The Benefits of Making Energy from Waste - The United States

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					 The Benefits of Making Energy from Waste
MWMA Conference             Derek A. Porter
2007 Fall Summit          September 20, 2007
Global Challenges
• Today, we face numerous environmental &
  economic challenges:
  – Population growth and associate waste disposal needs
  – Global Warming
  – Dependence on fossil fuels
• There is a common solution for
  all of these challenges.
  Energy-from-Waste (EfW) provides:
  –   Safe, economic waste disposal
  –   Greenhouse gas reduction
  –   Renewable energy
  –   Resource Management
  Energy from Waste-

The Greener Solid Waste
    Disposal Option
Growing Waste Problem
• In the US an increasing                          Proliferation of MSW
  amount of trash is buried in           Municipal Solid Waste in U.S. (in millions of tons)

  Landfills:                            250

   – Waste generation has
      increased by over a third in      200
      the past 25 years in the U.S.                 151.6
      alone.                            150

   – Recycling efforts have not         100
      been able to keep pace with                                                      58.4
      the increased generation of        50
      trash.                                                14.5

• The EU has addressed waste               0
                                                        1980                      2005
  disposal with a directive that
  requires reduction of landfilling                          MSW Generation

  raw garbage
                                                             Recycling Recovery

                                      Source: Municipal Solid Waste in the U.S. 2005 Facts & Figures
                                      Executive Summary; Table ES02 (October 2006).
How EfW Is Part of the Solution

                The new (Dec 2006) USEPA
                hierarchy identifies four tiers in
                descending order of preference:
                1. Source reduction
                2. Recycling or composting
                3. Combusted with energy
                   recovery (EfW)
                4. Landfill or incineration without
                   energy recovery
                    EfW & Recycling

• Covanta supports “Reduce, Reuse, Recycle”
  at our WTE facilities.
• Communities with EfW facilities have a recycling rate
  that is on average 18% higher than the national
  average – 33% vs. 28%
• EfW recycles ferrous and non-ferrous materials
   – More than 773,000 tons of ferrous metal is recovered annually
     from WTE facilities
   – Combining all onsite WTE recycling, U.S. WTE facilities recycle
     almost 1,672,000 tons.
Energy from Waste-

 Providing Clean
Only 2% of U.S. electricity comes from renewable
Energy-from-Waste: One piece of the global warming solution
                                  Renewable Energy Generated
                   Landfills      from Landfills - 5 billion kWh
249 Million tons
of trash (MSW)
goes to                             That’s an average of only 20
landfills                           kilowatt hours of electricity
                                          per ton of waste

                                  Renewable energy generated from
                                    EfW Facilities - 15 billion kWh

29 Million tons                      That’s 520 kilowatt hours of
of trash goes to                     electricity per ton of waste
Reduces Dependence on Fossil Fuels

• Displaces fossil fuel generation and related emissions
    –   DOE states that EfW makes “important contributions to the overall effort to achieve increased
        renewable energy use and the many associated positive environmental benefits.”
    –   For every ton of MSW processed in a EfW facility, it eliminates the need for importing one
        barrel of oil or burning ¼ ton of coal.
           Comments on NYC’s Solid Waste Management Plan, December 2004. Columbia
           University Integrated Waste management Systems Earth Engineering Center

• WTE is Clean, Reliable, Renewable Energy
    –   Inexhaustible stream of MSW is renewable.
    –   Recovery of the energy component of MSW is better than burying it in a landfill and
        contributing to methane production.
    –   Recovery of ferrous and nonferrous is an important process that facilitates recycling and
        energy savings
    –   Most current renewable power sources in use can only operate under certain conditions
        (Solar, Wind, Hydro).
    –   EfW is able to operate and produce energy 24/7 and is sold as “base-load” electricity. It is
Energy from Waste-

Greenhouse Gases
Solid Waste Management’s Impact on Global
Warming – the National Snapshot
Carbon dioxide and methane are the two major GHGs                     Sources of Carbon Dioxide
causing global warming
(IPCC 2001, 2007) Nitrous Oxide
                          (N2O)                               Commercial
                           6%                                   18%
              Halocarbons                                                                   Transportation
                  13%                                                                           33%

          Methane (CH4)                                 Residential
              18%                      Carbon Dioxide     21%

     Carbon dioxide and methane together are 81% of
     Methane is 23 times more potent than Carbon
     Reduction of both is required                      40 % of carbon dioxide is from fossil fuel
                                                        combustion for electricity (EPA 2004)
Landfills are the largest source of man-made
methane, a gas 23 times more potent than CO2.
Global Roundtable on Climate Change

• Large group of diverse organizations participated in the
  Global Roundtable on Climate Change (GROCC)
   – 2 years of work will soon culminate in sustainability statement
• Pending GROCC climate sustainability statement
  recognizes WTE as a mitigating technology
   – “De-carbonization can be achieved in two ways. The first is to
     increase the use of non-fossil-fuel-based energy sources.
     Potential options here include wind, solar, geothermal, hydro,
     tidal, wave, nuclear, waste-to-energy and/or biomass.”
   – “Efforts to reduce global emissions of methane from landfills
     should be expanded, including increased use of waste-to-energy
     facilities where appropriate and cost-effective.”
The EfW Solution Helping to Fight Climate Change

• Helping To Fight Global Warming
       – Reduces Greenhouse Gas emissions
            • Offsets methane emissions from landfills.
            • On a nationwide basis, nearly one ton LESS of CO2e is released
              into the air due to avoided land disposal, fossil fuel power generation
              and metals production, for every ton of trash combusted in modern
              EfW facility (1)
            • EfW annually avoids 33 million metric tons of CO2 that would
              otherwise be released into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels to
              generate electricity. (1)
            • EPA: EfW has “less environmental impact than almost any other
              source of electricity”
            • EPA moved EfW above landfills on its hierarchy
(1)   According to EPA’s Municipal Solid Waste Decision Support Tool.
Energy from Waste-

 Leader in U.S. Waste Disposal and Renewable
Solar 1%                                              –   32 Waste-to-Energy Facilities
                      Wind 16%

                                                      –   6 Wood Waste Facilities                                     Re cycling &
                                                                                                                     Com pos iting

                  Geothermal 16%
                                                      –   5 Landfill Gas Facilities                                       32%

                                                      –   15 Million Tons of Waste Safely Disposed                 Was te -to-Ene rgy
                                                          Of Annually
                      Wood &
                   Other Biomass                      –   Over 5% of the Nation’s Waste Disposal

                                                                                                                      Landfill 54%

                                                      –   7,800 GWh Produced from Covanta
                  Waste-to-Energy                         Operated Facilities
                                                      –   Nearly 10% of Nation’s Renewable
 Annual U.S Renewable Generation = 88,000 GWh                                         Annual U.S Waste Disposal = 245,000,000 Tons
                                                                                                    Source: US EPA Basic Facts
           Source: US Department of Energy, Energy
             Information Administration 2004 Report
Covanta’s modern EfW facilities:
• Produce a combined total of 7,800 Gigawatts hours
  of renewable electricity per year, which creates
  enough energy to power the homes in the city of
• Serve the waste disposal needs of approximately
  12 million people in communities across the
  United States.
• Reduces the need for fossil fuels, saving the
  equivalent of 15 million barrels of oil each year.
Covanta’s modern EfW facilities:
• Recover and recycle 360,000 tons of metals —
  enough to manufacture 275,000 hybrid cars
  each year.
• Reduces GHG emissions by avoiding methane
  from landfills.
• Have a worldwide presence, with facilities in
  Europe and China.
Covanta’s Low NOx Technology

• New technology reduces NOx emission well below
  EPA requirements and IMPROVES ENERGY
• Covanta LN system can be added to existing boilers to
  reduce NOx to current limits with out ammonia
  injection. Emission can be reduced to half the current
  regulatory limit with ammonia injection.
• Covanta VLN technology can be used on new units
  and can reduce NOx to even lower emission than the
  Covanta LN technology.
Energy from Waste -

 Renewed Interest
                  Facility Expansions
• Hillsborough County, Florida —
  commenced construction January 2007
  – 600 tons per day expansion to a total capacity of 1200 tons per day.
  – 14 MW addition renewable energy
  – Extended operating agreement between County and Covanta until
• Lee County, Florida —begin operating in
  August 2007
  – 636 tons per day expansion
  – 14 MW additional renewable energy
  – Extended operating agreement between Count and Covanta until
        Request for Proposals for EfW

•   Frederick, Carroll, Harford Counties, MD
•   Honolulu, HI
•   Regional Municipality of Durham, Canada
•   Los Angeles, CA
The EfW Solution Local Benefits

• EfW allows for a self sustaining community
  – Clean renewable power is produced in the
  – Safe and sustainable local waste disposal
  – Truck traffic is reduced
  – Jobs are created in the community
     • The WTE industry employs over 6,000 people in high paying
     • Each WTE facility purchases significant amounts of local
       goods and services each year
  – Lowest cost long-term waste disposal option in
    highly populated area
Summary of EfW Technology
EfW is a specially designed energy generation facility that uses household
waste as fuel and helps solve some of society’s big challenges
  •   Population growth                  Safe, reliable waste disposal

  •   Climate change                     Reduces greenhouse gas emissions

  •   Dependence on fossil fuels         Clean, renewable electricity

  •   Resource management                Recover metal for recycling
Summary of EfW Benefits

• Global – Helps fight Global Warming by
  reducing landfill methane gas emissions
• National –Reduces dependence of fossil fuel by
  reliably generating clean, renewable energy
• Local – Creates local jobs and provides
  sustainable waste disposal

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