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					Hop By Hop Multicast
Routing Protocol

        2002.03.19
       Yun Chan Phill
    Yunmir@postech.ac.kr
    Reference
   Hop By Hop Multicast Routing Protocol
       Luis Henrique M.K. Costa, Serge Fidda,
        Otto Carlos M.B. Duarte
       ACM Sigcomm 2001
       August, 2001
   REUNITE: A Recursive Unicast
    Approach to Multicast
       Ion Stoica, T.S. Eugene Nng, Hui Zhang
       IEEE INFOCOM 2000
                                          POSTECH NDS
                       - 2-
    Issue
   Pronunciation of REUNITE
       [ri ju n it] = re+ unite
   Route Stability
       Assume Point-to-Point Network
   Network Asymmetry
       Hot Potato Routing
   Incremental Deployment

                                        POSTECH NDS
                         - 3-
 Incremental Deployment




(Average)
(Maximum)
                          POSTECH NDS
            - 4-
    Contents
   Introduction
   Recursive Unicast Tree Routing
   Hop By Hop Multicast Routing
   Simulation
   Conclusion




                                     POSTECH NDS
                   - 5-
           Multicast
Unicast




Muticast




                              POSTECH NDS
                       - 6-
Applications of Multicast
   video/audio conferencing for remote
    meetings
   News feed/ File distribution
   Interactive games
   service advertisement




                                      POSTECH NDS
                   - 7-
    Challenges of Multicast
   Scalability
   Group Management
   Incremental Deployment




                              POSTECH NDS
                   - 8-
    Class D Address for MR
   Data Forwarding
       All routers should be support Multicast
         No Incremental Deployment
   Group Identification
       Makes Address Allocation difficult




                                                  POSTECH NDS
                         - 9-
Recursive Unicast Tree

                    Branch Node Become a
                      Source of Child Tree




                                             POSTECH NDS
           - 10 -
    Motivation of REUNITE
   Support Incremental Deployment
     Unicast Recursive Routing For
    maintaining Tree
   Support Easy Group Management
     Use Unicast Address For Identify
    Group and Data Forwarding



                                    POSTECH NDS
                   - 11 -
    Tables of REUINTE
   Multicast Control Table
       Manage Non-Branching Tree
       Only One Content per A Router
       Forward Control Messages
   Multicast Forward Table
       Manage Branching Tree
       Multiple Contents Can Exist(# of Branch)


                                           POSTECH NDS
                       - 12 -
    Phases of REUNITE
   Join
   Maintain Tree
   Leave




                             POSTECH NDS
                    - 13 -
 Join REUNITE
          S
                            Initial State For Group




     N1            N4




              N3


N2




                               MCT
     r1   r2       r3          MFT


                                                POSTECH NDS
                   - 14 -
 Join REUNITE
          S
                            Initial State For Group



                             R1 Join That Group
     N1            N4




              N3


N2




                               MCT           JOIN

     r1   r2       r3          MFT


                                                POSTECH NDS
                   - 15 -
 Join REUNITE
               S
                        R1                      R1 Join That Group



          R1                                   Tree Message For R1
     N1                      N4



                        R1
                   N3
                                      Attention the Difference

N2




                                                  MCT            JOIN

     r1        r2            r3                    MFT           TREE


                                                                   POSTECH NDS
                             - 16 -
 Join REUNITE
               S
                        R1            R3 Join That Group



          R1
     N1                      N4



                        R1
                   N3


N2




                                        MCT         JOIN

     r1        r2            r3         MFT        TREE


                                                       POSTECH NDS
                             - 17 -
 Join REUNITE
               S
                        R1               R3 Join That Group



          R1                             Tree Message For R3
     N1                         N4




                   N3
                        R1 R3

N2




                                           MCT         JOIN

     r1        r2               r3          MFT        TREE


                                                          POSTECH NDS
                                - 18 -
 Join REUNITE
               S
                        R1              R2 Join That Group



          R1                            Tree Message For R2
     N1                        N4




                   N3
                        R1 R3 R2

N2




                                          MCT         JOIN

     r1        r2             r3           MFT        TREE


                                                         POSTECH NDS
                               - 19 -
 Refresh REUNITE Tree
               S
                        R1
                                        No Refresh the MCT
                                            component

          R1
     N1                        N4




                   N3
                        R1 R3 R2

N2




                                          MCT         JOIN

     r1        r2             r3          MFT        TREE


                                                         POSTECH NDS
                               - 20 -
 Leave REUNITE
               S                        R1 Send No more Join for
                        R1
                                            Leaving the Group


          R1
     N1                        N4




                   N3
                        R1 R3 R2

N2




                                             MCT         JOIN

     r1        r2             r3             MFT         TREE


                                                            POSTECH NDS
                               - 21 -
 Leave REUNITE
               S                         R1 Become Stale After
                        R1
                                               Timeout


          R1                            S Send Stal Tree Message
     N1                        N4




                   N3
                        R1 R3 R2

N2




                                             MCT         JOIN
                                                         TREE
     r1        r2             r3             MFT          Stale
                                                          TREE
                                                           POSTECH NDS
                               - 22 -
 Leave REUNITE
               S
                        R1              N1 Delete R1 in It's MCT



          R1
     N1                        N4            Attention




                   N3                   N3 Mark all R in It's MFT
                        R1 R3 R2

N2




                                            MCT           JOIN
                                                          TREE
     r1        r2             r3             MFT           Stale
                                                           TREE
                                                             POSTECH NDS
                               - 23 -
 Leave REUNITE
          S
                   R1




     N1                   N4




              N3
                   R1 R3 R2

N2




                                   MCT   JOIN
                                         TREE
     r1   r2             r3        MFT    Stale
                                          TREE
                                           POSTECH NDS
                          - 24 -
 Leave REUNITE
               S                              Join Messages No More
                        R2 R3
                                                    Intercepted


          R2                             R3   Tree Messages for R2, R3
     N1                         N4



                        R2
                   N3


N2




                                                   MCT         JOIN
                                                               TREE
     r1        r2               r3                 MFT          Stale
                                                                TREE
                                                                  POSTECH NDS
                                - 25 -
 Leave REUNITE
               S                          R3 Join Captured Again
                        R2

                                         Tree Message Through N4
                                            Deleted After Timeout
          R2
     N1                         N4




                   N3
                        R2 R3

N2




                                              MCT         JOIN
                                                          TREE
     r1        r2               r3            MFT


                                                             POSTECH NDS
                                - 26 -
    Problems of REUNITE
   Reverse Shortest Path
   Race Condition
     Packet Duplication




                            POSTECH NDS
                   - 27 -
 RSP vs. SP(HBH View)
               S
                        R1



          R1
     N1                         N4


                                          What is the REAL
                   N3                    Shortest Path for R3?
                        R1 R3

N2




                                          MCT          JOIN

     r1        r2               r3        MFT         TREE


                                                         POSTECH NDS
                                - 28 -
 Race Condition
          S
                            R1, R2 Join Simultanuously




     N1            N4




              N3            None of Both Intercepted


N2




                                 MCT          JOIN

     r1   r2       r3             MFT        TREE


                                                 POSTECH NDS
                   - 29 -
 Race Condition
               S
                        R1 R2             Two Tree Messages



          R1
     N1                         N4



                        R1               Only R1 Existed in MCT
                   N3


N2




                                             MCT         JOIN

     r1        r2               r3           MFT        TREE


                                                            POSTECH NDS
                                - 30 -
 End Race Condition
               S
                        R1 R2



          R1
     N1                         N4




                   N3
                        R1 R2

N2
                                         Next Join Message
                                             Intercepted




                                                MCT          JOIN

     r1        r2               r3              MFT          TREE


                                                               POSTECH NDS
                                - 31 -
 End Race Condition
               S
                        R1 R2
                                         R2 Become Stale after
                                               Timeout

          R1
     N1                         N4




                   N3
                        R1 R2

N2




                                            MCT          JOIN

     r1        r2               r3           MFT        TREE


                                                           POSTECH NDS
                                - 32 -
 End Race Condition
               S
                        R1



          R1
     N1                         N4




                   N3
                        R1 R2

N2




                                         MCT   JOIN

     r1        r2               r3       MFT   TREE


                                                 POSTECH NDS
                                - 33 -
    Motivation of Hop by Hop
    Multicast Routing
   A Descendant of REUNITE
   Offer Real Shortest Path From S to R
     Overcome RSP’s drawbacks
   Eliminate Race Condition
     Reduce Total Packet




                                     POSTECH NDS
                    - 34 -
    Phase of HBH
   Join
   Maintain Tree
   Leave




                             POSTECH NDS
                    - 35 -
 Join HBH
          S
                            Initial State For Group




     N1            N4




              N3


N2




                               MCT
     r1   r2       r3          MFT


                                                POSTECH NDS
                   - 36 -
 Join HBH
               S
                        R1                      R1 Join That Group



          R1                                   Tree Message For R1
     N1                      N4



                        R1
                   N3
                                      Attention the Difference

N2




                                                  MCT            JOIN

     r1        r2            r3                    MFT           TREE


                                                                   POSTECH NDS
                             - 37 -
 Join HBH
               S
                        R1 R3                       R3 Join That Group



          R1                             R3        Tree Message For R3
     N1                         N4


                                               Real Shortest Path for R3
                        R1
                   N3


N2
                                          First Join Message Never
                                                  Intercepted
                                             (Existed in No MFT)



                                                      MCT            JOIN

     r1        r2               r3                    MFT            TREE


                                                                       POSTECH NDS
                                - 38 -
 Join HBH
               S
                        R1 R3                 R2 Join That Group



          R1                             R3   Tree Message For R2
     N1                         N4



                        R1
                   N3


N2




                                                MCT         JOIN

     r1        r2               r3               MFT        TREE


                                                               POSTECH NDS
                                - 39 -
 Join HBH
                  S                              N1 Detect Two different
                           R1 R3 R2 N1
                                                     Tree Messages

                                                 N1 Send Fusion Message
                                            R3      to Previous Sender
     N1                            N4
          R1 R2

                                                 S Mark R1, R2 and Add N1
                           R1
                      N3
                                                 Makred Use for Down Tree
N2                                                Stale Use for Down Data




                                                      MCT         JOIN
                                                      MFT        TREE
                                                     Marked       FUSION
     r1           r2              r3
                                                      Stale

                                                                     POSTECH NDS
                                   - 40 -
 Join HBH
                 S
                          R1 R3 R2 N1           Same to N3 and N1



                                           R3
     N1                           N4
          R1 R2 N3



                     N3
                          R1 R2

N2




                                                  MCT        JOIN
                                                  MFT       TREE
                                                 Marked      FUSION
     r1          r2               r3
                                                 Stale

                                                                POSTECH NDS
                                  - 41 -
 Join HBH
                 S                               S Sned Tree Message to
                          R1 R3 R2 N1
                                                R3 and N1 -> No Tree for
                                                      Marked Entry

                                           R3   N1 Send Tree Message to
     N1                           N4
          R1 R2 N3                                         N3

                                                N3 Send Tree Message to
                     N3                                R1 and R2
                          R1 R2

N2




                                                     MCT         JOIN
                                                     MFT         TREE
                                                    Marked       FUSION
     r1          r2               r3
                                                     Stale

                                                                    POSTECH NDS
                                  - 42 -
 Join HBH
                  S                              Join From R1 Captured by
                           R3 N1
                                                            N1

                                                 Join From R2 Captured by
                                            R3              N3
     N1                            N4
          R1 N3
                                                   All Marked Entry was
                                                    deleted by TimeOut
                      N3
                           R1 R2
                                                 R1 in N1 cannot deleted
N2                                               because r1 refreshing it




                                                      MCT          JOIN
                                                      MFT         TREE
                                                     Marked        FUSION
     r1           r2               r3
                                                      Stale

                                                                     POSTECH NDS
                                   - 43 -
 Refresh HBH Tree
                  S
                           R3 N1



                                            R3
     N1                            N4
          R1 N3



                      N3
                           R1 R2

N2




                                                 MCT      JOIN
                                                 MFT      TREE
                                                 Marked   FUSION
     r1           r2               r3
                                                 Stale

                                                            POSTECH NDS
                                   - 44 -
 Leave HBH
                  S
                           N1               R1 Send No More Join




     N1                            N4
          R1 N3



                      N3
                           R1 R2

N2




                                               MCT        JOIN
                                               MFT        TREE
                                              Marked       FUSION
     r1           r2               r3
                                              Stale

                                                             POSTECH NDS
                                   - 45 -
 Leave HBH
                  S                         R1 In N1 Become Stale and
                           N1
                                               Delete after Timeouts


          N3                                    N3 Move to MCT
     N1                            N4
          R1 N3



                      N3
                           R1 R2

N2




                                                 MCT         JOIN
                                                 MFT        TREE
                                                Marked       FUSION
     r1           r2               r3
                                                 Stale

                                                                 POSTECH NDS
                                   - 46 -
 Leave HBH
               S
                        N1 N3            Join From N3 Not Captured



          N3                              N1 Deleted After Timeout
     N1                         N4


                                                 N3 Added
                        R2
                   N3
                        R1 R2
                                          R1 Deleted After Timeout
N2




                                              MCT           JOIN
                                              MFT         TREE
                                             Marked         FUSION
     r1        r2               r3
                                              Stale

                                                              POSTECH NDS
                                - 47 -
 Leave HBH
               S
                        N3
                                      Same Procedure


          N3
     N1                      N4



                        R2
                   N3


N2




                                      MCT        JOIN
                                      MFT       TREE
                                      Marked     FUSION
     r1        r2            r3
                                      Stale

                                                       POSTECH NDS
                             - 48 -
 Leave HBH
               S
                        R2



          R2
     N1                      N4



                        R2
                   N3


N2




                                      MCT      JOIN
                                      MFT      TREE
                                      Marked   FUSION
     r1        r2            r3
                                      Stale

                                                 POSTECH NDS
                             - 49 -
Incremental Deployment




                         POSTECH NDS
          - 50 -
SIMULATION of ISP
topology
                      18 Node
                      Weight:
                       1-10
                       Asymmetric
                      500 sim.




                             POSTECH NDS
          - 51 -
Tree Cost


                           Race Condition




Select Rendez-vous Point



                                        (Revers) Shortest Path




                                                                 POSTECH NDS
                            - 52 -
Packet Delay

Always Not Shortest Path




            Influence of Network
                  Asymetric




             Always Shortest Path



                                        POSTECH NDS
                               - 53 -
BRAINSTORM




                 POSTECH NDS
        - 54 -
    CONCLUSION
   Go Through Unicast cloud
   Members Receive Data through the
    Shortest Path from the source
   Low Tree Cost




                                   POSTECH NDS
                   - 55 -

				
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