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The “What_ Why_ and How” of Leadership Development

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					The “What, Why, and How”
of Leadership Development

Summer Schlesinger
October 10, 2007
Lesson Objectives
By the end of the lesson, students should be
   able to…

1)   Develop their own definition of leadership
2)   Recognize their own personal leadership
     style
3)   Recognize effective leadership traits in
     others
4)   Understand the process involved in
     developing leadership in organizational
     settings
Section One:




 What is a leader?
What is leadership?
The American Heritage
Dictionary defines a leader as:
1)   One that leads or guides
2)   One who is in charge or in command of
     others
3)   One who heads a political party or
     organization
4)   One who has influence or power,
     especially of a political nature
The American Heritage Dictionary
defines leadership as:


1)   The position or office of a leader
2)   Capacity or ability to lead
3)   A group of leaders
4)   Guidance; direction
Common Definitions of
Leadership/Leader
“ A process whereby an individual
influences a group of individuals to achieve
a common goal”   (Northouse, 2001, pg 3)



“ Motivates, empowers, inspires,
collaborates with, and encourages others.
Develops a culture where employees feel
ownership in what they do and continually
improve the business” (Berger, pg 8)
  How would you define traits of an
  effective leader?

     Some common traits that have been
      used to describe good leaders:

Knowledgeable     Confident       Respectable

                                  Capable of making
Role Model        Observant       mistakes and
                                  correcting them
Problem Solver    Compassionate   Influencing People
Works well with
                  Goal Oriented   Good Communicator
others
Motivator         Accountable     Good Listener
Leadership Skills
   Once you have developed your definition
    of leadership, the next step is to figure
    out the skills that are needed in order to
    develop a leader

   In studying leadership, there are
    numerous ideas, theories, and models.
    However, these skills usually fall into
    three distinct categories…
    Categories of Leadership Skills
   Technical Skills – What you study
       Methods, processes, procedures; ability to use
        tools or operate equipment
   Conceptual Skills – Ability to analyze
    situations and generate ideas
       Analyzing situations, thinking logically, combining
        concepts and ideas into a workable relationship
   Human Relations skills –
    Understanding and ability to work with
    people
       Interpersonal processes, communication skills,
        cooperation, attitude, motivational ability
Leading vs. Managing

       Leaders               Managers
   Innovate              Administer
   Eye the horizons      Eye the bottom
   Originate              line
   Do the right          Imitate
    thing                 Do things right
   Focus on being        Focus on being
    effective              efficient
Leading vs. Managing
Shared Assumptions:
   To be most effective, both sets of skills are needed
   Both have overlapping functions and are
    interdependent, despite having polar descriptions
   Leadership is a process, not a position. It can be
    supported by, but not created by positional power
   Effective leadership involves a convergence of
    leaders, follower, and situation (as is evident in
    research concerning leadership styles)
   Leadership skills can be learned and developed
   In summary, it is important to differentiate, but also
    to recognize the overlaps
Leadership Styles
   The highest of the three scores indicates what style of
    leadership you normally use. If your highest score is
    40 or more, it is a strong indicator of your normal style
   The lowest of the three scores is an indicator of the
    style you least use. If your lowest score is 2 or less, it
    is a strong indicator that you normally do not operate
    out of this mode
   If two of the scores are close to the same, you might
    be going through a transition phase, either personally
    or at work
   If there is only a small difference between the three
    scores, then this indicates that you have no clear
    perception of the mode you operate out of, or you are
    a new leader and are trying to feel out the correct style
    for yourself
Leadership Styles
   ENTER LEADERSHIP STYLES TABLE




   Authoritarian (autocratic)
       First column
   Participative (democratic)
       Second column
   Delegative (free reign)
       Third Column
Authoritarian Style (autocratic)
   Management has most of the knowledge and skills
   Should normally be used on rare occasions
   Used when the leader tells his/her employees
    what he/she wants done, and how it is to be
    done, without getting the advice of his/her
    followers
   Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is
    when you have all the information to solve the
    problem, you are short on time, and your
    employees are well motivated
   Not to be confused with “bossing around”
Participative Style (democratic)
   Involves the leader including one or more
    employees in on the decision making process
    (determining what to do and how to do it).
   However, the leader maintains the final decision
    making authority
   Normally used when you have part of the
    information, and your employees have other
    parts. Note that the leader is not expected to
    know everything. This is why it is important to
    hire knowledgeable and skillful employees
   Allows employees to become part of the team and
    allows the leader to make better decisions
Delegative Style (free reign)
   Employees have the needed knowledge and skills
   The leader allows the employees to make the
    decision
   However, the leader is still responsible for
    decisions that are made
   Used when employees are able to analyze the
    situation and determine what needs to be done
    and how to do it. The leader is not expected to
    do everything.
   This is a style to be used when you have full trust
    and confidence in the people below you, however,
    use it wisely!
Leadership Styles
   A good leader uses all three styles, depending on
    what forces are involved between the followers,
    the leader, and the situation
   Forces that influence what style should be used
    include:
       How much time is available?
       Are relationships based on respect and trust, or on
        disrespect?
       Who has the information? You, your employees, or
        both?
       How well are your employees trained and how well
        do you know the task?
       What is the type of task? Structured, unstructured,
        complicated, or simple?
       Also dependent on laws or established procedures
Section Two:



   Why is Leadership
     Development
      Important?
Leadership Development
   Evaluates current leadership and
    management styles for effectiveness
    based on the organization’s needs and
    desired culture
   Identifies through formal assessments,
    job analysis, and observation, the
    strengths and weaknesses of leadership
    styles
   Works to implement a development plan
    and coaches an individual for skill
    enhancement
    Leadership Development
   Who Can Benefit?
       Recently promoted managers/leaders
       Successful leaders/managers who want to
        enhance their skills
       Technical managers who want to strengthen their
        interpersonal skills
       Valuable executives looking to resolve current
        issues or pursue skill development in order to
        more efficiently meet current or changing job
        expectations
       Succession planning of targeted leaders
       In summary, the entire organization, on multiple
        levels, can benefit from leadership development
Leadership Development
   “Continued learning and personal growth
    are essential for the evolution of world-
    class leaders” – Mark X. Feck, head of Corporate Human Resources
    for Rohm & Haas (Berger, pg 42)

   Helps to create a culture of leadership
   In a survey of 150 Fortune 500 companies,
    a majority of the companies expect at least
    a 33% turnover at the executive level in
    the next five years, and one third of the
    companies felt that they would not be able
    to find suitable replacements (Berger, pg 40)
  Core Competencies
      Research has shown that there are no more than 30 core
       institutional competencies and most organizations use
       between nine and 11 competencies in
       training/development/etc.


Action Orientation     Communications      Creativity/Innovat
                                                   ion

Critical Judgment         Customer         Interpersonal Skill
                          Orientation

      Leadership          Teamwork         Technical/Functio
                                             nal Expertise
Section Three:



   How do I Develop
    Leadership in My
     Organization?
External Leadership Consultants
   Impact Leadership Consultants, Inc.
       Provides a number of workshops,
        presentations, and seminars (30 minutes to
        full days)
       Management and Supervision
          Conflict Resolution, Management Styles, How
            to Conduct Effective Meetings, Motivating
            yourself and Others to Succeed
       Organizational Dynamics
          Organizational Change, Diversity Training,
            Team Building, Effective Customer Service
       Personal Growth and Development
          Assertiveness Training, How to be an Effective
            Communicator, Dealing with Difficult People
        Benefits of Leadership Development
   Increased Profits
       Organize company objectives/identify activities that
        are value-added, and those that yield minimal
        results
   People Management Skills
       Help to foster commitment in teams/increase
        customer service
   Clearer and More Focused Vision
       Create clear, challenging, yet achievable goals for
        themselves and the organization
   Awareness of Potential Pitfalls
       Learn how to keep the yourself and others,
        avoiding pitfalls such as lack of planning,
        responsibility diffusion, lack of commitment, and
        procrastination
Common Leadership Concepts

   Leadership            Motivation
    Styles                Time
   Group Processes        Management
   Power                 Conflict
   Goals/Visioning        Resolution
   Ethics/Character      Communications
                          Diversity
     Implementing Your Own Leadership
     Development Program
   Three methods management groups can use to build a model of
    competencies that they agree should drive leadership or key roles in the
    organization
   Agree on which characteristics are most important in the company
        Which ones would have the most devastating impact if missing?
        Not too specific, not too broad
        What would leadership look like? How would you know if someone was
         showing leadership?
   Decide on key requirements for the role
        What attributes/skills will enable this person to perform these roles in an
         outstanding manner?
        Linkage Charts
   Think concretely about whom they see as top performers in these key
    roles and then keep a picture of them in mind
        What are top performers doing differently than average/bottom performers?
        What motivates them? What makes them outstanding?
Leadership Greatness
 From The Stuff of Heroes: The Eight
  Universal Laws of Leadership (Michael A.
  Cohen)
1) Maintain your integrity 100% of the time
2) Know your stuff and be able to prove it
3) Declare your vision and know the vision
  of your organization/business
4) Show commitment to your organization
  or business
Leadership Greatness (continued)

5) Expect positive results from
  yourself and others and look for
  those opportunities
6) Take care of your people
7) Put duty before self
8) Stand out in whatever you do
Resources/Reading List
   21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow
    Them and People Will Follow You (John C.
    Maxwell)
   Leadership for the Twenty-First Century
    (Joseph C. Rost)
   Leading Change (John P. Kotter)
   The Leadership Challenge (James M.
    Kouzes, Barry Z. Posner)
   The Tipping Point (Malcolm Gladwell)

				
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