Sulfur Emissions

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					      Sulfur Emission Trends and Forecast

Data compiled, analyzed, and presented by:
  Chris Bamat
  Sandy Fergus
  Ryan Mackin
  Chris Rolland

                                    Presented on May 1, 2006
                                      Sustainable Air Quality
                                       Washington University
                                           Professor R. Husar

This presentation was designed to give a brief
overview of the trends of SOx Emissions with
respect to different sectors as well as different
fuel types. Each of the following charts give
specific representation of energy data gathered
from 1940 to 2002 along with a forecast up to
the year 2050.
     Relevance to Energy Consumption

 Sulfur emissions are a harmful pollutant
  produced during the combustion of fossil fuels.
  The fuels are separated into five different
  categories for analysis in order to track the
  amount of emissions produced by each:
 Coal
 Natural Gas
 Oil
 Electricity
 Other sources
 Energy production is the main reason these fuels
  are burned and thus sulfur emissions are the direct
  by-product of this process.
 As a result, energy consumption and sulfur
  emission are very closely connected and the
  analysis of energy consumption will help to shed
  light on emission trends.
 A perfect example of this connection is seen when
  measuring energy efficiency since energy efficiency
  determines the percentage of energy lost to
 This category is comprised of emissions from
  commercial businesses and residential homes.
 The major sources of emissions in this category
   •   electric utilities
   •   coal
   •   a minimal amount from oil and
   •   virtually nothing from natural gas.
 The emissions from commercial/residential result
  entirely from the energy production for homes
  and businesses.

 The industrial sector includes:
   •   Chemical & Allied product mfg.(both organic and
   •   petroleum refineries & related industries (oil & gas
       manufacturing, natural gas, and fluid catalytic cracking
   •   Metal processing (non-ferrous, copper, lead, aluminum)
   •   Wood, pulp & paper
   •   Mineral products
   •   Cement manufacturing
   •   Waste disposal and recycling
                      Industrial continued
 The emissions resulting from industrial activity:
   • Mostly from coal combustion since older

     factories use coal to produce a majority of
     their energy.
   • Slightly less than coal from oil

   • The remainder from gas and also from

     industry's allocated amount of electric utility.
 This sector includes:
  •   On-road vehicles (motorcycles, light duty gas
      vehicles, light duty gas trucks, heavy duty gas
      trucks, and diesels)
  •   Non-road vehicles (non-road gas, non-road
      diesel, aircraft, marine vessels, and railroads)
  •   Non-road others (agriculture & forestry, other
      combustion, and fugitive dust).
                    Transportation continued
 From greatest to least the contributors in
  this sector are:
  •   Diesel engines
  •   Marine vessels
  •   Light duty gas vehicles & motorcycles
  •   Light duty gas trucks
  •   Railroads
  •   Heavy duty gas trucks
  •   Aircraft.
        Transportation continued

 Vehicles are used to convert energy into
  motion in order to transport people and
  things. This energy produces sulfur
  emissions mainly through the combustion
  of gasoline and diesel fuels.
                                            FUEL COMB. ELEC. UTILTIES




 SO2, 1000 Tons/yr







                        1900                    1950                 2000                         2050
                           El. Util                CoalTot               OilTot
                           GasTot                  OtherTot              Coal Project.
                           Oil Project.            Gas Project.          El. Util Project.
                           Other Project.
Shows the SOx emission from the use of coal, gas, and oil for Electrical Utilities. Coal is clearly the
largest contributor in this section, producing nearly all of the total electric utility emissions. The
emissions peak in 1977 and again in 1984. This plot is particularly important because the electric
utilities sector contributes to a majority of the total SOx emissions since the 1950's
Shows the SOx emissions for the combined industrial industry. This includes coal, gas, and oil, with
coal being the greatest contributor. There has been a seemingly steady decline in the emissions with
a peak in 1970; however the emissions from gas have been increasing since 1975. The emissions
from oil have been decreasing since 1981.
Shows the SOx emissions from the manufacturing of Chemicals, Sulfur compounds, agricultural
chemical, and other chemical manufacturing. There are very little emissions coming from the
agricultural chemical manufacturing. The biggest contributor is from Chemical, then from Sulfur
compounds. There is a peak in the emissions in 1970, and from 1984 to 1989. Emissions have been
increasing again since 1998 with a hint of leveling off since the past few years.
Shows the SOx emissions from processing copper, lead, and ferrous metals. Copper is the largest
contributor, with very little being contributed from lead and ferrous metals. There is a large increase
in emissions from copper in 1970 with the emissions decreasing ever since.
Shows the SOx emissions from petroleum, petroleum refineries, and other petroleum. There is a
large peak from the refineries section in the 1970, and in 1981 from other petroleum industries.
Shows the SOx emissions from cement manufacturing, the wood, pulp, & paper industry, and from
other industrial processes. The component entitled “OtherInd” represents the total emissions for this
section. There is a peak in 1978 in both the cement manufacturing and the wood, pulp & paper
industry. It can be seen that there was an enormous decline just after this peak in the cement
manufacturing industry.
Shows the SOx emissions from on-road vehicles. This includes light-duty gas vehicles &
motorcycles, light-duty gas trucks, heavy-duty gas vehicles, and diesel. There is a peak in 1990 for
diesels. Light-duty gas trucks have been steadily climbing since 1973 and currently contribute to a
significant amount of the total whereas before 1973 they contributed virtually nothing to the total.
Shows the SOx emissions from non-road vehicles. This sector includes marine vessels, railroads, and
non-road diesel. There was a major drop in railroads in 1960 which caused a major decrease in the
overall emissions. Since then there has been a slow but steady increase in all sectors since 1971.
Shows the total SOx emissions for each sector. This includes the electric utilities, industrial,
residential and commercial, transport, and metals. Electric utilities peaked in 1977 and have been
decreasing ever since. There is a small increase in 1971 for the industrial and metals sector.

 The trends show that all sectors are
  decreasing in SOx emissions.
 This is a result of better technology and
  the consumption of cleaner fuels
  regardless of increased consumer demand.

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