the manner in which the author
organizes his or her
Sequence Pattern (time)
List pattern (addition)
Cause /Effect Pattern
• Sequence Pattern(time)- The ideas presented by the
author must be in order.
• List Pattern (addition)-In this pattern, the author
organizes his/her information by making a list. This list
does not need to be in any order.
• Definition Pattern(illustration) -In this pattern, the author
defines a particular term, idea, or concept and follows it
• Cause – Effect Pattern -The author explains the reason
why something happened or the results of something. (the
cause happens first!)
• Compare-Contrast Pattern -This pattern shows how two
things are alike and how they are different ,or both.
• Problem/solution- A problem is discussed and a solution
is found or suggested
Look at the following items. Which one is easier
to read and understand?
1. One way to lose friends is to talk but not
listen. A way to end friendships is to borrow
money and not pay it back.
2. One way to lose friends is to talk but not
listen. Another way to end friendships is to
borrow money and not pay it back.
letters (a, b, c) or bullets to list
Comparison: how 2 things are alike
Contrast: how they are different
Review Test 3 pg 253-256 (yes, with topic
Also, underline or highlight the main idea
for each paragraph
For extra credit, write out the main idea
for paragraph E (the main idea is not
stated in the passage)
Many students find it difficult to make the transition
from high school to college. In high school, teachers
often treat students like children. For instance,
teachers may require homework to be done in a certain
color ink, or they may call parents when children
misbehave. On the other hand, college teachers treat
students as adults. No one other than the students
themselves is expected to take responsibility for
learning. Also, adjusting to greater independence can
be a challenge for many college freshmen. Students in
high school usually live at home. In college, however,
many students live on their own and have no one to
answer to or depend on but themselves.
1Psychologists use several theories to explain
different sides of human behavior. 2Best-known is the
psychoanalytic theory, which holds that people are driven
largely by needs and desires that they are not aware of—
the so-called “subconscious” mind. 3Another theory,
behaviorism, suggests that people’s actions are based
largely on past experiences of reward and punishment. 4We
do things that brought us pleasant results in the past and
avoid things that brought unpleasant results. 5Yet another
theory, “gestalt” psychology, emphasizes the role of overall
patterns in our thinking. 6For example, we find it much
easier to remember a tune than a series of unconnected
1One reason tabloids publish untrue stories about
celebrities, even though they know the celebrities might
sue, is free advertising. 2If there is a lawsuit, it will make
the news, and the tabloid gains the publicity.
3Furthermore, in a lawsuit the burden of proof is on the
celebrity, not the paper. 4Also, such lawsuits are both
expensive and time-consuming. 5A court delay, for
example, can prevent a movie star from beginning work on
a new project. 6And the chances of collecting a significant
amount of damages are slim. 7Finally, tabloids publish
untrue stories for the obvious reason: whether it is true
or not, people love celebrity gossip—and it sells papers.
1Projection is an unconscious process of
seeing one’s own shortcomings in others. 2For
example, a greedy shop owner may cheat many
of his customers, yet consider himself a pillar
of the community and a good Christian. 3How
does he justify to himself his greed and
dishonesty? 4He believes that everyone who
enters his store is bent on cheating him any
way he or she can. 5In reality, few, if any, of
his customers share his motives, but he
projects his own greed and dishonesty onto
1When a person’s position in society is derived
primarily through inheritance, we call this ascribed
status; that is, a person’s position in society is fixed (or
ascribed to him or her by others) on the basis of family
background or genetic inheritance. 2Racial, ethnic, and
religious differences, as well as gender, often serve as
the basis for ascribed status. 3The caste system in India
has long been an extreme example of a social structure
based on ascribed status. 4Each level in society is known
as a caste. 5Everyone is born belonging to a specific
caste. 6The caste of the parents thus generally
determines the status of their children, regardless of
ability or merit.
1Insomniacs may envy those who have no problem
sleeping. 2However, too much sleep is also a sleep disorder.
3There are a couple of major causes of sleeping too much. 4One
major cause of this problem is apnea, a condition associated with
breathing difficulties during the night. 5In severe cases, the
victim actually stops breathing after falling asleep. 6When the
level of carbon dioxide in the blood rises to a certain point,
apnea sufferers are spurred to a state of arousal just short of
waking consciousness. 7Because this can happen hundreds of
times in a night, apnea patients typically feel exhausted and fall
asleep repeatedly the next day. 8Another cause of too much
sleep is narcolepsy, a hereditary condition that causes victims to
nod off without warning in the middle of a conversation or other
alert activity. 9Narcoleptics will often experience a sudden loss
of muscle tone upon expression of any sort of emotion. 10A joke,
anger, sexual stimulation—all bring on a feeling of weakness
on the Accuplacer and on the
a) A. Addition
b) B. Contrast
c) C. Comparison
d) D. Cause and effect
They weren’t brilliant answers, but they did
establish the facts that I had read the
assignment and that I could speak English.
D. Cause and effect
1 For days after our arguments, she would not
speak to me…I was lost to her. And because
2 of that, I lost, battle after battle….
The sentence below expresses a
relationship of :
Like our high school building or old Mayor
Welch, Jefferson just was….
Compared to their more confident peers, they
1 were also more likely to sabotage existing
relationships. On the other hand, students
2 who perceived themselves as capable
achieved more academically.
The relationship of the second to the first
sentence below is one of :
B. Cause and effect
Researchers have found that putting a smile
on your face, even if you’re not in a good
1 mood, can lead to a more positive
disposition. Likewise, if you approach a
2 class determined to learn something, you
probably will- even if it’s how not to instruct
The relationship of the second to the
first sentence below is one of :
The self-fulfilling prophecy also operates on
1 the job. For instance, salespeople who view
themselves as being effective communicators
are more successful than those who view
themselves as less effective.
About 5% of all babies born alive, or 175,000 babies
per year, have a significant defect. Such birth defects
account for about 15% of deaths among newborns.
Recall from the genetics chapters that birth defects may
be caused by genetic as well a environmental factors, or
by a combination of the two.
According to the selection, which of the following is a
result of birth defects?
a. Fifteen percent of newborns die
b. Five percent of babies born alive have significant birth
c. Poor social development results.
Means discovering ideas in writing
that are not stated directly.
Use hints and clues from the
passage to “read between the
Always make sure to underline
the hint or clue that gave you
If you have nothing to underline,
your answer is wrong!
All answers must be based on
what was in the passage!!
Among the heroes of history are
animals. One was a canary named
Bibs. Bibs was the pet of an elderly
woman, Tess, who lived alone. Tess’s
niece lived nearby. One day the
niece heard a tapping at her window
and discovered Bibs. The niece
quickly went to her aunt’s house and
found Tess had struck her head on
something and fallen over. Bibs died
after alerting the niece.
What do you know is true?
A. Bibs knew where the niece lived.
B. Bibs was always kept in a cage.
C. Bibs was never caged.
Several years ago, Father Bernard Pagano, a Roman
Catholic priest, went on trial for a series of armed
robberies of small shops. Newspapers labeled the
gunman the “gentleman bandit” because he always was
well groomed and displayed perfect manners. Seven
eyewitnesses positively identified Father Pagano as the
robber. Yet, at the last minute, another man, Ronald
Clouser, confessed to the robberies. Clouser knew
details of the crimes that only the real bandit could
have known. Only then were charges against the priest
A. Father Pagano really did commit the robberies.
B. Father Pagano looked somewhat like Clouser.
C. If Clouser had not confessed, he would have been
Patients under anesthesia were reassured in the
operating room that their surgeries were progressing
nicely. The patients were unconscious and later had no
memory of the words of encouragement. Nevertheless,
they were likely to experience faster, better recoveries
than those patients who received no words of
A. Even though unconscious, patients under anesthesia
understand on some level what is being said to them.
B. Being talked to during surgery is the single most
important factor affecting a patient’s recovery.
C. Words of discouragement to unconscious patients
would not affect their recovery at all.
Coney Island, a strip of land on Long Island, New York, is
best-known as a center of amusement parks. It was first
settled by the Dutch in the mid 1600s. The word “coney”
is an old-fashioned term for rabbits. Nowadays, roller
coasters and hot-dog vendors are what most people think
of when they hear the name Coney Island.
A. The Dutch settlers probably settled more of New York
than any other European group.
B. The Dutch probably found many rabbits on Coney
C. It is very likely that the hot dog is a Dutch food.
“Waving a red flag at a bull” is an expression meaning to
deliberately provoke someone to anger. And bullfighters do
wave red cloaks as they taunt the bull in the ring. But does the
color red really anger a bull? Experiments at the University of
California concluded that bulls and other cattle are pretty
much colorblind. They more quickly notice bright colors than
dark ones, but that’s about it. Red is naturally an attractive
color for bullfighters to use, both because it is the color of
blood and audiences find the color exciting. But waving a cloak
of any color at the bull would probably annoy it just as much as
a red one.
A. The experiments at the University of California included
B. Bulls are not really annoyed when they charge at a
C. A bull would pay more attention to a white cloak than to a