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					Unit 4 Personality
Personality                 a.) Hippocrates
*the unique & consistent    *Greek physician
   patterns of feelings,    *believed that personality
   motives, & beh. that     traits were a result of 4
   set people apart from    basic fluids (humors) in one’s
   one another
                            body
Traits                      Yellow Bile
*an aspect                  *choleric—quick tempered
   (characteristics) of
   personality that is      Blood                               (460 B.C.)
   considered               *sanguine—warm & cheerful
   reasonably stable        Phlegm
                            *phlegmatic—sluggish and cool
*are assumed to account     Black bile
   for consistent beh. in   *melancholic—thoughtful
   different situations
EX. Personal AD             *diseases & disorders –a lack of balance in
                               these humors
Trait Theories
*predict how people will    *Bloodletting—a method used to restore one’s
   act or think based on       health
   their specific traits
                            *no evidence for this theory, but the words r still
                               used today
b.) Gordon Allport (1897 –     *similar scheme to Hippocrates
    1967)

*1936

*reviewed the dictionary &
   identified 18,000 traits

c.) Hans and Sybil Eysenck
*1950’s

*suggested that personality
   could be reduced down to
   two polar dimensions,
   extraversion-introversion
   and emotional stability-
   instability.
              Five-Factor Model
*”The Big 5” (Canoe)          *a person’s position along these
*McCrae & Costa (1960’s)         dimensions tends to be established @
*what many psychologists         an early age & remains stable through
   consider to be the 5 basic    life
   factors/dimensions of
   personality                Evaluation of the Trait Theory
                                 Disadvantages
CONSCIENTIOUSNESS            *it describes traits rather than explaining
AGREEABLENESS                    their origins or figuring out how people
NEUROTICISM                      w/ undesirable traits can change for
                                 the better
OPENNESS
                             *provides no explanation of how
EXTROVERSION                     personality develops

                                Advantages
                             *the ability to measure personality traits
                             *matching people to jobs & educational
                                programs on the basis of their traits
         The Psychoanalytic Approach
                                         *Because we cannot accept them
Sigmund Freud (1856 – 1939)
                                            in our conscious, thoughts
*specialized in neurology & was an          find their expression in
   expert on paralysis in young             dreams, slips of the tongue
   children                                 that appear as accidents and
                                            even jokes
*All behavior is meaningful, driven by
   unconscious forces. It can be                             *Vienna,
   controlled by digging below the                           Austria
   surface to uncover the roots of
   personality.
                                                            *used
*core of personality—5 or 6 yrs. of
                                                             hypnosis
   life
*Unresolved Conflicts: If these occur
   in childhood, this will cause                           *prescribed
   fixations in later life. (Stages)                         cocaine

Unconscious
*Nearly all of our impulses are sexual
      Discovering the Unconscious
Free Association (“Talking Cure”)
*Clients are encouraged to talk about any thoughts or impulses
   that enter their head
*the assumption is that this kind of free flowing uncensored talking
   will
*provide clues to unconscious material
                      *”THE FREUDIAN COUCH”
   DREAM ANALYSIS & HYPNOSIS
*Analyzing dreams is based on
                              *Hypnosis
  the assumption that dreams
  contain underlying, hidden
  meanings and symbols that
  provide clues to
  unconscious thoughts and
  desires.

Manifest Content
*Obvious content of dreams—
  STORY LINE (bizarre stories
  and symbols)

Latent Content
*Hidden or disguised meanings
              FREUDIAN SLIPS
                         “Big is Beautiful Conference”

*Mistakes or “slips of the
  tongue” that we make in
  everyday speech

*These mistakes are
  thought to reflect
  unconscious thoughts
  or wishes (our true
  feelings come out)
3 Basic Psychological Structures of the Mind
*Freud compared the        *contains thought s, emotions, &
   human psyche to an        memories we’re not aware of
   iceberg                 *Where r “True personality “ lies

Conscious Mind
*small part of the
  iceberg seen above
  the water
*contains thoughts &
  memories we r aware
  of

Unconscious
*the bulk of the iceberg
   that can’t be seen
                                   ID
*a reservoir of our aggressive desires
    for survival & reproduction
*exists entirely in the unconscious
    mind

*present @ birth (babies are controlled
   by it) & makes sure babies needs
   are met

*the “kid” / playful side in all of us
*the selfish side of us

Pleasure Principle
*operates to satisfy one’s drives
   (immediate gratification) & avoid
   pain, w/o concern for moral
   restrictions or society’s regulations
   (ID’s goals)
                            EGO
*develops from the id                *it settles the conflicts between
                                         the ID & Superego (Judge)
*is conscious & unconsciousness
*Our “internal censor” (it screens
    wild impulses of the id)
Reality Principle
*U can’t always get what u want”
*the rational, thoughtful, &
    realistic part of your
    personality
*negotiate between the id’s
    desires & the limitations of the
    environment
*Healthy ego—finds ways to
    balance the id’s demands &
    the Superego’s warnings
                    Superego
*operates on the conscious &
  unconscious levels
*develops around the age of 5

Moral Principle
*it’s our conscience (r sense
    of right & wrong)
*Goal: keep the ID in check

* it strives for perfection
   (always do the right thing)

*Causes guilt for being
  bad/pride for doing the
  right thing
          Anxiety (Inner-Conflict)
*is an uncomfortable feeling Defense Mechanisms
   that results from inner   *mental strategies used by the
   conflicts between the       ego when it can’t resolve
   desires of the ID & the     personality conflicts
   morals of the Superego.
                             *we deceive ourselves into
*a sign of ID-Superego inner   minimizing / ignoring the
  conflict                     problem

                             *the use of these is common &
                                necessary for
                                psychological well-being

                             *Overuse leads to not solving
                               one’s problems
             Defense Mechanisms
*these operate unconsciously     *use of self deception to
                                   protect one’s self-
Repression (to forget)             esteem or self-concept
*pushing unacceptable or         EX. Failed a test / worked
  threatening feelings into the    last night
  unconscious
Ex. abused children / rape victim Regression (revert back)
                                  *under great stress one
Rationalization (make excuses)      can revert to earlier
                                    beh.s
*making up acceptable excuses
  for beh.’s that cause us to feel
  anxious                          *usually temporary

*explain away a problem so we     EX. Pout, throw tantrum,
   don’t have to accept the blame   don’t speak, bedwetting
Projection (point the finger) *refusing to admit there’s a
*unconsciously attributing       problem or that anything
  your own inner feelings        bad has happened
  on someone else             *common 1st response to a
                                 tragedy
*people see their own faults Reaction-Formation
  in other people            *expressing the opposite of
                                how we truly feel
Ex. many people feel that    Ex. Jr. high interactions
  others don’t like them,
  when in reality they hate
  themselves

Denial (to not admit)
*refusing to recognize some
   anxiety-producing event
   or piece of info.                               DROOPY
Displacement (redirect anger)
*transferring feelings from their   OFFICE SPACE
   true source to another source
*poor innocent bystanders
*”misplaced aggression”
Ex. Man / boss / wife

Sublimation
*a type of displacement that
   involved redirection of a
   threatening or forbidden
   desire, usually sexual/
   aggressive into a socially
   acceptable one
Ex. Aggressive people –play foot-
     ball, wrestle, etc…
             Psychosexual Stages
*5 developmental periods *an adult’s problems might
   each marked by          actually stem from
   potential conflicts     unresolved childhood
   between parent & child  conflicts

*conflicts arise as a child    1.) Oral Stage
   seeks pleasure from         *infancy to 18 months
   diff. body areas that are   *infant’s pleasure seeking is
   associated w/ sexual        centered on the mouth
   feelings
                               (ex. sucking, chewing, biting,
Fixation                          drinking, licking, etc…)
*an individual may be
   locked into a particular
   psychosexual stage b/c      Fixation—at this stage b/c our
   of his/her wishes              oral wishes were gratified too
                                  much or too little
Adult—gum chewing,             2. Anal Stage
  smoking, overeating, nail-   *Toilet training
  biting, overly demanding,    *1 ½ - 3 yrs.
  “mouthing off”, sarcastic
  and having clinging          *pleasure of bowel &
  relationships                   bladder elimination & the
                                  demand for self - control

                               Fixation as adults
                   OR
                               Anal retentive
                               *being very neat, stubborn,
                                  stingy, hyper-organized
                                  (a bit compulsive)
                               Expulsive
                               *careless, disorganized,
                                  messy, rebellious &
                                  destructive
OR
          Phallic Stage (3 – 6 yrs)
*child’s pleasure seeking is
  centered on the genitals

Oedipus Complex
*process in which a child
  competes w/ the parents
  of the same sex for the
  affections & pleasures of
  the parents of the
  opposite sex

Problems
*Boys—fear of castration
*Girls—penis envy (Electra
  Complex)
  Latency Stage                  Genital Stage
*6 yrs - puberty                *puberty thru adulthood
*hang out w/ the sex            *individual has renewed
                                   sexual desires that
                                   he/she seeks to fulfill
*child represses sexual            thru relationships w/
  thoughts & engages in            other people (seeks
  non-sexual activities, such      marital partner) & earlier
  as developing social &           conflicts reappear
  intellectual skills
  Neo-Freudians / Psychodynamic Approach
*broke away from biological                      *Swiss
  drives & focused on soc. &                     Psychiatrist
  cultural influences in the
  unconscious
                                                 *Disciple of
Carl Jung (1875 – 1961)
                                                 Freud
*Analytical Psychology            Archetypes
  --how shared symbols &         *term for inherited (universal)
  religion influence human       human concepts (hero, God,
  beh.                              mother, wisemen, etc…


*believed the unconscious is a     4 Main Archetypes
  well of mystical & religious     Self     Shadow
  beliefs that controls            Anima / Animus
  our beh.                         Persona
Collective Unconscious      GOOD             EVIL
 *the portion of a person
  that contains ideas
  (archetypes) shared by
  the whole human race


  George Lucas

                                   Wiseman
     Alfred Adler ( 1870 – 1937)
*downplayed the unconscious                       *Disciple of
  & focused on the conscious                       Freud
  role of the ego
                                                  * an Ego
                                                  psychologist
*biggest problem people face?
   We want to feel worthwhile &
   important
                               Inferiority Complex
*believed people are motivated *a pattern of avoiding
  by a need to overcome           feelings of inadequacy &
  inferiorities experienced in    insignificance rather than
  childhood.                      their source


*this leads to a desire to strive   *we all have this
   for superiority
Ex. Bullies                  Sibling Rivalry
                             *Conflict / jealousies between
                               brothers & sisters

                             Birth Order

                             Middle
                                           Oldest



Parents                                    Youngest
*have a chance to raise
  children to be confident
  & self-reliant; don’t
  over-pamper or neglect
  them
    Karen Horney (1885 – 1952)
                                      *disagreed w/
*believed that the major influence    Freud’s “Penis
  on personality development can
                                      Envy” theory
  be found in parent-child soc.
  Interactions



*claimed that the human feels most
  helpless, anxious, & lost in life
  around issues of getting enough
  love, so we often go along w/
  people when we don’t want to in
  order to not get rejected by them   “Womb Envy”
                                        theory
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages
*our personality was
  profoundly influenced
  by our experiences with
  others.

*each stage centering on a
  specific social conflict /
  crisis
                                 (1902 – 1994)
*if a person doesn’t
    resolve a particular     *consists of EIGHT
    crisis, it may make the    developmental stages (a
    following crisis tougher   lifelong process)
    to handle
 Evaluation of the Psychoanalytic Approach
Freud’s Impact                 Criticisms of Freud
*compassion for people w/      *too much emphasis on early child-
psychological disorders        hood, sex & unconscious motives


*childhood events led to       *little empirical evidence support
society’s awareness of the
 emotional needs of children   *has little predictive power

                            *people aren’t just driven by the id
*sexual & aggressive urges
   are common
*unconscious thoughts shape *his main research methods were
   our beh.                    case studies (can’t generalize)


*Freudian terms have crept     *feminists found his theory
   into laypeople’s language      objectionable
       Social –Cognitive Theory
Albert Bandura
*stresses the influence of
 external events & how
 people interpret them


*Results from watching,
imitating, & modeling        Results
                             *Demonstrated that children who
*Doesn’t require the          observe aggressive adult models
 observer to perform any      become aggressive themselves as a
 observable behavior or       result
 receive any observable      Later Results
 reward                      *kids that witnessed adults being
                             punished for aggressive beh. were
*Bobo Doll Study (1965)
                             less likely to copy the beh.
Reciprocal Determinism
*personality/learning is shaped by the interaction of the
following factors: PERSONAL FACTORS, BEHAVIOR, &
    ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

The three factors, behavior, cognition, and environment, are
  interlocking determinants of each other.
*Soc.-Cog. Psychologists     *Besides learning form observation,
focus on personal control     INTERNAL VARIABLES (listed
                             below) also influence how we beh.
Julian Rotter (1990)          In certain situations.
External Locus of Control
*fate is determined by       SKILLS
 outside forces
                             VALUES
Internal Locus of Control
*our destiny is controlled by GOALS
 our own beh.
                              EXPECTATIONS
*Studies show: “internals”
act more independently,      SELF-EFFICACY EXPECTATIONS
deal better w/ stress, &                (Bandura)
enjoy better health than
“externals”
Why are some psychologists dissatisfied
with the learning approach?

*It has not come up with satisfying explanations for
 the development of traits or accounted for self-
awareness

*It may not pay much attention to the role genetic
 variation plays in determining individual differences
 in beh.

*It does not discuss how the unconscious affects
 personality
             Humanistic Psychology
*By the 1960s, psychologists
became discontent w/ Freud’s         Abraham Maslow
negativity & the mechanistic            (1908-1970)
psychology of the
  behaviorists.

*Humanistic psychologists
 focus on “healthy “ people
 & how they strive for self-          Carl Rogers
fulfillment & ethical                 (1902-1987)
   conduct.

*people r good, they are
 free to do what they want
 & they r responsible for their
         Abraham Maslow

*Maslow proposed that we as individuals are
 motivated by a hierarchy of needs.

*Beginning with physiological needs, we try
  to reach the state of self-actualization—
  fulfilling our potential.

*Only when needs are met at the lower level
  can we advance to the next level.
                     Carl Rogers
Self Theory                  Self-actualizing tendency
*based on 2 major            *an innate drive that motivates a
  assumptions                 person to reach his or her full
                             potential
*personality development
 is guided by each person’s Self-concept
unique self-actualized      *refers to how we see, think or
 tendency                    feel about ourselves

                             Real Self    vs.    Ideal Self
*each of us has a personal
 need for pos. regard
                             Real Self
                             *based on our actual experiences
                             *represents how we really r
Ideal Self                 How does the Self develop?
*based on our hopes/wishes Positive Regard
*reflects how we would like   *includes love, sympathy, warmth
 to be                         acceptance, & respect which we
                               crave from family, friends, &
Congruence                     people important to us
*consistency between one’s 2 Kinds
self-concept & one’s         Conditional Positive Regard
experience                   *refers to the pos. regard we
                              receive if we behave in certain
*the closer the real & ideal acceptable ways, such as living up
self are to each other, the  to our meeting the standards of
 more congruence one          others
experiences.                 Unconditional Positive Regard
                              *is an attitude of acceptance of
*congruence leads to a
   healthy self-concept       others despite their failings.
*Unconditional Pos. Regard           person needs to be in
could improve the self-concept.      environments that encourage
                                     genuineness, acceptance &
*this leads to congruence—           empathy.
which occurs when a person can
be him/herself & not worry           Humanistic Evaluation
about trying to impress others       Positives
w/ false beliefs or beh.             *focus on the conscious
                                     *stress human freedom
*Conditional Pos. Regard could
lead to an unhealthy self-           Negatives
concept b/c a person may just        *overly optimistic of people
distort the truth of who he/she is   *can’t explain the evil in the
 to achieve approval                    world
                                     *has little to say about the
*to foster personal growth &            development of traits &
                                        personalities
reach self-actualization, a
         Sociocultural Psychology
*an approach that focuses on the     Collectivists (“Us”)
roles of ethnicity, gender, &
culture in the formation of one’s    *Tend to define themselves in
personality                          terms of the groups to which
                                      they belong
Individualists (“I or me”)
*tend to define themselves in        *often give priority to the
terms of their personal identities   goals of the group


*give priority to personal goals     *put the well being of the
*going for the $ (capitalist         group before their ambitions
system)
                                     *EX. Africa, Asia, Central &
Ex. United States & many               South American
European nations
Acculturation                  Ch. 15 Psychological Tests
*the process of adapting to
a new culture

occurs in various patterns
--Complete assimilation or
   absorption into the new
   culture

--Maintain separation

--Bicultural (integrate both
   sets of values & customs)

      --research shows that
      these people have the
      highest self-esteem
                 Psychological Tests
Uses                              4 Features
*to show how much people          Standardization
have learned (achievement)
                                  *this means that a test is
                                  administered & scored the
*special aptitudes &
                                   same way each time it is
 interests—to see if a
                                  given
 person is suited for a
 certain occupation
                                  Reliability
                                  *Tests provide consistent results
*to assess one’s abilities,          over time. If similar tests
 feelings, attitudes,                given 2 times, similar results.
 behaviors & personality traits
                                    Ex. Split-half, alternative form
*educational & medical              & test/retest
decisions
Validity                           Measuring Achievement,
*the extent to which a test          Abilities & Interests
 measures what it is supposed
to measure & predict what it is    Achievement Tests
supposed to predict.                *measure a narrow range of
   Validity Scales                     skills
*a group of test items that suggest *tests that measure skills &
whether or not the test taker is     knowledge in a particular
answering honestly                   academic area


Norms                              Examples–
*established standards of
performance                        Aptitude Tests
  Norm group                         *measure more broader
*a grp. of test takers whose scores abilities than achievement
 establish the norm for a particular tests
 test
*Are intended to measure            Personality Tests (Types)
   potential for learning in a
   specific area.
                                    Objective Tests
                                   *made up of standardized test
*it’s used to predict how well the
    person will do in a particular  items presented in a
    after receiving training.      questionnaire format (you
                                   have items to choose from)
Examples—SAT, LSAT, & MCAT
                                    Examples
Vocational Interest Inventories
*tests that r used to help people   Minnesota Multiphasic
 make decisions career options      Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
            Examples                  *most widely used
*Kuder Career Search (forced-         *designed to diagnose &
  choice format)                      classify psychological
*Campbell Interest & Skill Survey     disorders
  (CISS)
*T/F self-report questions
 that consists of 567
   statements
             3 Scales
*Validity – assesses whether
 the client was faking good or
 bad answers.

*Clinical – identify
 psychological disorders
 (depression, paranoia, or
 schizophrenia)

*Content – identify specific
areas such as the anger scale
 (irritability, hotheaded, to
difficulties controlling anger)
California Psychological   Projective Tests
  Inventory (CPI)          *no clearly specified answers
                           *open-ended format
*designed to measure
  “normal” personality     *require individuals to look @
  traits                    some meaningless object or
                            ambiguous photo & describe
*has high reliability       what they see

                           *individuals are assumed to
*thought to be a better
                            project both their conscious &
 predictor of success &
                            unconscious feelings, needs, &
 reactions to stress        motives onto the stimulus
         Rorschach Inkblot Test
*The most widely used projective test uses a set of
    10 inkblots and was designed by Hermann
   Rorschach. It seeks to identify people’s inner
 feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the
                       blots.
  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
*Developed by Henry Murray, the TAT is a projective
test in which people express their inner feelings and
  interests through the stories they make up about
                 ambiguous scenes.
        Projective Tests: Criticisms

      *Critics argue that projective tests lack both
     reliability (consistency of results) and validity
           (predicting what it is supposed to).

1.    When evaluating the same patient, even
      trained raters come up with different
      interpretations (reliability).


2. Projective tests may misdiagnose a normal
     individual as pathological (validity).

				
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