Unit 7_ Body Systems PowerPoint

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Unit 7_ Body Systems PowerPoint Powered By Docstoc
					Human Body
 Systems
      Organization of The Body
• The eleven organ systems of the human body
  work together to maintain homeostasis
• Homeostasis – process which organisms
  maintain a relatively stable internal
  environment
                         Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

       Section 35-1




Nervous System   Integumentary System   Skeletal System   Muscular System   Circulatory System
                   Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part 2

Section 35-1




               Respiratory System     Digestive System    Excretory System




               Endocrine System     Reproductive System   Lymphatic System
            Nervous System
• Brain, Spinal cord, periperal nerves
• Function: Coordinates the body’s response to
  changes in its internal and external
  environments
         Integumentary System
• Skin, hair, nails sweat and oil glands
• Function: Serves as a barrier against infection
  and injury; helps to regulate body
  temperature; provides protection against
  ultraviolet radiation from the sun
           Respiratory System
• Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi,
  bronchiales, lungs
• Function: Provides oxygen needed for cellular
  respiration and remove excess carbon dioxide
  from the body
            Digestive System
• Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small
  and large intestine
• Function: Converts foods into simpler
  molecules that can be used by the cells of the
  body; absorbs food
             Excretory System
• Skin, lungs, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,
  urethra
• Function: Eliminates waste products of
  metabolism from the body; maintains
  homeostasis
             Skeletal System
• Bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons
• Function: Supports the body; protects internal
  organs; allows movement; stores mineral
  reserves; provides a site for blood cell
  formation
            Muscular System
• Skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac
  muscle
• Function: Works with skeletal system to
  produce voluntary movement; helps to
  circulate blood and move food through the
  digestive system
            Circulatory System
• Heart, Blood vessels, blood
• Function: Brings oxygen, nutrients, and
  hormones to cells; fights infection; regulates
  body temperature
            Lymphatic System
• White blood cells, thymus, spleen, lymph
  nodes, lymph vessels
• Helps protect the body from disease; collects
  fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the
  fluid to the circulatory system.
            Endocrine System
• Hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid,
  parathyroids, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries(in
  females), testes (in males)
• Function: Controls growth, development,
  metabolism, and reproduction
Cardiovascular
– Transports materials in
  body
  via blood pumped by
  heart
   •   Oxygen
   •   Carbon dioxide
   •   Nutrients
   •   Wastes


                            Figure 1.2f
Lymphatic
– Returns fluids to blood
  vessels
– Cleanses the blood
– Involved in immunity




                            Figure 1.2g
Respiratory
– Keeps blood supplied with
  oxygen
– Removes carbon dioxide




                              Figure 1.2h
Digestive
– Breaks down food
– Allows for nutrient
  absorption into blood
– Eliminates indigestible
  material




                            Figure 1.2i
Urinary
– Eliminates nitrogenous
  wastes
– Maintains acid-base
  balance
– Regulates water and
  electrolytes



                           Figure 1.2j
Reproductive
  – Produces offspring




                         Figure 1.2k–l
      Necessary Life Functions

• Maintain boundaries
• Movement
  – Locomotion
  – Movement of substances
• Responsiveness
  – Ability to sense changes and react
• Digestion
  – Break-down and absorption of nutrients
       Necessary Life Functions
• Metabolism—chemical reactions within the
  body
  – Produces energy
  – Makes body structures
• Excretion
  – Eliminates waste from metabolic reactions
       Necessary Life Functions
• Reproduction
  – Produces future generation
• Growth
  – Increases cell size and number of cells
               Survival Needs
• Nutrients
  – Chemicals for energy and cell building
  – Includes carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins,
    and minerals
• Oxygen
  – Required for chemical reactions
               Survival Needs
• Water
  – 60–80% of body weight
  – Provides for metabolic reaction
• Stable body temperature
• Atmospheric pressure
  – Must be appropriate
                Homeostasis
• Homeostasis—maintenance of a stable
  internal environment
  – A dynamic state of equilibrium
• Homeostasis is necessary for normal body
  functioning and to sustain life
• Homeostatic imbalance
  – A disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease
     Input:
                                 Control        Output:
     Information
                                 center         Information sent
     sent along
     afferent                                   along efferent
     pathway to                                 pathway to activate


       Receptor (sensor)                      Effector




 Change
 detected
 by receptor

                                                     Response of
Stimulus:                                            effector feeds
Produces                                             back to
change                                               influence
                                Variable
in variable                (in homeostasis)          magnitude of
                                                     stimulus and
                                                     returns variable
                                                     to homeostasis

                                                         Figure 1.4
     Variable
(in homeostasis)




                   Figure 1.4, step 1a
Stimulus:
Produces
change             Variable
in variable   (in homeostasis)




                                 Figure 1.4, step 1b
       Receptor (sensor)



 Change
 detected
 by receptor



Stimulus:
Produces
change                          Variable
in variable                (in homeostasis)




                                              Figure 1.4, step 2
     Input:
                                 Control
     Information
                                 center
     sent along
     afferent
     pathway to

       Receptor (sensor)



 Change
 detected
 by receptor



Stimulus:
Produces
change                          Variable
in variable                (in homeostasis)




                                              Figure 1.4, step 3
     Input:
                                 Control        Output:
     Information
                                 center         Information sent
     sent along
     afferent                                   along efferent
     pathway to                                 pathway to activate


       Receptor (sensor)                      Effector




 Change
 detected
 by receptor



Stimulus:
Produces
change                          Variable
in variable                (in homeostasis)




                                                         Figure 1.4, step 4
     Input:
                                 Control        Output:
     Information
                                 center         Information sent
     sent along
     afferent                                   along efferent
     pathway to                                 pathway to activate


       Receptor (sensor)                      Effector




 Change
 detected
 by receptor

                                                     Response of
Stimulus:                                            effector feeds
Produces                                             back to
change                                               influence
                                Variable
in variable                (in homeostasis)          magnitude of
                                                     stimulus and
                                                     returns variable
                                                     to homeostasis

                                                         Figure 1.4, step 5
      Maintaining Homeostasis
• The body communicates through neural and
  hormonal control systems
  – Receptor
     • Responds to changes in the environment (stimuli)
     • Sends information to control center

				
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