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Unit 4 Personality Personality a.) Hippocrates *the unique & consistent *Greek physician patterns of feelings, *believed that personality motives, & beh. that traits were a result of 4 set people apart from basic fluids (humors) in one’s one another body Traits Yellow Bile *an aspect *choleric—quick tempered (characteristics) of personality that is Blood (460 B.C.) considered *sanguine—warm & cheerful reasonably stable Phlegm *phlegmatic—sluggish and cool *are assumed to account Black bile for consistent beh. in *melancholic—thoughtful different situations EX. Personal AD *diseases & disorders –a lack of balance in these humors Trait Theories *predict how people will *Bloodletting—a method used to restore one’s act or think based on health their specific traits *no evidence for this theory, but the words r still used today b.) Gordon Allport (1897 – *similar scheme to Hippocrates 1967) *1936 *reviewed the dictionary & identified 18,000 traits c.) Hans and Sybil Eysenck *1950’s *suggested that personality could be reduced down to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability- instability. Five-Factor Model *”The Big 5” (Canoe) *a person’s position along these *McCrae & Costa (1960’s) dimensions tends to be established @ *what many psychologists an early age & remains stable through consider to be the 5 basic life factors/dimensions of personality Evaluation of the Trait Theory Disadvantages CONSCIENTIOUSNESS *it describes traits rather than explaining AGREEABLENESS their origins or figuring out how people NEUROTICISM w/ undesirable traits can change for the better OPENNESS *provides no explanation of how EXTROVERSION personality develops Advantages *the ability to measure personality traits *matching people to jobs & educational programs on the basis of their traits The Psychoanalytic Approach *Because we cannot accept them Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939) in our conscious, thoughts *specialized in neurology & was an find their expression in expert on paralysis in young dreams, slips of the tongue children that appear as accidents and even jokes *All behavior is meaningful, driven by unconscious forces. It can be *Vienna, controlled by digging below the Austria surface to uncover the roots of personality. *used *core of personality—5 or 6 yrs. of hypnosis life *Unresolved Conflicts: If these occur in childhood, this will cause *prescribed fixations in later life. (Stages) cocaine Unconscious *Nearly all of our impulses are sexual Discovering the Unconscious Free Association (“Talking Cure”) *Clients are encouraged to talk about any thoughts or impulses that enter their head *the assumption is that this kind of free flowing uncensored talking will *provide clues to unconscious material *”THE FREUDIAN COUCH” DREAM ANALYSIS & HYPNOSIS *Analyzing dreams is based on *Hypnosis the assumption that dreams contain underlying, hidden meanings and symbols that provide clues to unconscious thoughts and desires. Manifest Content *Obvious content of dreams— STORY LINE (bizarre stories and symbols) Latent Content *Hidden or disguised meanings FREUDIAN SLIPS “Big is Beautiful Conference” *Mistakes or “slips of the tongue” that we make in everyday speech *These mistakes are thought to reflect unconscious thoughts or wishes (our true feelings come out) 3 Basic Psychological Structures of the Mind *Freud compared the *contains thought s, emotions, & human psyche to an memories we’re not aware of iceberg *Where r “True personality “ lies Conscious Mind *small part of the iceberg seen above the water *contains thoughts & memories we r aware of Unconscious *the bulk of the iceberg that can’t be seen ID *a reservoir of our aggressive desires for survival & reproduction *exists entirely in the unconscious mind *present @ birth (babies are controlled by it) & makes sure babies needs are met *the “kid” / playful side in all of us *the selfish side of us Pleasure Principle *operates to satisfy one’s drives (immediate gratification) & avoid pain, w/o concern for moral restrictions or society’s regulations (ID’s goals) EGO *develops from the id *it settles the conflicts between the ID & Superego (Judge) *is conscious & unconsciousness *Our “internal censor” (it screens wild impulses of the id) Reality Principle *U can’t always get what u want” *the rational, thoughtful, & realistic part of your personality *negotiate between the id’s desires & the limitations of the environment *Healthy ego—finds ways to balance the id’s demands & the Superego’s warnings Superego *operates on the conscious & unconscious levels *develops around the age of 5 Moral Principle *it’s our conscience (r sense of right & wrong) *Goal: keep the ID in check * it strives for perfection (always do the right thing) *Causes guilt for being bad/pride for doing the right thing Anxiety (Inner-Conflict) *is an uncomfortable feeling Defense Mechanisms that results from inner *mental strategies used by the conflicts between the ego when it can’t resolve desires of the ID & the personality conflicts morals of the Superego. *we deceive ourselves into *a sign of ID-Superego inner minimizing / ignoring the conflict problem *the use of these is common & necessary for psychological well-being *Overuse leads to not solving one’s problems Defense Mechanisms *these operate unconsciously *use of self deception to protect one’s self- Repression (to forget) esteem or self-concept *pushing unacceptable or EX. Failed a test / worked threatening feelings into the last night unconscious Ex. abused children / rape victim Regression (revert back) *under great stress one Rationalization (make excuses) can revert to earlier beh.s *making up acceptable excuses for beh.’s that cause us to feel anxious *usually temporary *explain away a problem so we EX. Pout, throw tantrum, don’t have to accept the blame don’t speak, bedwetting Projection (point the finger) *refusing to admit there’s a *unconsciously attributing problem or that anything your own inner feelings bad has happened on someone else *common 1st response to a tragedy *people see their own faults Reaction-Formation in other people *expressing the opposite of how we truly feel Ex. many people feel that Ex. Jr. high interactions others don’t like them, when in reality they hate themselves Denial (to not admit) *refusing to recognize some anxiety-producing event or piece of info. DROOPY Displacement (redirect anger) *transferring feelings from their OFFICE SPACE true source to another source *poor innocent bystanders *”misplaced aggression” Ex. Man / boss / wife Sublimation *a type of displacement that involved redirection of a threatening or forbidden desire, usually sexual/ aggressive into a socially acceptable one Ex. Aggressive people –play foot- ball, wrestle, etc… Psychosexual Stages *5 developmental periods *an adult’s problems might each marked by actually stem from potential conflicts unresolved childhood between parent & child conflicts *conflicts arise as a child 1.) Oral Stage seeks pleasure from *infancy to 18 months diff. body areas that are *infant’s pleasure seeking is associated w/ sexual centered on the mouth feelings (ex. sucking, chewing, biting, Fixation drinking, licking, etc…) *an individual may be locked into a particular psychosexual stage b/c Fixation—at this stage b/c our of his/her wishes oral wishes were gratified too much or too little Adult—gum chewing, 2. Anal Stage smoking, overeating, nail- *Toilet training biting, overly demanding, *1 ½ - 3 yrs. “mouthing off”, sarcastic and having clinging *pleasure of bowel & relationships bladder elimination & the demand for self - control Fixation as adults OR Anal retentive *being very neat, stubborn, stingy, hyper-organized (a bit compulsive) Expulsive *careless, disorganized, messy, rebellious & destructive OR Phallic Stage (3 – 6 yrs) *child’s pleasure seeking is centered on the genitals Oedipus Complex *process in which a child competes w/ the parents of the same sex for the affections & pleasures of the parents of the opposite sex Problems *Boys—fear of castration *Girls—penis envy (Electra Complex) Latency Stage Genital Stage *6 yrs - puberty *puberty thru adulthood *hang out w/ the sex *individual has renewed sexual desires that he/she seeks to fulfill *child represses sexual thru relationships w/ thoughts & engages in other people (seeks non-sexual activities, such marital partner) & earlier as developing social & conflicts reappear intellectual skills Neo-Freudians / Psychodynamic Approach *broke away from biological *Swiss drives & focused on soc. & Psychiatrist cultural influences in the unconscious *Disciple of Carl Jung (1875 – 1961) Freud *Analytical Psychology Archetypes --how shared symbols & *term for inherited (universal) religion influence human human concepts (hero, God, beh. mother, wisemen, etc… *believed the unconscious is a 4 Main Archetypes well of mystical & religious Self Shadow beliefs that controls Anima / Animus our beh. Persona Collective Unconscious GOOD EVIL *the portion of a person that contains ideas (archetypes) shared by the whole human race George Lucas Wiseman Alfred Adler ( 1870 – 1937) *downplayed the unconscious *Disciple of & focused on the conscious Freud role of the ego * an Ego psychologist *biggest problem people face? We want to feel worthwhile & important Inferiority Complex *believed people are motivated *a pattern of avoiding by a need to overcome feelings of inadequacy & inferiorities experienced in insignificance rather than childhood. their source *this leads to a desire to strive *we all have this for superiority Ex. Bullies Sibling Rivalry *Conflict / jealousies between brothers & sisters Birth Order Middle Oldest Parents Youngest *have a chance to raise children to be confident & self-reliant; don’t over-pamper or neglect them Karen Horney (1885 – 1952) *disagreed w/ *believed that the major influence Freud’s “Penis on personality development can Envy” theory be found in parent-child soc. Interactions *claimed that the human feels most helpless, anxious, & lost in life around issues of getting enough love, so we often go along w/ people when we don’t want to in order to not get rejected by them “Womb Envy” theory Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages *our personality was profoundly influenced by our experiences with others. *each stage centering on a specific social conflict / crisis (1902 – 1994) *if a person doesn’t resolve a particular *consists of EIGHT crisis, it may make the developmental stages (a following crisis tougher lifelong process) to handle Evaluation of the Psychoanalytic Approach Freud’s Impact Criticisms of Freud *compassion for people w/ *too much emphasis on early child- psychological disorders hood, sex & unconscious motives *childhood events led to *little empirical evidence support society’s awareness of the emotional needs of children *has little predictive power *people aren’t just driven by the id *sexual & aggressive urges are common *unconscious thoughts shape *his main research methods were our beh. case studies (can’t generalize) *Freudian terms have crept *feminists found his theory into laypeople’s language objectionable Social –Cognitive Theory Albert Bandura *stresses the influence of external events & how people interpret them *Results from watching, imitating, & modeling Results *Demonstrated that children who *Doesn’t require the observe aggressive adult models observer to perform any become aggressive themselves as a observable behavior or result receive any observable Later Results reward *kids that witnessed adults being punished for aggressive beh. were *Bobo Doll Study (1965) less likely to copy the beh. Reciprocal Determinism *personality/learning is shaped by the interaction of the following factors: PERSONAL FACTORS, BEHAVIOR, & ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS The three factors, behavior, cognition, and environment, are interlocking determinants of each other. *Soc.-Cog. Psychologists *Besides learning form observation, focus on personal control INTERNAL VARIABLES (listed below) also influence how we beh. Julian Rotter (1990) In certain situations. External Locus of Control *fate is determined by SKILLS outside forces VALUES Internal Locus of Control *our destiny is controlled by GOALS our own beh. EXPECTATIONS *Studies show: “internals” act more independently, SELF-EFFICACY EXPECTATIONS deal better w/ stress, & (Bandura) enjoy better health than “externals” Why are some psychologists dissatisfied with the learning approach? *It has not come up with satisfying explanations for the development of traits or accounted for self- awareness *It may not pay much attention to the role genetic variation plays in determining individual differences in beh. *It does not discuss how the unconscious affects personality Humanistic Psychology *By the 1960s, psychologists became discontent w/ Freud’s Abraham Maslow negativity & the mechanistic (1908-1970) psychology of the behaviorists. *Humanistic psychologists focus on “healthy “ people & how they strive for self- Carl Rogers fulfillment & ethical (1902-1987) conduct. *people r good, they are free to do what they want & they r responsible for their Abraham Maslow *Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. *Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self-actualization— fulfilling our potential. *Only when needs are met at the lower level can we advance to the next level. Carl Rogers Self Theory Self-actualizing tendency *based on 2 major *an innate drive that motivates a assumptions person to reach his or her full potential *personality development is guided by each person’s Self-concept unique self-actualized *refers to how we see, think or tendency feel about ourselves Real Self vs. Ideal Self *each of us has a personal need for pos. regard Real Self *based on our actual experiences *represents how we really r Ideal Self How does the Self develop? *based on our hopes/wishes Positive Regard *reflects how we would like *includes love, sympathy, warmth to be acceptance, & respect which we crave from family, friends, & Congruence people important to us *consistency between one’s 2 Kinds self-concept & one’s Conditional Positive Regard experience *refers to the pos. regard we receive if we behave in certain *the closer the real & ideal acceptable ways, such as living up self are to each other, the to our meeting the standards of more congruence one others experiences. Unconditional Positive Regard *is an attitude of acceptance of *congruence leads to a healthy self-concept others despite their failings. *Unconditional Pos. Regard person needs to be in could improve the self-concept. environments that encourage genuineness, acceptance & *this leads to congruence— empathy. which occurs when a person can be him/herself & not worry Humanistic Evaluation about trying to impress others Positives w/ false beliefs or beh. *focus on the conscious *stress human freedom *Conditional Pos. Regard could lead to an unhealthy self- Negatives concept b/c a person may just *overly optimistic of people distort the truth of who he/she is *can’t explain the evil in the to achieve approval world *has little to say about the *to foster personal growth & development of traits & personalities reach self-actualization, a Sociocultural Psychology *an approach that focuses on the Collectivists (“Us”) roles of ethnicity, gender, & culture in the formation of one’s *Tend to define themselves in personality terms of the groups to which they belong Individualists (“I or me”) *tend to define themselves in *often give priority to the terms of their personal identities goals of the group *give priority to personal goals *put the well being of the *going for the $ (capitalist group before their ambitions system) *EX. Africa, Asia, Central & Ex. United States & many South American European nations Acculturation Ch. 15 Psychological Tests *the process of adapting to a new culture occurs in various patterns --Complete assimilation or absorption into the new culture --Maintain separation --Bicultural (integrate both sets of values & customs) --research shows that these people have the highest self-esteem Psychological Tests Uses 4 Features *to show how much people Standardization have learned (achievement) *this means that a test is administered & scored the *special aptitudes & same way each time it is interests—to see if a given person is suited for a certain occupation Reliability *Tests provide consistent results *to assess one’s abilities, over time. If similar tests feelings, attitudes, given 2 times, similar results. behaviors & personality traits Ex. Split-half, alternative form *educational & medical & test/retest decisions Validity Measuring Achievement, *the extent to which a test Abilities & Interests measures what it is supposed to measure & predict what it is Achievement Tests supposed to predict. *measure a narrow range of Validity Scales skills *a group of test items that suggest *tests that measure skills & whether or not the test taker is knowledge in a particular answering honestly academic area Norms Examples– *established standards of performance Aptitude Tests Norm group *measure more broader *a grp. of test takers whose scores abilities than achievement establish the norm for a particular tests test *Are intended to measure Personality Tests (Types) potential for learning in a specific area. Objective Tests *made up of standardized test *it’s used to predict how well the person will do in a particular items presented in a after receiving training. questionnaire format (you have items to choose from) Examples—SAT, LSAT, & MCAT Examples Vocational Interest Inventories *tests that r used to help people Minnesota Multiphasic make decisions career options Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Examples *most widely used *Kuder Career Search (forced- *designed to diagnose & choice format) classify psychological *Campbell Interest & Skill Survey disorders (CISS) *T/F self-report questions that consists of 567 statements 3 Scales *Validity – assesses whether the client was faking good or bad answers. *Clinical – identify psychological disorders (depression, paranoia, or schizophrenia) *Content – identify specific areas such as the anger scale (irritability, hotheaded, to difficulties controlling anger) California Psychological Projective Tests Inventory (CPI) *no clearly specified answers *open-ended format *designed to measure “normal” personality *require individuals to look @ traits some meaningless object or ambiguous photo & describe *has high reliability what they see *individuals are assumed to *thought to be a better project both their conscious & predictor of success & unconscious feelings, needs, & reactions to stress motives onto the stimulus Rorschach Inkblot Test *The most widely used projective test uses a set of 10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) *Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. Projective Tests: Criticisms *Critics argue that projective tests lack both reliability (consistency of results) and validity (predicting what it is supposed to). 1. When evaluating the same patient, even trained raters come up with different interpretations (reliability). 2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal individual as pathological (validity).
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