The Carrot of Costa Rica and Improving the UK Secondary Science

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					  Meeting the New Science Standards: Engaging
Students In Modeling-Based Inquiry Collaboration
and Communication Via Instructional Technology

 JANA BOUWMA-GEARHART, STEM EDUCATION

    ANDREW BOUWMA-GEARHART, BIOLOGY

       MOLLY FISHER, STEM EDUCATION


          UNIVERSITY OF KENTUCKY

               DECEMBER 3, 2011
       Introductory Questions



1. Discuss with a partner your notion of
   what it would look like to engage
   students in inquiry while using
   technology.

2. How do you think your notion of
   inquiry compares with that most
   often offered by others advocating
   that students engage in inquiry?
         Presentation Organizer


 •O v e r v i e w O f N e w N a t i o n a l S c i e n c e
                      Standards

•O v e r v i e w O f M o d e l i n g - b a s e d I n q u i r y

 •M o d e l i n g A c t i v i t i e s ( Y e s , Y o u W i l l
    Have To Think!) Enhanced With
     Communication Technology

                     •D i s c u s s i o n
  A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices,
         Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas
        (National Research Council, July, 2011)

“The framework calls for a full integration of the practices of
  science with the ideas and concepts. That is, students
  should learn the ideas of science through actually doing
  science. This approach was also emphasized in previous
  documents, but was not fully implemented on a wide scale.”


The framework consists of elements in three dimensions:
 (1) scientific and engineering practices
 (2) crosscutting concepts
 (3) disciplinary core ideas in science
    Dimension 1: Scientific And Engineering Practices


 1. Asking questions (for science) and defining problems (for
    engineering)
   2. Developing and using models
   3. Planning and carrying out investigations
   4. Analyzing and interpreting data
   5. Using mathematics and computational thinking*
   6. Constructing explanations (for science) and designing
    solutions (for engineering)
   7. Engaging in argument from evidence
   8. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information

= engagement in inquiry, collaboration, and communication akin
  to that of practicing scientists
    The Enhanced Role of Communication In the
                Science Standards

By grade 12, students should be able to:
  Discuss the limitations and precision of a model and
    suggest ways in which the model might be improved to
    better fit available evidence.
  Offer causal explanations.

  Identify possible weaknesses in scientific arguments and
    discuss them using reasoning and evidence.
  Recognize the major features of scientific writing and
    speaking and be able to produce written and illustrated
    text or oral presentations that communicate their own
    ideas and accomplishments.
          What is a Scientific Model?


A set of ideas that describe a natural
process…and can be mentally run, given certain
constraints, to explain or predict phenomena.
                            - Cartier et al. (2001)

Ex. Model of universal gravity explains various phenomena
    concerning object relationships and motions in the
    universe
What is Modeling-based Inquiry Instruction?

 Guided inquiry; instructor works as facilitator
 with specific learning outcomes (science content
 and processes) as end product

 Students collect/analyze data and develop
 explanatory models that are:
   • empirically consistent (account for all data)
   • conceptually consistent (realistic)
   • have predictive power

 Students revise their models as new data
 becomes available

 Students work as a community of scientists
Does Modeling-based Inquiry (MBI) Work?


 Research affirms:
  MBI has shown to foster students ’deep
  understanding of scientific knowledge and
  practices (Cartier, 1999; Cartier et al., 2005; Harrison &
  Treagust, 1998; Hestenes, 1987; Stewart et al., 2005; White &
  Frederiksen, 1998)

  …even with respect to phenomena for which
  students typically hold deep-seated
  misconceptions (Bishop & Anderson, 1990; Demastes et
  al., 1996; Jensen & Finley, 1995, 1996; Rudolph & Stewart,
  1998)
Modeling-based Inquiry In The Science Classroom


  Overall, students are asked to interact with
   scientific phenomena and each other as
   student-scientists to:

  • analyze data
  • construct explanatory models
  • assess strength of competing models
  • revise models as new data are available
  • communicate their models
          Acheta domesticus:
A “model” organism for model-based inquiry
Modeling-based Inquiry In A Unit On Evolution

  A sexual selection phenomenon that can be
  easily studied in a lab, or witnessed in a
  series of videos, is cricket aggression
  Start by having students construct of
  ethogram (record of an organism’s general
  behavior) of solitary crickets
  •   Question: How to scientifically record animal
      behavior? (think, pair, share)
  •   Roughly 30 minutes to record data (could also
      give students data)
  •   See mostly grooming, feeding, walking
      behaviors
      Students Make Observations/Collect Data
              Concerning Phenomena


 Students then observe for 30 minutes, 5
 previously isolated male crickets together in
 a 10-gallon aquarium (can be video but much
 more exciting to witness in person!)
    each cricket is marked and assigned to a student

 Students add to ethograms any new
 behaviors
    this is what the see…
      Student Data Collection: Male Crickets

 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iE__uuFyPnU


 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUJgLJr8Bz8&f
 eature=fvw
    from5:10-6:15 min is fighting but entire 7 minute
    episode details the natural aggression in males credits
    capitalized on in competitive cricket fighting
Cricket
Behavior
 Using Technology: Wikis and Blogs to Share Data
            and Model Development

 For the construction of ethograms:

    Wiki or Blog to serve as a class space for sharing
     data
    Students can create their own space and invite
     others to view their data and ongoing model
     instruction

    Example and all materials for this presentation at
        http://modelingatnsta.wikispaces.com/
             Students Develop Explanation

       Think like a behavioral ecologist and propose
        an explanatory model to account for the
        observed data/phenomena

        “What is the adaptive value of aggression in
         crickets?”
        Can use statistical analysis for more advanced
         students, free online
                http://www.graphpad.com/welcome.htm
        Think, pair, share (Enter into group wiki/blog)
         Students Develop Explanation

 Many students first hypothesize aggression related
 to survival; thought crickets were fighting to gain
 access to food resources=natural selection
 hypothesis

 This is a legitimate offering…is realistic and
 empirically consistent with the data they have IF
 they proposed aggression was something that only
 seen in males
Students Design Tests and Analyze Additional Data

   Within group wiki/blog, students may design
    experiments to test hypotheses; group
    decides on hypotheses they want to test and
    propose group experiment on wiki/blog

   Whether class can take time to actively run
    all of these tests is up to the instructor

   Regardless, students need to be provided
    additional data to force student model
    revision to what is known to be the more
    accurate model. For instance…
     Students Analyze Additional Data and Revise
        Model to Again Account for ALL Data

 Students (for 30 minutes), in class or via video,
 observe 5 previously isolated female crickets
 together in a 10-gallon aquarium
    each cricket is again marked and assigned to a
     student
 Students add any new behaviors to ethograms
    crickets continue to groom, feed, walk, mostly
     ignore one another
 Conclusions so far?
        Additional Data Confirming
        or Forcing Revision of Model

Matings of male winners and losers when placed
    in separate containers with one female




                                Nelson and Nolen, 1997
        Additional Data Confirming
        or Forcing Revision of Model

Matings of male winners and losers when placed
     together in container with one female




                                Nelson and Nolen, 1997
      Students Summarize Model Thus Far

Students, at this point, have data that lead them to
  revise their larger model of selection to account for
  sexual selection
Student conclusions:
 •   aggression increases mating success by allowing
     more aggressive males to monopolize access to
     females
 •   survival to reproductive age (natural selection) is
     not the only issue for organisms; there is also the
     need to secure mates to actually reproduce
 •   But not the whole story regarding interplay of
     natural and sexual selection
 Students Analyze Additional Data and Revise Model
           to Again Account for ALL Data

The case of the Texas field cricket—
  An amazing amount of diversity in chirping rates
 (pulses per trill), much more than seen in other
 cricket species
  Species’ signals that are used in finding a mate are
 not typically variable in the animal kingdom, since
 the signal must be specific enough so as not to be
 confused with those of other species.
 Why the great variation in the case of the Texas
 field cricket?

Provide students with additional data
    Think, pair, share on the following data
Students Analyze Additional Data and Revise Model
          to Again Account for ALL Data


          Gray & Cade, 1999
Female cricket visits




                        Pulses per trill of “male” cricket calls
         Students Analyze Additional Data and Revise Model
                   to Again Account for ALL Data


                               Gray & Cade, 1999
Female parasitoid fly visits




                                         Pulses per trill of “male” cricket calls
 Students Analyze Additional Data and Revise Model
           to Again Account for ALL Data


Sexual selection pressure on one calling rate, but
natural selection via parasitoid fly selects against
this very rate. End result if lots of variation in
population with respect to courtship song

Students have firmly developed idea that natural
selection can select against a trait selected for by
sexual selection

Students conclude (correctly) that the
relationship between natural and sexual selection
is sometimes complicated
            Post- (and pre-) Assessment

 Students can post arguments to their wikis or
 blogs and these arguments can be assessed by
 fellow students and the instructor alike

 For more advanced assessment and to teach
 scientific writing, try Calibrated Peer Review
    http://cpr.molsci.ucla.edu/
 For a more traditional assessment, try
 SurveyMonkey to gather both formative and
 summative assessment:
 http://www.surveymonkey.com/
      P20 STEM Innovation Lab Goals

 Objective 1: To develop new contexts,
 connections, and experiences for thinking about
 teaching, learning, and researching STEM subject
 matter and pedagogies in P20 environments.

 Objective 2: To encourage the co-participation of
 diverse researchers, educators, and P20 students
 in envisioning improved STEM education,
 regionally, nationally, and internationally.
                Sample Lab Activities
 Research
   Numerous UK, state, and NSF funded research projects

   UK STEM Education Symposium research conference February 3,
    2012
 Curriculum creation/implementation/research:
   Costa Rica ecology modeling course for teachers

   Building SPEED: The Mathematics and Science of NASCAR

   Save the Animals

   Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning

 Other Outreach
   “See Blue” Math Clinic for struggling secondary students

   Family Science/Math Nights at local schools

   Elementary and Secondary Preservice Teacher Preparation
    Research/Advisory Groups
                 Collaborative Partners

 STEM departments at UK:         • Northern, Eastern, and
    Biology, Math, Engineering,     Western Kentucky Universities
    Physics
                                  • Rice University
   Other Departments in the UK
    College of Education          • University of Minnesota
   PIMSER                        • Virginia Tech
   Association of Public and     • UW-Madison
    Land Grant Universities       • UC-Santa Barbara
   Tracy Farmer Institute for    • UC-Boulder
    Sustainability and the
    Environment                   • Kentucky Center for
   Central Kentucky Education      Mathematics
    Cooperative                   • Fayette County Schools
   University of West Virginia   • Woodford County Schools
   Morehead State University     • Jessamine County Schools
                                  • Turkey Foot Middle School
    Questions or Comments?

          Please Contact:

Jana (Jana.Bouwma-Gearhart@uky.edu)

     Andy (AndrewBG@uky.edu)

      Molly (mfi223@uky.edu)

				
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