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Exploring the America’s 2-3 NOTE: Unless you have earned the MAGIC PAGES power-up, these notes must be COPIED ON YOUR OWN PAPER! Questions / NOTES Interactions Essential Question: How did Spain’s conquests affect the economic & social development of the America’s? Date: 1400-1625 Explorers & Conquests - Spanish explorers in search for gold & riches were called conquistadors. They received special grants (privileges) from Spanish rulers & allowed to explore if they brought back to Spanish monarchy 1/5 of gold or treasure they discovered. Cortes Conquers the Aztecs - Hernan Cortes landed in Mexico in 1519. 500 soldiers, some horses, & a few cannons. Aztec emperor Montezuma welcomed Cortes and his soldiers, fed & gave shelter. Cortes took Montezuma prisoner. Aztecs rebelled in 1520 & Montezuma was killed. Spanish were forced from the city until reinforcements arrived. Aztec capital Tenochtitlan conquered by many neighboring Native Tribes & Cortes attacks & destroys the city in 1521. Pizarro Conquers the Incas - Francisco Pizarro along with 180 Spanish soldiers, sailed along the Peru coast line. In 1532 Pizarro captured Atahualpa (leader of the Inca’s) & destroyed the Incan army. Spanish falsely accused Atahualpa of crimes & executed him. Inca fell to the Spanish. Why the Spanish Succeeded - weapons, arrived with horses & dogs, gods in prophecies, Native’s did not like their masters & disease (smallpox) Spain in North America - Juan Ponce de Leon made the 1st Spanish landing on North America, east coast of Florida in 1513. Searching for the fountain of youth. 1st settlement in today’s U.S. at St. Augustine, Florida. The Seven Cities of Cibola - Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca apart of a Spanish Expedition to Florida in 1528. November 1527 - 3 of 5 boats went missing. 2 boats near Texas. To Survive the Natives an enslaved African named Estevanico became a medicine man. Healing by breathing & reciting Latin. Inspired by stories Hernando de Soto led an expedition & in 1541 De Soto crossed the Mississippi River, he dies of fever in Oklahoma. Francisco Vasquez de Coronado - He found a Zuni settlement in 1540 –he traveled to the Colorado River & found nothing but “windswept plains” & “shaggy cows” (buffalo) Spanish Rule - Pueblos (towns) were established centers of trade, missions (religious communities surrounding a church), A presidio, or fort, was usually built next to a mission. Social Classes – peninsulares, mestizos, indios, mulatos. * Spanish government granted conquistadors who settled in the America’s and encomienda (a right to demand taxes or labor from Native Americans living on the land.) Natives as slaves, died from malnutrition & disease. Bartholome de Las Casas - condemned the cruel treatment of the Natives. Laws were passed in 1542, forbidding making slaves out of Natives. The Plantation System - West Indies, the main export was sugar cane & tobacco. A plantation (large farm) would be used for this system. Las Casa suggested replacing Natives with Africans; as a result, thousands of Africans from the West Coast were brought to the Americas. By the late 1500’s plantation slave labor was an essential part of the economy of the colonies.
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