Gender Privilege/Oppression Prof. Jose Alamillo CES 101: 06 Spring 2008 SEX AND GENDER SEX BIOLOGY male/female categories GENDER SOCIAL ideas/practices of CONSTRUCTION masculinity/femininity ↓ Men’s power to subordinate women (sexism/patriarchy) Gender Inequality: Workplace • Greater number of women in the workplace but according to 2004 U.S. Census Bureau women make only 76.5 cents for every dollar that men earn. • “Glass ceiling” prevents women from reaching higher paid positions • “Mommy track” prevents another barrier towards advancement • “Glass Escalator” hidden advantages for men in predominantly female occupations (nursing, librarians, elementary teachers, social workers) Gender Inequality: Education • By 2007 women were 57% of college graduates compared to 43% of men • Women with B.A. degrees earn only $4,708 more than men with H.S. diploma, Men with B.A. degrees earn $24,700 more than men with H.S. diploma • Women are concentrated in social sciences, while men in engineering, computers, math. • The value/earnings in the area where women become predominant tend to decline (i.e. teachers) My Invisible Male Privilege Checklist • My odds of being hired for a job, when competing against female applicants are skewed in my favor • The odds of my encountering sexual harassment on the job are very low • I am not taught to fear walking alone after dark in average public spaces • If I have children but do not provide primary care for them, my masculinity will not be called into question • If I have sex with a lot of people, it won’t make me an object of contempt or derision • I will never be expected to change my name upon marriage or questioned if I don’t change my name • I am not expected to spend my entire life 20-40 pounds underweight. “Act Like a Man Box” Verbal abuse Physical abuse Tough beat up sissy Aggressive fag teased Competitive mama’s boy isolated intimidate wimp In control rejected girl No feelings forced to Take it play sports nerd don’t cry sexual bitch Have sex with women assault “Main Forms of Masculinities” • Dominant or Hegemonic Definition of “real manhood” that has developed in a particular culture in order for dominant men to maintain power over women and other men. (i.e. heterosexual men) • Subordinate Those male behaviors that threaten the legitimacy of hegemonic masculinity and are vulnerable to abuse and ridicule (i.e. gay or effeminate men) • Complicit ”patriarchal dividend”= men’s dominant position in the gender order has material payoffs w/o lifting a finger • Marginalized Adaptation of masculinities to such issues of race and class (i.e. black masculinity) Miscellaneous Notes: • Multiple Masculinities, but one is dominant over others at all times. • Masculinity varies across race, class, age and ethnic lines • While men are harmed by patriarchy, women are oppressed by it. • Paradox of masculinity: men as a group have power over women as a group, but as individuals do not feel powerful. • Men’s social power is the source of individual power & privilege but also the source of individual experience of pain, shame, fear, depression and alienation.
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