and the oath
to support the latter, is an oath to perform that which
God has made impossible.
       Anyone can be a challenged
The amount of distributions from net investment income and net
  realized capital gains is determined in accordance with federal
  income tax regulations, which may differ from generally accepted
  accounting principles. These “book/tax” differences are either
  considered temporary or permanent in nature. Key differences are
  the treatment of short-term capital gains, foreign currency
  transactions, organization costs and other temporary differences.
  To the extent that these differences are permanent in nature, such
  amounts are reclassified within the capital accounts based on their
  federal tax-basis treatment; temporary differences do not require
  reclassifications. To the extent distributions exceed net investment
  income and/or/net realized capital gains for tax purposes, they are
  reported as distributions of paid-in capital.
                                Semi-Annual Report for a Mutual Fund
  Golden Oldies: Volume I

Survey    Read
Question  Recite
   Golden Oldies: Volume II

1.Summoning prior knowledge
2.Establishing a purpose;
asking questions prior to reading
3.Summarizing how the
 new learning relates to
  existing knowledge
Reading Comprehension=
Background + Strategies
                                             Set a purpose

Background Knowledge                     Visualize
    Vocabulary                           Monitor, adjust,
        Words in context                     reread
        Phrases                          Anticipate & predict
        Allusions                        Be aware of
        References                          dominant patterns
                                         Connect to known info

                                   AFTER: Make meaning:
                                          Talk, write, draw,
                                            summarize, outline
             RFV (Reading for Fun)
aka: SSR (sustained silent reading)
     DEAR (“Drop everything and read”)

from the National Center for Educational Statistics:

         Increases in vocabulary, background knowledge,
            interest in reading, speed
         Improvements in writing, spelling, overall knowledge

                  50% of American students read for four minutes or less per
                          day in their spare time

                  10% of American students do not read at all in their spare time
            RFV (Reading for Fun)

One hour of reading:
        150 words per minute; 9,000 words per hour,
          encountering approx. 100 words for first time

         We tend to learn 5%-10% of previously unknown words per reading.

         5-10 words learned per hour of reading.
                 25 new words per week
                 100 new words per month
                 1000 new words per school year



Strength: Vocabulary and
     Background Knowledge
              Schoolwide Academic Fitness: Circuit Training

Today, we will train for strength. By strength, we mean having sufficient
vocabulary to make meaning from text. Vocabulary is closely related to
background knowledge, and background knowledge is the most important
factor in reading comprehension.

Here are a few things you can do that will take just a few minute of class time to
build your students’ vocabulary:

1. Analyze word prefixes and roots of key words to show how they are related
   to words that students may already know.
2. Embed the target word in a cluster of words related to the topic.
3. Introduce key words that the students will meet in their upcoming readings.
4. Repeat new words in various contexts.
5. Show the word. Emphasize its spelling and how it looks like related words.
6. Give students opportunities to use new words in conversation.
7. If you can, make connections between new words and words in other languages.
8. Give students opportunities to use new words in informal writing.
9. Indulge in word games and crossword puzzles to reinforce new word.
10. Give students opportunities to use non-verbal ways to express meanings
     (drawing, gestures, skits, charades).
 Tier I Words:                Tier II Words                        Tier III Words

Everyday Language:           Language of academics,                 terminology;
                              business, government                 “Glossary” words
                             “Vocab List” words                    On-the-job words
Ask                                                                Photosynthesis
Dead                                                               Cytoplasm
Name                                                               Metamorphosis
                             Designate; designation;
Find out; figure out                                               Asymmetrical
                              identify, identification
Answer                                                             Bathysphere
                             Ascertain; determine
Rain                                                               Rhetoric
                             Precipitate, precipitation
Use                                                                Deoxyribonucleic acid
                             Utilize; employ
Sharp                                                              Artifact
Get                                                                Habeas corpus
Take apart and put                                                 Diaspora
                             Analyze; synthesize
 together                                                          Polysyndeton
balance                                                            Adjective
                                                                    x          ph
                       Code-switching                               chr___     __y__
                                                                    ___ic      ___sis
Flexibility: Different paces for different purposes
             Schoolwide Academic Fitness: Circuit Training

Today, we will train for flexibility. By flexibility, we mean the
ability to adjust pace and focus to get the desired level of information from text.
Flexibility is important for readers because not everything demands the same
level of concentration. The flexible reader has the skills to skim, scan, read closely,
read between the lines, and study to memorize targeted information.

  Here are a few things that you can do to help your students develop flexibility
  as readers:
  1. Provide all kinds of reading material in your classroom related to what you
  want students to know: magazines, paperbacks, fiction, Internet, lists, etc.
  2. Give students guided practice in skimming, scanning, reading closely,
  reading between the lines, and studying. Increase their awareness of how they
  shift gears to derive information from text.
   Skim it      Scan it       Read it      (Read between the lines of it)     Study it
               Four Gears of Reading:

      Skim it:           Scan it:                    Read it:                       Study it:

                                                                                    Go back, as necessary,
                                                                                    getting a more useful and
                                                                                    permanent understanding.
Glance over it;          Look it over with             Now that you’ve let the      This may involve working
 (30 secs                                              text wash over you, read     with a partner, taking
                         an eagle’s eye, scanning
per page); get                                         it thoroughly: every word,   notes, creating graphic
                         for specific information,
the gist; be able to                                   every sentence, every        organizers, and other
                         such as information that
state what it is about                                 graphic.                     meaning-making activities.
                         has key words to answer
in a complete sentence   questions
Endurance: The ability to
concentrate on a text over
a period of time
            Schoolwide Academic Fitness: Circuit Training

     Today, we will train for endurance. By endurance, we
     mean the ability to concentrate on reading for a sustained
     amount of time.

Here are some things you can do to help your students build endurance:

1. Start with short intervals of sustained silent reading and/or listening to
you read aloud while they follow along in the text. Begin with alternating
one-minute intervals, if necessary. Systematically increase the intervals
of sustained silent reading.
2. Remind students that it is necessary that they visualize as they read.
3. Give students the opportunity to see the extent to which their concentration
is impaired by environmental conditions such as noise or lighting.
Enjoyment: Reading anything we want, just for fun!
Enjoyment: Reading anything we want, just for fun!

stories, newspapers, comics,
magazines, graphic novels, teen romances,
sci-fi, adventure, humor….

  Components of successful free reading programs in schools:

  1.   Lavish access to all kinds of appealing reading material
  2.   No accountability (ie, tests)
  3.   Teacher modeling
  4.   Regular time set aside for reading
  5.   Sustained over time (multiple years)
  6.   Comfortable environment, conducive to reading
  7.   Opportunities for discussion
  8.   Staff training on the benefits and management of SSR
What the research tells me [about SSR] is
that when children …start reading for
pleasure… good things will happen. Their
reading comprehension will improve, and
they will find difficult, academic-style texts
easier to read. Their writing style will
improve, and they will be better able to
write prose in a style that is acceptable to
schools, business, and the scientific
community. Their vocabulary will improve,
and their spelling and control of grammar
will improve.

Stephen Krashen, The Power of Reading

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