Course Procedures - Dick Malott - Behavior Analysis_ Autism by xiangpeng

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									                 The Psychology 360
                   Course Booklet
                            or

  How I Found Truth, Beauty, Justice, and Happiness
                      at WMU
                         Fall 2008




Revised by Kelli Perry      -1-                5/8/2013
                                                   Table of Contents

Course Packet ................................................................................................................................................................... 4
The Big Picture .................................................................................................................................................................. 4
Assignment Guide ............................................................................................................................................................. 5
Professor ......................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Phones and Emails .......................................................................................................................................................... 16
Work-study students ........................................................................................................................................................ 16
Your Buddy ...................................................................................................................................................................... 16
Seminar Schedule: .......................................................................................................................................................... 17
Using the Overhead Projector ......................................................................................................................................... 17
Rat Lab ............................................................................................................................................................................ 17
     Malott, R. W. Principles of Behavior (Edition 6.0) .................................................................................................... 18
The Assignment Guide .................................................................................................................................................... 18
  Continuous Quality Improvement ................................................................................................................................ 18
     What does conscientious mean? ............................................................................................................................. 19
Point Totals for P100 and P360....................................................................................................................................... 20
Final Paper (All sections) ................................................................................................................................................. 22
Optional Activity Points .................................................................................................................................................... 22
  What are Optional Activity Points (OAPs)? .................................................................................................................. 22
  What are OAPs good for? ............................................................................................................................................ 22
  New OAP transfer policy -............................................................................................................................................ 22
  How can you earn OAPs?............................................................................................................................................ 23
  The Finer OAP Details ................................................................................................................................................. 23
Lecture/Quiz Strategy/Philosophy ................................................................................................................................... 23
  The Traditional Approach ............................................................................................................................................. 23
  The Behavioral Approach ............................................................................................................................................ 23
  The Traditional Approach ............................................................................................................................................. 24
  The Behavioral Systems-Analysis Approach ............................................................................................................... 24
General Study Strategies ................................................................................................................................................ 24
Dropping the Course ....................................................................................................................................................... 26
Super A (Advanced Principles of Behavior) .................................................................................................................... 26
  What's Super A? .......................................................................................................................................................... 26
  What does it take to earn Super A? ............................................................................................................................. 26
Return Your Homework and Lab Reports ....................................................................................................................... 27
Cheating Means Sudden Death!! .................................................................................................................................... 27
  Cheating ....................................................................................................................................................................... 27
  Plagiarizing................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Further Details About Academic Integrity ........................................................................................................................ 28
Missed Classes ............................................................................................................................................................... 28
Snow Days....................................................................................................................................................................... 28
Special Get-Tough Policy On Absences ......................................................................................................................... 28
Lateness .......................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Students ........................................................................................................................................................................... 29
Late Homework ............................................................................................................................................................... 29
Letters of Recommendation ............................................................................................................................................ 30
Mickey Mouse Rules ....................................................................................................................................................... 30
Adding Insult To Injury ..................................................................................................................................................... 30
How to be way cool ......................................................................................................................................................... 30
  The Legend of Sheldon Stone .................................................................................................................................. 30
  The Legend of the Cool Coed ................................................................................................................................... 31
  On the Other Hand ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
  The One Pointer ......................................................................................................................................................... 31
  Bottom Line ................................................................................................................................................................ 32
Revised by Kelli Perry                                                                  -2-                                                                              5/8/2013
How To Avoid Being a Social Disaster ............................................................................................................................ 32
  Interpersonal Style and Skills....................................................................................................................................... 33
  Technical Skills ............................................................................................................................................................ 34
Vita for Richard W. Malott ................................................................................................................................................ 34
Let the Good Times Roll! ................................................................................................................................................. 35
Objectives for the Final Fiesta Paper .............................................................................................................................. 38
  A Few of the Types of Essays You Might Write, Along with Some Hints as to How You Might Write Them .............. 38
  Some Vague Guidelines .............................................................................................................................................. 39
  Social Validity ............................................................................................................................................................... 41
Final Fiesta Paper Cover Sheet ...................................................................................................................................... 42
Checklist and Self-evaluation Form ................................................................................................................................. 43
Instructor's Evaluation of Oral Presentation ................................................................................................................... 45
Sample Student Papers ................................................................................................................................................... 46




Revised by Kelli Perry                                                                 -3-                                                                            5/8/2013
Course Packet                                                         The Big Picture
      All materials are included in the Course Packet (from           
      the Copy Desk): Letter-Sized File Pocket containing all         In the Fall and Winter courses, P100 (Honors), P360
      of the following course materials ----red folders for           and P610 will generally cover one chapter from
      P360, green for P610 and yellow for P100 Honors:                Principles of Behavior each day (2/week). In the
    How I Learned to Relate to My Lab Rat (Used in the               Summer semester, P360 will have one chapter a day
      lab portion of the course)                                      also, but four days per week. For P610, Summer
    Psy 360 Course Booklet                                           Behavioral Boot Camp only, you’ll generally cover
                                                                      two chapters from POB each day. We know this seems
        Assignments
                                                                      like a fast pace, but we also know you can handle it.
        Procedures
        Study Objectives for Review Quizzes                         During the Fall and Winter courses, each Tuesday and
        Final Fiesta Details                                        Thursday you’ll meet with your seminar section. But
                                                                      during the Summer P360 course, each Monday,
        Final Fiesta Examples
                                                                      Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday you’ll meet with
    File Folder #1 (there are 4 total)                               your seminar section. The Behavioral Boot Camp
        How to Analyze Behavioral Contingencies                     meets Monday through Friday for a seminar, and rat
         (Daily paper-based homework assignments)                     lab isn’t required. The seminar meets so you can
         CD containing the computer-based Work                      discuss the text material, go over the answers to your
         Shows:                                                       homework assignments, and take the quiz. That’s right,
              Chapter 01: How to Use the Contingency                you’ll have a quiz in every seminar. Don’t worry. As
                    Diagramming Checklist                             long as you’ve read the chapter, conscientiously
                                                                      completed the homework, and participated in the
               Chapter 03: The Sick Social Cycle
                                                                      seminar discussion, you’ll do fine.
               Chapter 04: The Sick Social Cycle
               Chapter 13: Stimulus Generalization                  Well, that’s not quite true. You’ll also have to use the
                    Gradient                                          flashcards. For P360 and P610 summer boot camp
               Chapter 13: Stimulus Equivalence                     only, the quizzes require you to write out the
               Chapter 17: Discrete-trial, free-operant             definitions to quite a few terms, so without the
                    and hybrid procedures                             flashcards, you’d have some trouble. With the
                                                                      flashcards, you’ll do great.
         Checklist for Diagramming Contingencies (the
         Pink Sheet)
                                                                      Also, every Monday and Wednesday (P360 Summer
    File Folder # 2                                                  course has rat lab 4 days/week), you’ll get to spend a
        Flashcard Fluency Follies                                   pleasant hour becoming close friends with a cute little
    File Folder #3                                                   lab rat. You might not be particularly excited about the
        2 blank transparencies                                      idea of handling a rat right now, but by the end of the
                                                                      semester you’ll be quite attached to him. In fact, you’ll
        8 Special lecture evaluation forms                          probably miss the little guy when the semester is over.
        1 Course evaluation form
        1 Final Fiesta evaluation form                              In general, we’ll follow these simple guidelines, but
        3 Petition for Use of OAPs forms                            there are enough exceptions that we’ve provided a
                                                                      complete daily schedule. Please refer to the
        Assignment Guide (the Yellow Sheet)                         Assignment Guide section before each seminar to be
    File Folder #4                                                   sure you’re on top of the goings on in the class. We’ll
        Supplemental POB sections.                                  require you to be paying attention, but there won’t be
           Where Do We Go from Here?                               very many surprises. We generally warn you in
                                                                      advance when something unusual is going to happen.
    1 red ball-point pen -- for correcting your homework
      in class (you can't use any other pen in class, but you
      should do your homework outside of class with a black
                                                                      Don’t forget to have fun!
      pen).
    1 transparency marking pen
    Who Knows What Else
Revised by Kelli Perry                                          -4-                                                   5/8/2013
                                                               Assignment Guide
  DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                                 QUIZZES                               IMPORTANT                      SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                               REMINDERS                        OTHER EVENTS
                                                              Take one quick pretest -- no need to      You should purchase the Course Packet before class. What’s
                                                               study, this won’t affect you grade.         in it and where do I get it?
                                                                                                             Course Procedures.
 09/02/08
    (T)                                                                                                         Details of the Course Materials (bring your course pack
                                                                                                                    to class today and everyday hereafter).
Intro to Psy                                                                                             Preview of assignments for the first week, or so.
    360
                                                                                                         Psy 360
                                                                                                            Introductory PowerPoint to be given at the beginning of
                                                                                                               class today.
                                                                                                             Super A presentation
                                                                                                             Rat Lab Video
                                                                                                             Self-Management Presentation

                                                                                                      Warning - most students tell us that they take at least four hours
                                                                                                      to prepare for the first few quizzes and classes. Plan ahead.


                    Rat Lab. P100 and P360 only,                                                        Begin working on
 09/03/08             not P610; however, P610                 Quiz on Rat Lab Procedures,                 Experiment 1,                          Rat Lab Procedures.
    (W)               students who have never done a           Rules, and Animal Care (the first           Dipper/Movement Training,
                      rat lab should take this one also        few pages -- through Experiment 1).         if you have time.
                      for mucho extra credit. Otherwise
                      all future references to the rat lab
                      are for P100 and P360 students
                      only.

                    Readings: Rat Lab Manual
                      through Experiment 1.




     Revised by Kelli Perry                                          -5-                                                        5/8/2013
DATE                      ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                                   QUIZZES                             IMPORTANT                        SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                                 REMINDERS                          OTHER EVENTS
                                                                    Quiz on Assignments and
                   Readings: Assignment and Course                   Course Procedures (study
09/04/08           Procedures, Preface, To the Memory of
  (Th)                                                                more or less the first 26 some
                   Donald Whaley                                      pages of the course booklet,
                      Today’s POB reading assignments                up through, Let the Good
                       and homework are also available at the         Times Roll.) Preface and To
                       Principles of behavior web site:               the Memory of Donald
               http://dickmalott.com/students/undergradprogram/       Whaley.
                  psy3600/                                             Note: the above will be
                   How to Use the Contingency-                       one quiz
                   Diagramming Checklist Work Show. This            Quiz on How to Use the
                   work show is located on your work show             Contingency-Diagramming
                   CD and is two parts, Ch 1 part 1 of the pink       Checklist Work show. But
                   sheet and Ch. 2 part 2 of the pink sheet.          don’t worry, if you go through
                                                                      the slide show you’ll do fine.
09/08/08                                    Continue or start working on                                                           Registration Closes
  (M)
                                                    Experiment 1                                                                     Drop/Add Ends
                                                                                                                                  End of 100% Refund
                                                                    Quiz on Ch. 1. The                 Study the chapter in Principles of Behavior 6th edition for the quiz
                   Readings: Ch. 1 & Ch. 2                           Reinforcer                            today. Use the flashcards in your course packet for Chapters 1 and 2
09/09/08
                      Today’s POB reading assignments are                                                  and get as fast as you can with them. That will help you on the quiz.
   (T)
                     also available at the Principles of            Quiz on Ch. 2.                         To do well on the quiz you will need to be able to:
                     behavior web site:                               Reinforcement
                                                                                                             Write out all the definitions perfectly, though not necessarily
               http://dickmalott.com/students/undergradprogram/                                               word for word.
               psy3600/                                                                                      Answer all the study questions at the end of each section within
                                                                                                              the chapter.
                   Homework for Ch. 2. Reinforcement
                                                                                                             Fill out all the contingency diagrams for each story in the
                                                                                                              chapter.
                                                                                                             Fill out all the tables and other diagrams in the chapter.
                                                                                                        Warning: Quizzes also cover the enrichment sections.
                                                                                                        Begin stashing your completed homework in a safe place
                                                                                                        because, at the end of the semester, you will need to turn all of it
                                                                                                        in at the Final Fiesta, in order to get credit for this course.
                                                                                      Late Add Fee Begins
09/10/08
  (W)                                                                      Withdraws recorded as “W” on transcript



      Revised by Kelli Perry                                          -6-                                                        5/8/2013
DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                                    QUIZZES                                 IMPORTANT                      SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                                  REMINDERS                        OTHER EVENTS

              Seminar Note:
              Always bring your red ball-point pen (red ink) to seminars. If you have one, you can make corrections in your homework as we go over it in class (before you turn it
              in at the end of the seminar). You get credit for your corrections. However, you lose credit if you try to complete homework you hadn't done or make the
              corrections in the same colored ink or pencil as the original. (We need the two colors so we can get a better idea of how well the homework is going.)

              The schedule is generally like this:
                  For P360 Fall /P100H Fall Rat Lab, on Monday and Wednesday be sure to read the relevant experiment and be at least one experiment ahead so that if you
                    finish an experiment earlier than you thought you would you will be ready to move right onto the next one.

              Sometimes we'll have a lecture during the Seminar, or some other deviation from the schedule, so keep an eye out. We’ll try to remind you, too.
                 Readings: Ch. 3                          Quiz on Chapter 3. Escape                   Warning: Quizzes also cover the enrichment sections!
09/11/08                                                                                                   Warning: Always be able to recreate tables!
  (Th)            Homework for Chapter 3. Escape            Quiz on The Sick Social Cycle Work
                  The Sick Social Cycle Work                  Show
                                                                                                           Begin stashing your completed homework in a safe place. At
                                                                                                             the end of the semester, you will need to bring and turn in all
                    Show – Victim’s Escape Model
                                                                                                             of your homework and rat lab reports at the end-of-the-
                                                                                                             semester Final Fiesta, in order to get credit for this course.

                                                                                                          Last day to receive 90% tuition refund for a complete withdrawl

09/15/08
  (M)                                                      Last day to receive 50% refund for a partial withdrawal!


09/16/08
                  Readings: Ch. 4                           Quiz on Ch. 4. Punishment.
   (T)            Homework for Ch. 4.                       Quiz on The Sick Social Cycle Work
                    Punishment.                                Show
                  Work Show on the Sick Social
                    Cycle – Victim’s Punishment
                    Model




     Revised by Kelli Perry                                           -7-                                                        5/8/2013
DATE                   ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                                    QUIZZES                               IMPORTANT                      SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                                 REMINDERS                        OTHER EVENTS
                    Readings: Ch. 5 & Ch. 6                   Quiz on Ch. 5. Penalty.                       Warning - you will need
09/18/08                                                                                                      to fill in the actual
  (Th)              Homework for Ch. 5. Penalty.              Quiz on Chapter 6. Extinction and             behaviors on the
                                                                Recovery
                                                                                                              contingency diagram on
                    Homework for Chapter 6.
                                                                                                              the quiz.
                     Extinction and Recovery
                                                                                                              Warning: Always be able
                                                                                                              to recreate all charts,
                                                                                                              tables, and diagrams. TO
                                                                                                              BE MORE SPECIFIC -
                                                                                                              THERE ARE THREE
                                                                                                              TABLES IN CHAPTER 6
                                                                                                              AND YOU WILL NEED
                                                                                                              TO MEMORIZE THEM!


09/23/08
                 Readings: Ch. 7                             Quiz on Chapter 7. Differential                Warning: 14 definitions
                                                                Reinforcement and Differential
   (T)           Homework for Chapter 7.                       Punishment.                                   Warning #2: You must know and understand all the details of
                   Differential Reinforcement and                                                             the enrichment sections to get an A, and we want you to get an
                   Differential Punishment                                                                    A.

09/25/08
                  Readings: Ch. 8                            Quiz on Chapter 8. Shaping.                     Warning: You must know all the details of the procedures and
  (Th)            Shaping Original Example-in                                                                results.
                     course pack.


09/26/08                                                 Last day to receive 50% refund for complete withdrawal.
   (F)
              Review Quiz #1 Psy 360 only!!
09/29/08
   (M)
                  This 20-question quiz contains some of the key definitions from Chapters 1-8. The list of terms you'll need to know for this review quiz is in this Course
                     Booklet. P610 Summer must know all the definitions from Chapter 1-8. Score at least 19, and you get 1 bonus quiz point.
                  Review quizzes are always taken in the other hour of your 2 hour scheduled rat lab.
                  OAPs can never apply to review quizzes. And there are no make ups for review quizzes… so BE THERE!!!
09/30/08
   (T)
                     Readings: Ch. 9 & Ch. 30               Quiz on Chapter 9. Unlearned                     Repeated warning: You must know and understand all the
                     (optional for 610)                        Reinforcers and Unlearned                       details of the enrichment sections, to get an A. You must be able
                                                               Aversive Conditions.                            to describe the experimental procedures in both the
                    Homework for Chapter 9.
                                                                                                               fundamentals and the enrichment sections.
                     Unlearned Reinforcers and               Quiz on Ch. 30. Where Do You Go
                     Unlearned Aversive Conditions.            From Here?                                      Warning - Know the approach the book advocates as
                                                                                                               compared to traditional programs.
                    No Homework for Ch. 30.
                                                                                                            2008 Mid-American Association for Behavior Analysis
                                                                                                               Conference (October 3-4) in Champaign, IL. Talk to your GSI
                                                                                                               about attending.
   Revised by Kelli Perry                                            -8-                                                         5/8/2013
DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                             QUIZZES                             IMPORTANT                     SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                       REMINDERS                       OTHER EVENTS

10/02/08
                  Readings: Ch. 10                    Quiz on Chapter 10. Special                                                     Time is Brain Video
                                                        Motivating Operations.
  (Th)            No homework for Chapter 10.                                                                                          Special lecture
                                                                                                                                            Croyden Practicum
                                                                                                                                            Pre-Practicum


10/07/08     No Readings or homework but there will
                                                       Quiz on How to Use the Contingency-                                             Special Lecture:
                                                        Diagramming Checklist Work show
   (T)        be a quiz—NO MAKE UPS WILL BE                                                                                                 BRSS
                         ALLOWED!
                                                                                                                                            BSAP
                                                                                                                                            GRE
                                                                                                                                            Self-Management
                                                                                                                                            BACC
                 Readings: Ch. 11                     Quiz on Chapter 11. Learned              Warning: Know the pairing
10/09/08                                                Reinforcers and Learned Aversive          diagrams if you want an A
  (Th)           Homework for Chapter 11.              Conditions.                               on the quiz today.
                   Learned Reinforcers and
                   Learned Aversive Conditions


10/14/08
                  Readings: Ch. 12                    Quiz on Chapter 12. Discrimination.    Reminder: To get an A, you
                                                                                                  must always know all the
   (T)            Homework for Chapter 12.               Psy 100 honors students need           procedures, diagrams and
                    Discrimination.                     to read the intermediate                  tables, in both the
                                                        enrichment section for this one.          fundamentals and the
                                                                                                  enrichment sections.
                  Readings: Ch. 13                    Quiz on Chapter 13. Complex            By the way, Chapter 13
                                                        Stimulus Control.                         Homework may be a little
                  Homework for Chapter 13.                                                       tough; sorry about that, we're
10/16/08            Complex Stimulus Control           Quiz on Stimulus Generalization           trying to keep it under control.
  (Th)                                                  Gradient Work Show.
                  Stimulus Generalization                                                     Hint: P610 and P360, not
                    Gradient Work Show                 Quiz on Stimulus Equivalence Work         P100, always read the
                                                        Show.
                  Stimulus Equivalence Work                                                      Advanced Enrichment
                    Show                                                                          sections if you want an A on
                                                                                                  the quiz.




      Revised by Kelli Perry                                    -9-                                                  5/8/2013
DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                                    QUIZZES                                   IMPORTANT                        SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                                    REMINDERS                          OTHER EVENTS

10/21/08
                  Readings: Ch. 14                          Quiz Chapter 14. Imitation.                     Hint: When you read an                  Special Lecture: Getting
                                                                                                               example or an experiment,                you ready for your Final
   (T)            Homework for Chapter 14.                                                                    see how it relates to the                Fiesta Project.
                    Imitation.
                                                                                                               heading for that section and
                  Read Objectives for the Final                                                               the definitions in the section.
                                                                                                                                                       http://dickmalott.com/behavi
                                                                                                                                                        orism/skinnerboxjoke/video.
                    Fiesta Paper. And browse                                                                   That tells you what it's an
                                                                                                               example of and helps you on              mov
                    through Sample Student Papers
                    (in the course booklet).                                                                   the quizzes. Also, always be
                                                                                                               able to describe the
                                                                                                               contingencies involved in
                                                                                                               each phase of each
                                                                                                               experiment
                                                                                                              Question: Do we blow off the
                                                                                                               last sections of the
                                                                                                               enrichment section?
                                                                                                                Answer: No way!

10/22/08
  (W)                                                   Last day to receive 25% refund for complete withdrawal!!!

                  Readings: Ch. 15                          Quiz on Chapter 15. Avoidance.                 Warning: Always be able to
10/23/08          Homework for Chapter 15.
  (Th)                                                                                                       recreate all charts, tables, and
                    Avoidance.                                                                               diagrams, or you know what you
                                                                                                             can kiss good bye. (This is more
                                                                                                             than just memorization - you
                                                                                                             must understand them!)
              Review Quiz #2 PSY 360 only!
10/27/08
  (W)            This 20-question quiz contains some of the key definitions from Chapters 9-14, as well as a re-review of some definitions from Chapters 1-8. So please know all
                 40 definitions. This 20 question quiz contains some of the key definitions from Chapters 9-14. You can find a listing in this course booklet. Score at least 19, and
                 you get 2 bonus quiz points.

10/28/08
                  Readings: Ch. 16                          Quiz on Chapter 16. Punishment by
                                                               Prevention.
   (T)            Homework for Chapter 16.
                    Punishment by Prevention.




     Revised by Kelli Perry                                          - 10 -                                                       5/8/2013
DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                           QUIZZES                                IMPORTANT                         SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                        REMINDERS                           OTHER EVENTS

10/30/08
                  Readings: Ch. 17                       Quiz on Chapter 17. Ratio       Warning: Students tend to do                   Special live
  (Th)              In this chapter you’re going           Schedules. (This quiz
                                                                                            well learning the definitions of                demonstration of
                    to read about discrete trial and        covers POB Ch. 17, not Ch.
                                                            17’s homework.)                 the various schedules and the                   cumulative recording
                    free-operant, but there is also                                                                                         (Ch.17).
                    a gray area, which we call            Quiz on Discrete-trial and       nature of responding the
                    hybrid procedures and turn out          Free-operant Procedures         schedules generate, but when
                    to be really advance                    Work show. For PSY 610          students get to the quiz they mix
                                                            only, optional for PSY
                    enrichment material so reading
                                                            360/100H!                       up the definitions for schedules
                    that is optional for                                                    in place of responding and vice
                    undergraduate students, but              This work show is online:
                    not optional for graduate
                                                                                            versa--so be sure to note the
                    students. Undergraduates can       http://dickmalott.com/students/      difference between schedules
                                                       undergraduateprogram/Psy3600/
                    stop reading at the bottom of      discrete_vs_free.html
                                                                                            and responding in the names of
                    284 (Advanced Enrichment).                                              the terms when studying the
                  Complete the special Chapter 17                                          flashcards (P100, also take
                    homework Eight Basic                                                    some extra time to learn the
                    Contingencies by Matt Miller.
                                                                                            difference.)
11/03/08
  (M)                                                            Last day to withdraw from Fall courses!!


11/04/08
                  Readings: Ch. 18 & 19                  Quiz on Chapter 18.            Chapter 18.
   (T)            No Homework Ch. 18                       Interval Schedules.            Hint #1: To get an A, you must read and        Special live
                  Homework for Chapter 19.               Quiz on Chapter 19.              recall all the sections of each apter.ch        demonstration of
                    Concurrent Contingencies.               Concurrent                     Hint #2: To get an A, make sure you know        cumulative recording
                                                            Contingencies.                  what contingencies are being discussed in       (Ch. 19 & 20).
                                                               SPECIAL NOTE: There         each story.
                                                            is an extra definition         Hint #3: To do well on today's quiz,
                                                            included in your note           understand that stimulus generalization
                                                            cards for Chapter 19 that       explains why intermittent reinforcement
                                                            is not in the text. YOU         makes behavior more resistant to extinction
                                                            MUST KNOW IT FOR THE            than does continuous reinforcement. And
                                                            QUIZ!                           be able to explain how that works.
                                                                                           Chapter 19.
                                                                                           Warning - students tend to do poorly on
                                                                                            this quiz. BE ABLE TO REPLICATE THE
                                                                                            DIAGRAMS and the Pros and Cons
                                                                                            table!

     Revised by Kelli Perry                                       - 11 -                                                   5/8/2013
DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                                   QUIZZES                                 IMPORTANT                        SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                                 REMINDERS                          OTHER EVENTS

11/06/08
                  Readings: Ch. 20                          Quiz on Chapter 20. Behavioral              True/False? To get an A, I
                                                               Chains and Differential                      can ignore the last sections of
  (Th)            Homework for Chapter 20.                    Reinforcement of Low Rate.                   each chapter.
                    Behavioral Chains and
                    Differential Reinforcement of
                    Low Rate.

11/11/08
                  Readings: Ch. 21                          Quiz on Chapter 21. Respondent              Warning -There are 10
                                                              Conditioning.                                 definitions that students
   (T)            Psy 360/100H only:      You do not                                                       tend to have a hard time
                      need to read the section titled:                                                      with; give yourself some
                      “Conditioned Stimulus vs.                                                             extra time to understand
                      Discriminative Stimulus” starting                                                     these terms.
                      on page 374.
                  Homework for Chapter 21.
                    Respondent Conditioning

11/13/08
                Readings: Ch. 22 & 23                       Quiz on Chapter 22. Rule-                     Reminder: Final Fiesta rough
                                                               Governed Behavior: Concepts                  draft due soon!
  (Th)          Homework for Chapter 22. Rule-
                 Governed Behavior: Concepts                 Quiz on Chapter 23. Rule-
                                                               Governed Behavior: Applications
                Homework for Chapter 23. Rule-
                 Governed Behavior: Applications.
              Review Quiz #3 PSY 360 only!
11/17/08
  (M)            This 20-question quiz contains some of the key definitions from Chapters 15-21, as well as a re-review of some definitions from your review of the 20 definitions
                 from Chapters 1-8 and the 20 definitions from Chapters 9-14. So please know all 60 definitions. You can find a listing in this course booklet. Score at least 19,
                 and you get 3 bonus quiz points. No make-ups!!




     Revised by Kelli Perry                                          - 12 -                                                      5/8/2013
DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                         QUIZZES                     IMPORTANT                       SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                           REMINDERS                         OTHER EVENTS

11/18/08
                  Readings: Ch. 24                  Quiz on Chapter 24. Rule-      Warning - Be able to                 Special Lecture: Sex Show
                                                      Governed Behavior: Theory.      reproduce the contingency
   (T)            Homework for Chapter 24. Rule-                                     tree on the quiz.
                                                                                                                             Note: While most students
                    Governed Behavior: Theory.                                                                              find the material in Ch.26
                                                                                                                            (which today’s slideshow
                                                                                                                            includes) to be of great value,
                                                                                                                            it is controversial and may be
                                                                                                                            offensive to some students
                                                                                                                            because it deals with a
                                                                                                                            behavior analysis of some of
                                                                                                                            the functions of religion and a
                                                                                                                            behavior analysis of sexuality.
                                                                                                                            If you would find such
                                                                                                                            analyses offensive, you might
                                                                                                                            want to earn and save 10
                                                                                                                            OAPs so you will not have to
                                                                                                                            view the special lecture over
                                                                                                                            this material today. Please let
                                                                                                                            your GSI know if you will use
                                                                                                                            OAPs for the lecture portion
                                                                                                                            of the seminar so s/he does
                                                                                                                            not take off your participation
                                                                                                                            points for today’s lecture.

11/20/08
                  Readings: Ch. 25                  Quiz on Chapter 25. Pay for    Special Lecture: Moral & Legal Control Show.
                                                      Performance.
  (Th)            Homework for Chapter 25. Pay                                        Note: While most students find the material in Ch.26 (which
                    for Performance.                                                  today’s slideshow includes) to be of great value, it is controversial
                  FINAL FIESTA ROUGH DRAFT                                           and may be offensive to some students because it deals with a
                    PAPERS DUE TODAY!!!                                               behavior analysis of some of the functions of religion and a behavior
                                                                                      analysis of sexuality. If you would find such analyses offensive, you
                                                                                      might want to earn and save 10 OAPs so you will not have to view
                                                                                      the special lecture over this material today. Please let your TA
                                                                                      know if you will use OAPs for the lecture portion of the seminar so
                                                                                      s/he does not take off your participation points for today’s lecture.




     Revised by Kelli Perry                                 - 13 -                                        5/8/2013
DATE                  ASSIGNMENTS DUE:                                       QUIZZES                                IMPORTANT                       SPECIAL LECTURES &
                                                                                                                    REMINDERS                         OTHER EVENTS

11/25/08
                  Readings: Ch. 26 A & B                      Quiz on Chapter 26B. Moral and                   Know why moral and legal control often fail; may be separate
                                                                Legal Control                                      reasons for each form of control.
   (T)            No Homework for Ch. 26
                                                                                                                 And another one: P610 and P360 only, not P100, be sure to
                                                                                                                   read the Advanced Enrichment sections to do well on the quiz.
                                                                                                                 Be sure you know whose interests may be in conflict in
                                                                                                                   scientific research. Know the virtues of secular humanism. Be
                                                                                                                   sure to know all the definitions and the section questions to get
                                                                                                                   an A.
                                                                                                                 Don’t forget to be working on your Final Fiesta project!


11/27/08                                                                 No Class-- Happy Thanksgiving!
  (Th)




12/02/08
                  Readings: Ch. 27 & 28                      Quiz on Chapter 27.                     Warning: If want an A on the             Special Lecture: Transfer and
                                                               Maintenance.                              quiz, then know the tables.              Maintenance.
   (T)            Homework for Chapter 27.
                    Maintenance.                              Quiz on Chapter 28. Transfer.           PASS BACK ROUGH DRAFT
                  No Ch. 28 Homework                                                                    PAPERS
              Review Quiz #4 For PSY 360 only!
12/03/08
                 This 20-question quiz will contain the some key definitions from Chapters 22-28, as well as some definitions selected from your re-review of the 20
                   definitions from Chapters 1-8, the 20 definitions from Chapters 9-14, and the 20 definitions from Chapters 14-21 listed in this Course Booklet. So please
  (W)              know all 80 definitions.
                  Here's a special deal: If you get at least 19 of the definitions correct, you earn 4 bonus points that add to your quiz score. (Note that these are bonus points,
                    not OAPs -- a better deal.)
                  You should take this quiz seriously and do as well as you can, even if you already have a solid A. Why? Two reasons:
                              a.   First, studying for them will help you become an expert behavior analyst.
                              b.   Second, this can raise your overall quiz percent. And no matter how good your quiz percentage is it can always be better. But why does anyone
                                   care? Because your quiz percent and your ranking in this class, based on your quiz percentage, is a major factor in the letters of
                                   recommendation I will write for many of you when you apply for jobs and grad school.




     Revised by Kelli Perry                                             - 14 -                                                     5/8/2013
DATE                      ASSIGNMENTS                                   QUIZZES                              IMPORTANT                   SPECIAL LECTURES &
                              DUE                                                                            REMINDERS                     OTHER EVENTS

12/04/08
                  Readings: Ch. 29                        Quiz on Chapter 29. Research            DANGER! Chapter 29 includes
                  No Ch. 29 Homework                       Methods.                                 12 extra review definitions along
  (Th)
                                                                                                     with 13 new definitions.
                  Final Fiesta Project (Oral/Visual       Take Post test
                                                                                                    Remember, you cannot replace
                   Aids) Due Today!                        Fill out Course Evaluations              this day with OAP’s.
                                                           Fill out Goal Surveys                   Please bring your #2 pencil to
                                                                                                     complete the departmental
                                                                                                     course evaluation in class today.
                                                                                                    We urge you to save "80
                                                                                                   question" flash cards from P360
                                                                                                   just in case you take P460!
              Final Fiesta
12/9/08                Meet at 5:00-7:00 PM in your regular room
  (T)
                       You make a short oral/visual presentation of your final paper and then turn in your final paper.
                       Bring all your homework and lab manuals for the semester in order to receive credit for this course.
                       Be sure you attach the Cover Sheet (page 43).
                       And the Checklist and Self-evaluation (page 44).
                       FINAL FEAST AT MALOTT’S HOUSE IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING




     Revised by Kelli Perry                                        - 15 -                                                   5/8/2013
              Procedures
                                                                PSY 360/100H Rat Lab GSIs
               Fall 2008                                        Betsy Saur
                                                                       E-mail: elizabeth.a.saur@wmich.edu
                                                                Jenny Lonsdorf
Professor                                                              E-mail: lons0018@umn.edu
Dr. Richard W. Malott                                           Matt Brodhead
Office: Wood Hall, 2026                                                Email : matthew.t.brodhead@wmich.edu
Office Hours: by appointment
                                                                Work-study students
Phones and Emails                                               Are you an official WMU work-study student?
                                                                Looking for interesting work related to behavior
                                                                analysis? The Behavior Analysis Training System
Dr. Malott                                                      (BATS) needs you to help with the behind-the-
E-mail:                                                         scenes work developing and improving Psy 100
DickMalott@DickMalott.Com                                       Honors, Psy 360, Psy 460, Psy 510, and Psy 597.
(This is the best way to reach him and get a reply.)            Please contact Dr. Malott’s doctoral apprentice
The best time and way to contact Dr. Malott is in               immediately.
the morning, by phone. If he’s not there, leave a
message on his voice mail; but don’t depend on
him (never trust anyone over 30); keep calling                  Your Buddy
until you get him; that’s the wisest policy.                    What happens if you miss class and don't get some
Home: 372-1268 (Call any time, Monday through                   vital oral or written material that was handed out
Friday, from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.)                            in class? No problem, you just call your reliable
Please don't call after 6:00 p.m.                               buddy whose name and phone number you've
                                                                listed here and get the info. With your buddy,
                                                                being so reliable as to have picked up an extra
P360/100H Systems Manager                                       copy of the handouts for you, especially because
Kelli Perry                                                     you had notified your buddy (and your GSI) of
       E-mail: kelli.l.perry@wmich.edu                          your pending absence, you won’t miss a thing. So
                                                                get a student’s name and phone number.
P610/Bootcamp Systems Manager
Rebecca O’Gorman
      E-mail: rebeccamogorman@gmail.com                         Name: ____________________________

Graduate Student Instructors (GSIs)
Your rat lab TA and seminar GSI would be happy                  Phone: ___________________________
to meet with you to discuss the lab or seminar
respectively. Just email or call them and arrange
an appointment to meet in the BATS lab, 2536
                                                                E-mail: ___________________________
Wood Hall.




Revised by Kelli Perry                                 - 16 -                                            5/8/2013
Seminar Schedule:                                                         Rat Lab
                                                                          You lose no points if your rat isn't working, as
All Fall and Winter sections: T-Th 4:00-5:50.                             long as you hang in there with him and give it
                                                                          your best shot (that means you cannot declare your
All Summer P360 Sections: M-Th 1:00-2:45.                                 rat satiated, put him in his home cage, and then
Boot Camp: M-F 3:00-6:00, Dunbar 2204.                                    study for your upcoming quiz; you’ll always lose
                                                                          participation points when you study for a quiz or
                 Behavior Analysis
                                                                          do anything other than rat lab work, during the rat
                   Spoken Here.                                           lab hour). However, participation is worth 10
                                 ?
                                                   Punish.
                                                                          points per day and you will lose all ten points if
                                                                          you don’t show up. You will also lose 2.5 points if
                                     Extinguish.        Shape.
                    Reinforce.



                                                                          you are late, are not prepared for class, or don’t
                                                                          clean up you area when you are done with rat lab.
                                                                          On the other hand, you can get optional activity
                                                                          points if you do extra lab experiments.
After the first class, you will be assigned to a                          Great New Opportunity Available: Your GSI’s will let
seminar room. We'll post the new seminar-                                 you know about this when the time is right.
room assignments on the wall outside your
original seminar room.                                                    When you've finished an experiment, turn in your
                                                                          lab report for that experiment at the start of the
                                                                          next lab class. You will lose 2.5 points for each
Psy 360 (Fall, 2007) comments: "The daily                                 school day (M-F) late.
seminar really kept me on track.” “It was a                                  Rat lab points break down:
challenging course with good topics to discuss.”                                  o 2.5 points off for late arrival
“There was a lot of information learned.”                                         o 2.5 points off for a late lab report
“Seminar was really fun and definitely helped me                                  o 2.5 points off for not having the questions
understand the material.”                                                             at the end of the experiment answered
                                                                                  o 2.5 point off for not cleaning up the lab
                                                                                      station
Psy 360 (Spring 2008) comments: "Small class
size was best feature.” “Having to study so much I                        Rat Lab Policy.
actually learned!” “Going over material in seminar                        Quick note: You may find that you love Rudolph.
helped me understand the concepts and principles                          (many students do). But PLEASE don’t get too
better.” “Smaller classes are a big plus.” “I liked                       attached. Be forewarned. Rudolph belongs to the
the interactive seminars.”                                                university, not to you. You will have to say good-
                                                                          bye to him at the end of the semester. It is strictly
                                                                          against university policy to allow any of the rats to
Using the Overhead Projector                                              go home with students.
During the seminar each day, you will be
                                                                                   The rat lab was:
presenting your original examples (from the
homework) to the class on the overhead projector.                                                        30
                                                                                    Number of Students




                                                                                                         25
Usually, everyone presents good examples, but                                                            20
here are some tips to present your good examples                                                         15
well.                                                                                                    10
                                                                                                          5
    Read from the projector and not the screen so                                                       0
                                                                                                         very valuable 2            3             4 not valuable
      that you can face the class at all times and not the                                                            Hard to believe isn't it!
      wall.
    At the same time, do your best to not block the
      view of the screen.
    Don't talk to the GSI, talk to the class.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                           - 17 -                                                                                            5/8/2013
Also be sure to note that the POB term review                                                       run of the mill textbook.” “The short stories
quizzes will be taken during the other hour of rat                                                  helped me better understand how the concepts and
lab. You are registered for 2 hours of rat lab, but                                                 principles are applied to everyday situations.” “I
you will only attend one hour of rat lab. On review                                                 love the stores! It was put in terms I could
quiz days, you will go to 1505 Wood Hall during                                                     understand. It was easy to follow and I hardly ever
the other hour of your scheduled rat lab session.                                                   got lost.” “Best Psych book I have ever read.” “It
You will have to attend rat lab on these days as                                                    was funny.” “I thought it was an interesting and
well, during your normally scheduled time.                                                          entertaining book. I enjoyed reading the chapters.”
Here is the schedule:

   GoWMU                                      Go to Rat Lab:        Take Review                     The Assignment Guide
schedule says:                                                        Quizzes:
                                                                                                    Continuous Quality Improvement
11:00-1:00pm                                  12:00-1:00pm         11:00-12:00pm
12:00-2:00pm                                  1:00-2:00pm          12:00-1:00pm                     As you can probably decipher, we are currently
2:00-4:00pm                                   3:00-4:00pm          2:00-3:00pm                      revising the textbook for this course. We value
                                                                                                    your opinion as to our effectiveness and success in
                                                                                                    making the material covered as understandable as
                                                                                                    possible. You will find a folder in your course
Text                                                                                                packet with replacement sections and chapters.
                                                                                                    We ask that you read the replacement material
Malott, R. W. Principles of Behavior (Edition                                                       rather than those sections in the textbook. If you’d
6.0)                                                                                                like to make comments on the revisions, you can
                                                                                                    earn OAPs (see page 21), and your thoughtful
                             Com pared to other texts for courses at this level,                    contributions will help to develop a better
                                     the value of the present text is...                            textbook for future students. And thank you, in
                        30
                                                                                                    advance.

                                                                                                    General Point System
   Number of students




                        25

                        20


                        15
                                                                             Fall 2007                 20 points each seminar class, for conscientious
                                                                             Spring 2008
                                                                                                      participation in seminar discussion. I will expect you
                        10
                                                                                                      to recite in each class, especially in answering
                         5
                                                                                                      conceptual questions, thoughtfully. This means you
                         0                                                                            will need to show considerable evidence of having
                                 1        2       3        4        5
                                                                                                      thought about the homework assignment. This also
                                                                                                      means that you should not be studying flashcards
                                                                                                      or writing on transparencies in class! This also
                                                                                                      means that you will have your original examples put
Psy 360 (Fall 2007) comments: “Easy to read.”
                                                                                                      on transparency before you get to class. Your TA
“Great application to life.” “The voice it was                                                        will do the Frazier Transparency Test: If you weren't
written in was great.” “Examples were good.” “It                                                      able to show your transparency to the class, your TA
was educational and entertaining at the same                                                          will take a brief look at it for participation points.
time!” “Loved the humor!” “Written in a way that
is easy to understand.” “It was in depth and pulled
everyday life into text to make it easier to
understand.” “Stories help make things clearer.” “

Psy 360 (Spring 2008) comments: “Deep details.”
“Lots of examples.” “Humorous examples.” “Easy
read.” “It was funny and not exactly your usual
Revised by Kelli Perry                                                                     - 18 -                                                 5/8/2013
                                                                                        Before                                    Behavior                     After
   The requirement of participation in daily
   discussions was:
                                                                                     Will lose                                      Active               Won't lose
                         20                                                       chance for 20                                  participation         chance for 20
    Number of Students




                         15
                                                                                   participation                                   in class.            participation
                                                                  Psy. 100
                                                                                     points.                                                              points.
                         10                                       Psy. 665


                          5                                                           But now back to happier issues:
                          0
                              1 (good)   2           3        4   5 (bad)                20 points for written answers to conceptual
                                             Data from 1990
                                                                                        questions from How to Analyze Behavioral
                                                                                        Contingencies.
                                                                                         20 points for answers to the quiz on each
       10 points each rat lab for conscientiously                                      chapter and each review quiz. (If there are 10
  working with your rat. You can earn a maximum of                                      questions on a quiz, that's 2 points per question. If
  50 points for each of 6 lab experiments, no matter                                    there are 20 questions, that would be 1 point per
  how many lab sessions you need to complete the                                        question.)
  experiment, but you must turn in a satisfactory lab
  report in the lab class after you complete each of the
                                                                                                                   The high frequency of the regular quizzes
  6 experiments, in order to get full credit (otherwise                                                                      (one per chapter) w as
  minus 5 points for each day late). So if you work
  conscientiously on an experiment and turn in your                                                           20

  report the day after you've finished that experiment,                                  Number of students
                                                                                                              15
  you will get your full 50 points, whether it took you
                                                                                                                                                           Fall 2007
  3 days or 13 days to do that experiment.                                                                    10
                                                                                                                                                           Spring 2008

                                                                                                               5
What does conscientious mean?
                                                                                                               0
  In the seminar: You must listen carefully to the                                                                  1      2       3      4      5

 presentations of the other students and be prepared
 to comment, so as to earn all 20 participation points.
 So studying for a quiz, finishing your homework,
 reading and writing letters, sleeping, and the like                                  Psy 360 (Fall 2007) comments “It made you
 means, when you see your scores for that week,                                       responsible.” “The daily quizzes and homework
 you'll find less than 20 points for the seminar class.                               really kept me on track.” “You’re never allowed to
 On the other hand, feel free to improve your                                         slack.” “Daily quizzes forced me to read the
 homework, as we clarify tough concepts throughout                                    chapter!” “The amount of work requires you to
 the seminar session.
                                                                                      study and understand what you’re learning. I feel
  In Rat Lab: Studying for your quiz rather than                                    its fairly easy to get an A or BA.”
 working with your rat would be a good way to lose
 the opportunity to get all your participation points.                                Psy 360 (Spring 2008) comments: “Best feature of
 However, if you work conscientiously in the rat lab,
                                                                                      class was being accountable for daily quizzes.”
 you can earn full credit, even if your rat doesn't
 finish all 7 experiments. So one more criterion for                                  “Having to study so much I actually learned.”
 conscientious work is that you get the rat to make                                   “The quiz set up was good.” “I like the way the
 clear, reliable lever presses (i.e., push that lever all                             course is layed out.” “The daily quizzes and
 the way down, not just effete brushes of the lever                                   homework assignments really ties all of the
 with the whiskers).                                                                  concepts together well.” “The frequency of
  As you'll learn this semester, we'd diagram                                       quizzes and quizzes on material the same day as
 these contingencies like this:                                                       the discussion kept me working hard.”


Revised by Kelli Perry                                                       - 19 -                                                                        5/8/2013
Point Totals for P100 and P360                                     Grades for P100 and P360 Only
                                                                   Now you know how you can earn 1,000’s of points
All these points count toward your course grade.                   (learned reinforcers?) in this course. So the next
                                                                   question is, how do those points convert into a final
The total points for the course will be                            grade (backup reinforcer?). The answer is, complex.
approximately:                                                     Here’s why it's so complex: We have three goals for
Points possible     Required activity                              this course: we want you to
 20 x 34 = 680 points for quizzes (29 chapters
                                                                      learn as much as you can,
                    + 4 reviews + rat lab and
                    course procedures quizzes [10                     earn as good a grade as you can, and
                    points each]).                                    have as much fun as you can.
 20 x 28 = 560 points for homework (How to                         But to hit all three goals we need a complex set of
                    Analyze Behavioral                             contingencies. Look at the following grade scale, and
                    Contingencies).                                you'll see just how complex.
100 x 1 = 100 points for your Final Fiesta
                    Project and Paper (counts as
                    part of your homework).                        P100 & P360    Lowest % of Points in ANY of the
 20 x 28 = 560 points for conscientious                               Matrix             Remaining Areas
                    participation in seminar.                       Min. % of    92 87 82 77 72 67 62 <62
 20 x 1 =        20 points for conscientious                             Quiz
                    participation in Final Fiesta                      Points
                    (attendance is required and                           92      A BA B CB C DC                D     E
                    counts as part of your                                87     BA B CB C DC D                 E
                    seminar participation).
                                                                          82      B CB C DC D E
 10 x 30 = 300 points for conscientious
                    participation in rat lab (and 10                      77     CB C DC D E
                    more points for study proofs                          72      C DC D E
                    when applicable). (Psy 100                            67     DC D E
                         honors do not have to go to do
                         study proofs).                                   62      D E
  10 x 30       300 Points for conscientious                             <62      E
                    participation in study sessions
                    when necessary.
      2,420 = 100% of the total points for the                     What's going on here? Well, before you completely
                    course (very approximate)                      flip out, let me reassure you that the majority of the
                                                                   students get an A, and most of the rest get a BA.
1You get a maximum of 10 points a day for 29-30 lab                Almost everyone works hard, learns a lot, gets a good
days for working on the rat lab. PSY 100 (Honors                   grade, and has fun. We keep adjusting the grading
students): Your rat lab grade will be given in PSY 398,            contingencies to turn “almost everyone gets a good
not PSY 100.                                                       grade” into “everyone gets a good grade by learning a
                                                                   lot.”

                                                                   Wonderful, but how do you get that magic A? To do
                                                                   that you have to crack the 92% mark in each of four
                                                                   areas: (1) the rat lab (participation and report); (2)
                                                                   seminar participation; (3) conceptual homework;
                                                                   including the final paper; (4) the quizzes.




Revised by Kelli Perry                                    - 20 -                                                5/8/2013
                                                                  The highest a student can get with 72% on the
Helping P360 & 100H earn the A                                    quizzes is a C. Furthermore, such a student can't
                                                                  goof off even further and let the percentages fall
So what if you’re not achieving that 82% mark on                  below 92% in the easy areas; or the course grade
the quizzes? Well, we have put in a 82% quiz
policy in order to help you get your grade and keep               will fall even below a C. The goal of this most
your grade above an A. Anytime your cumulative                    recent set of contingencies is to encourage the
quiz score drops below a 82% you are required to                  72% quizzer to stop goofing off, work just a little
complete the chapter objectives or write out the                  harder and join the ranks of at least the 87%
definitions five times each for the next class’                   quizzers. But most of you will not be concerned
chapter(s). This grade will count as part of your
participation points for that class’ grade.                       with the issues described in this paragraph;
                                                                  because most of you will fall in the shaded area in
                                                                  the preceding table. We hope all of you will be
Strange Grading Philosophy                                        there.

In the past, almost all students have worked hard                 I know this seems like a strange way to evaluate a
and gotten nearly 100% of their points for lab,                   student's mastery and assign a letter grade. Why
seminar participation, and homework. And with a                   not just add up all the points and assign a letter
fat cushion, from those easy areas, some students                 grade based on the total number of points, no
tended to slide a bit in the quiz area--before we set             matter which components of the class they come
up this complex contingency, that is. But you need                from? Again, that's the way we used to do it. But
to be really sharp in all areas, if you're going to be            then some students would get an A based on their
a professional behavior analyst. That’s why you                   work in everything but quizzes and they wouldn't
need to get at least 92% (or 96% for P610) on                     have really learned the most important part of the
the quizzes and 92% in each of the other areas                    course, the concepts tested on the quizzes.
to earn the A.
                                                                  My friend, Dr. Stephen Graf, puts it this way:
Now you may say, I don't plan to be a professional                Suppose you're training surgeons. And to perform
behavior analyst, I don't need an A, and I don't                  a successful surgery, the student/surgeon must
have the time it would take to master the concepts                scrub down, put on the gloves, make a proper
well enough to get 92%/96% on the quizzes.                        incision, properly remove the correct organ, avoid
That’s fine. You’re almost guaranteed to earn a                   flipping cigarette ashes into the open wound,
BA, which is well above the campus average; and                   remove all surgical tools from inside the patient,
you’ll have learned enough about behavior                         sew up the incision, etc. Now suppose the
analysis that you can hold your head high. All you                student/surgeon did everything correctly except
have to do is get at least 87% on the quizzes and                 taking out the correct organ. So the student might
92% in each of the remaining areas (the easy                      say, I did 19 out of the 20 steps correctly; that's
areas). Few students have trouble doing the hard                  95%. I want my A. The fact that I took out the
work it takes to earn at least a BA.                              heart instead of the hemorrhoids and the patient
                                                                  died shouldn't overshadow my 95% average.
On the other hand, if you do earn the A, you'll be
in excellent shape for Psy 460 and the 500-level                  We take behavior analysis very seriously and don't
electives.                                                        want to graduate any student who doesn't know his
                                                                  or her ass from his or her heart. So for us to certify
In the past, very few students have goofed off so                 you as an A student, you've got to hit at least 92%
much that they might get as low as 72% on the                     in each category in this course.
quizzes; but they could pull their grade up to a B
or even a BA with the fat cushion from all the easy
areas. With the complex grade contingencies
described in this table, that is no longer possible.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                   - 21 -                                                5/8/2013
                                                               All these activities are optional, however; so if
   Final Course Grades for Psy. 360                            you don’t participate, either because of schedule
                                                               conflicts or lack of interest, that’s OK. You can
                                                               still earn 100% of the required points and earn
                         A
                                                               your A. The optional activities are just to give you
                                                               a little extra flexibility, if you can work them into
                                                               your schedule and if you want to.
                                                 E
                                                 D
                                                CB             What are OAPs good for?
                                            B
                                                               Those points can count toward your course grade,
                                     BA
                                                               but you cannot use them to make up for missed
                             Summer, 1993                      points (for example, you cannot use optional
                                                               activity points to eliminate your lowest quiz
                                                               scores; there is no way to eliminate your lowest
                                                               quiz score); instead you can use these points to
Final Paper (All sections)                                     exempt yourself from agreed upon assignments. In
We try to make this course as pleasant as possible             other words, you cannot use them to compensate
(as reinforcing and non aversive as possible). One             for a mediocre performance, but you can use them
way we try to do this is by providing alternatives             for some flexibility.
to the most aversive feature of most courses -- the
final exam. You will have already shown                        Along the same line, you can't come to class,
considerable mastery and cumulative mastery of                 scope out the quiz, and then decide to use your
the concepts and principles of behavior analysis               optional activity points (OAPs) for that quiz; the
by exam week; so for a final exam, you will write              OAPs are to help you with necessary absences,
a final paper, based on that mastery of the course             etc., not to help you avoid the hard assignments.
you will have previously shown. To get credit for              Although, it would be OK for you to come to class
the paper, you will need to present it at the Final            on a day when you just didn’t have enough time to
Fiesta. (In a later section there are examples of              prepare for the quiz and then leave before the
outstanding student papers, as well as guidelines              quiz is handed out. Keep in mind, though, you
and suggestions.)                                              can only do this once.

                                                               In this spirit, you can use OAPs for only one day's
Optional Activity Points                                       worth of quizzes, even if you were absent for more
                                                               than one day.
What are Optional Activity Points
(OAPs)?                                                        Though you don’t have to, we recommend that
                                                               you use your OAPs to replace a missed quiz
* OAPS do not apply to SUMMER 610- You are                     immediately; this way you ( and your TA) will
required to take all quizzes and do all homework               have a more accurate picture of what a great
assignments.                                                   student you are; if your total quiz points are down
                                                               the 20 points you haven't replaced, your average
You can use 80 points for optional alternate
                                                               quiz score will make you look like a bum, when
activities of academic value, usually scheduled
                                                               you really aren't -- not good.
outside the regular classes. To encourage you to
participate, you will receive points for
participating in those activities and providing
                                                               New OAP transfer policy -
appropriate proof of accomplishment.                           So what happens if, at the end of the semester, you
                                                               have some unused OAPs? You will be able to
                                                               transfer any unused OAPs from Dr. Malott’s Psy

Revised by Kelli Perry                                - 22 -                                               5/8/2013
360 to Dr. Malott’s Psy 460. How? Your TA will                     points per business day. You can use OAPs for
give you a signed sheet with the number of OAP’s                   activities on different days, with the exception of
you had left at the end of this course. Simply                     quizzes. You can only use OAPs for one day’s
present this sheet to your new Psy 460 TA next                     worth of each category. Although the days can be
semester, and you can use the OAPs in Psy 460.                     different for each eategory.
(Of course there will be some additional                             
verification tasks completed by your new and old                     e.g.
TAs.)                                                                   20 points used for Chapter 7 Quiz
Keep in mind though, that these OAPs are only                           20 points used for Chapter 9 Participation
used in Dr. Malott’s classes. Don’t even try to get                     20 points used for Chapter 13 Homework
other professors to honor the OAP system.                               10 points used for Rat Lab Participation


How can you earn OAPs?
Alternate activities will include:                                 Lecture/Quiz Strategy/Philosophy

    Answer Advanced Study Objectives and                         The Traditional Approach
   Advanced Enrichment Section questions on the POB                Whenever we use traditional, you can bet we
   web site.                                                       mean, old-fashioned, out-of-date, and ineffective.
    Extra rat labs                                               So here's the traditional approach to education.
    Going to BAAM (Winter term only)                             O.K. students, read Chapter 11 so you can
    Going to ABA (Spring term only)                              understand my lecture on it. Then in the next class
    Participating in research projects                           I will give that lecture and clear up any
                                                                   misunderstandings. The class after that we'll have
    Finding errors in any of the course materials
                                                                   a quiz over Chapter 11. So what happens? Twenty
   (normally one OAP per error, including typos; if you
   find errors in homework material, flashcards or the             percent of the students read Chapter 11. Eighty
   text book, bring them to your seminar leader at the             percent don't. Full of naive expectations, the
   end of the seminar that day, no later)                          professor gives the lecture and becomes
    Come up with really good, interesting                        disillusioned with today's generation of students
   questions that weren’t answered in the course                   who don't have the intellectual integrity to read the
   materials. Give them to your TA for OAPs. If you                chapter in advance. The professor fails to
   seek out the answer on your own (by discussing it               understand it was always that way, even in the
   with a graduate student or faculty member, or                   good old days. Furthermore, the students aren't
   additional reading), we’ll give you even more OAPs.             able to get nearly as much out of the lecture and
    Special reading and conceptual homework for                  discussion of Chapter 11 as they would have, had
   those who can't participate in these activities,                they read it in advance. And not understanding all
   because of schedule conflicts.                                  the lecture, they also don't do as well on the
                                                                   subsequent quiz, even though they do read
The Finer OAP Details                                              Chapter 11 between the lecture and the quiz
   You can use a total of 80 OAPs during the semester.             (usually a few hours before the quiz, just like the
The number of OAPs required for replacement is                     professor prepares the lecture only a few hours
determined by the number of points that each quiz,                 before the class -- we're all cut from that same
homework, or participation is worth. A missed chapter              procrastinating cloth).
quiz is worth ~20 points, therefore requires 20 OAPs to
be replaced. The same goes for class participation and             The Behavioral Approach
homework. Rat participation requires 10 OAPs for
replacement. You can make up more than 1 quiz, if                  Our Psy courses are just about the only courses on
they occur on the same day. Note: Homework can be                  campus where the students have read Chapter 11
turned in early for full points or late at a loss of 5             before the lecture/discussion. How do we
Revised by Kelli Perry                                    - 23 -                                               5/8/2013
accomplish that miracle of performance                                   Then we recycle through this circle of problem
management? We give the quiz in the same class                          analysis, systems redesign, implementation, and
as the lecture. The result? The students study                          evaluation until we've gotten it as good as we can.
seriously for the quiz. They do well on the quiz.                     This is a systems approach because we don't
And they are ready for a discussion of any of the                     blame the victim; instead, we blame the system
especially complex issues in Chapter 11.                              and try to fix it so it will do a better job the next
                                                                      time. And in keeping with not blaming the victim;
The Traditional Approach                                              we try to ensure the student is not penalized by our
                                                                      less than perfect system.
But what about those tough quiz questions the
majority of the students are bombing? The
traditional approach is the equivalent of victim                      General Study Strategies
blaming -- to say the victim of the problem is the                    Based on my own experience, and what students
cause of the problem is, for example, to say, if the                  tell me, here's what I recommend:
students do poorly on a quiz question, it's their
own fault. The traditional professors say this, even                     Most students report spending at least a half
though the student/victims are paying those                             hour per chapter with the flash cards -- depending on
professors to teach them and even though the                            the number and complexity of definitions they need
students often are not getting their money's worth.                     to memorize, it can range from just a few minutes to
                                                                        as much as a couple hours. Again, I think it will
The Behavioral Systems-Analysis                                         probably go faster, if you have a general
                                                                        understanding of the chapter before you start
Approach                                                                memorizing. (Of course, you could mix the two
    First       we     make     sure     the    students              study modes, just for variety. Let me know what you
   conscientiously read Chapter 11 and then review it.                  do and how it works.) In any event, here's what
   We do this by having frequent quizzes over small                     amazes me:
   amounts of material and by counting the quiz in a                     We first introduced the flashcards in the summer of
   heavy and straightforward way toward the final                         1992, and it's the single most powerful thing we've
   grade.                                                                 done to help the students improve their study grades.
    Then we carefully analyze the student's                             Most of the students are now knocking the top off the
   performance on each quiz question, concentrating on                    definition part of the quizzes. That wasn't so BF --
                                                                          before flashcards.
   the items many students miss. When we're sure the
   students have given it their best shot, we toss out the               For P100 (Honors) only, however, we do not include
   offending question for that semester. We don't blame                   the flashcards because most past P100 students
   the victim. And we don't use our quizzes as IQ tests;                  reported they did not use them. But if you want a set,
   if the students have paid their tuition money and                      you can order them from the copy desk, just ask for Dr.
                                                                          Malott’s Psy 360 flashcards.
   gotten admitted into our program, and if they are
   doing the work, then it's our responsibility to make                  Our data are less solid on this one, but it seems to us
   sure we professors provide an adequate set of                          the students are much better able to use the concepts
   instructional     materials     and       performance-                 and principles in applied and theoretical discussions
                                                                          and do much better on their homework now that we
   management contingencies to guarantee the success
                                                                          have the flashcards.
   of all our students. That's what the students pay us
   for.                                                                  Finally, what amazes me most is that the students
                                                                          really appreciate the flashcards. Most don't mind the
    Next we make a preliminary decision as to                           memorization and they can see it really gives them an
   whether the poor performance resulted from an                          edge.
   ambiguous quiz question. If, yes, we revise the                    How to use the flashcards -
   question for next semester.
                                                                        After questioning many             students, both
    Or we make the preliminary decision that the                      undergraduate and graduate, we have come up with
   poor performance resulted from unclear text                          a flashcard studying strategy that will increase your
   material. If yes, we revise or supplement the text for               fluency in the least amount of time necessary to do
   next semester. In addition, we attempt to clarify the                so. Here it is.
   problem in the next lecture / discussion section.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                       - 24 -                                                       5/8/2013
          1. Begin studying your flashcards after you have read                 we always ask if you have questions. (Incidentally,
          through the chapter                                                   getting answers to those questions is not as crucial to
          2. Begin with the pile of flashcards all cut out.                     doing well on any given quiz as it might at first
          3. Go through the pile one time. Read the front and                   seem. But the answers help with the homework and
          back of each card.                                                    your total mastery of the course concepts.) But that's
          4.   Set the pile on your left.                                       the easy part.
          5.   Pick up the first card.                                           Before the quiz, answer all study objectives.
          6.   Look at the term                                                 Danger: To get an A in this course, you must be able
          7.  Try to say the definition without reading it on the               to answer ALL the questions at the end of the
          back.                                                                 subsections         within        each        chapter.
          8. If you say it perfectly, put the card on your right. If            And this is why many students end with a BA
          not, put it in a new pile on the left.                                instead of an A. They don't memorize all the tables,
          9. Then do the same with the next card and so on.                     diagrams, contingency diagrams, experimental and
                                                                                intervention procedures, etc. that are indicated in
          10. When you finish the first pile, pick up the second
          pile on the left and go through it the same way.
                                                                                those study questions. Part of the problem is that we
                                                                                don't always ask about items on the quizzes, because
          11. Eventually all of the cards will be on your right.
                                                                                we don't have time or room. So you may get a little
          12. When this happens, pick them up, shuffle them and                 too casual in memorizing those answers. But
          go through them again the same way. Don’t worry if
          some of the cards end up on your left side again, just
                                                                                gradually you lose more and more points, until you
          repeat the whole process until all the cards end up on the            lose your A. Please don't do that. Please make this
          right two times through the pile.                                     final small amount of additional effort to secure the
                                                                               A you've so clearly earned with the large amount of
                                                                                initial effort you've invested in each assignment.
    Before the seminar & quiz, reread the chapter.
                                                                                Those quiz questions require no creativity. You
   But this time carefully, reread anything that's not
                                                                                should be able to answer all of them, straight from
   clear until you've figured it out or your brain is fried.
                                                                                the book. (We require heavy creativity in another
   If you get in too much trouble, call your buddy you
                                                                                part of the course, but not the quizzes. We think it's
   will be assigned in the second or third class. As a
                                                                                usually unreasonable to ask students to be creative
   student, I found I could breeze through the second
                                                                                and original under the pressure of quizzes and
   time, much faster than the first, though I was being
                                                                                exams.)
   more careful the second time around. (Again, I think
   less than an hour.) But that was the easy part, now                           Finally we end the study sequence with the
   following this next recommendation is how the A                              acid test, the goal of the course-- this is where you
   students separate themselves from the others:                                really learn
    At the end of each section, within a chapter,                              Before the quiz, review the flash cards.
   you'll usually find a list of study questions; you can                         After reading the chapter twice and studying
   ignore them on your first time through. However,                               it intensely, you should have an excellent
   make sure you can answer them all during this                                  grasp of the chapter. But you still need to put
   second reading, because there will be no questions                             a little polish on those flashcards.
   on the quiz that aren't among the study
   questions.                                                                                                 The flashcards w ere
    Here's what I think is a main differences
                                                                                                     40
   between outstanding students and other students:
                                                                                Number of students




                                                                                                     35
   When you ask students if they have any questions on                                               30
   the chapter or if there's anything they don't                                                     25
                                                                                                                                         Fall 2007
   understand, outstanding students have a whole                                                     20
                                                                                                                                         Spring 2008
                                                                                                     15
   shopping list of questions. The average student has                                               10
   few, and the poor student has absolutely no                                                        5
   questions. Therefore one step toward becoming an                                                   0
                                                                                                          1   2      3      4        5
   outstanding student is to critically monitor your
   understanding so you can put big question marks
   beside the unclear areas and then make sure you ask
   your questions. During the first part of each seminar,
Revised by Kelli Perry                                                 - 25 -                                                               5/8/2013
                                                                                                    Super A (Advanced Principles of
    Before the seminar, do the homework.
     Most of your homework is in the How to
                                                                                                    Behavior)
                                                                                                    The course assistants and I spend many hours
     Analyze Behavioral Contingencies folder and
                                                                                                    trying to figure out how to make this the most
     a few are on the CD handed out in the first
                                                                                                    effective and most exciting course you've ever
     seminar. You'll look at and generate a variety
                                                                                                    taken. So here's an add-on we first tried in the Fall
     of behavioral contingencies and related
                                                                                                    of 1992 -- the Super A program. Because it's been
     concepts. This is where all that rote work pays
                                                                                                    a consistent hit with the students, we're keeping it
     off in heavy-duty creativity. This is where
                                                                                                    in the course.
     you may do more original thinking than
     you've done in the rest of your college career.
     Students say they spend 1 to 2 hours on each
                                                                                                    What's Super A?
     of these homework assignments. Again, be                                                       Advanced Principles of Behavior is an extra hour
     sure you put a big question mark beside any                                                    of credit you can get for doing a super outstanding
     examples you're not sure of. Then you can ask                                                  job in this course. You do a terrific job this
     about them in class. (Incidentally, we think                                                   semester, and then next semester you can enroll in
     it's fine if you review your homework with                                                     Psy 397: Advanced Concepts of Behavior
     your classmates, as long as it's after you've                                                  Analysis (ACBA) for 1 hour of credit. At the end
     completed your homework. And we think it's                                                     of next semester, you receive a grade of A for Psy
     fine for you to correct your homework, when                                                    397 automatically, because you've already done
     a classmate points out an error and you                                                        the work and earned the credit this semester. (Of
     understand that error, even if your classmate                                                  course you will still have to pay for the credit -- no
     had to help you understand it. But it can be                                                   free lunch.) It's a no risk deal; if you've done what
     fatal, if you use the same examples or almost                                                  it takes to earn the credit, you sign up for one
     the same examples as your classmate.)                                                          additional hour of A; otherwise you don't. But
                                                                                                    remember, you must be enrolled during the next
                                How m any hours out of class did you spend                          semester to receive the credit. If you have any
                                         preparing for sem inar?
                                                                                                    questions about that, ask me or your GSI.
      Number of students




                           16
                           14
                           12
                                                                                                    What does it take to earn Super A?
                           10
                           8
                                                                             Fall 2007              It takes about 50 extra hours of high-quality work.
                                                                             Spring 2008
                           6
                           4
                                                                                                    It takes being a super student. I've noticed that
                           2                                                                        super students tend to put in more hours on the
                           0
                                0to1   1t o 2   2to3   3to4   4to5   5to6                           course than most do anyway. And all students put
                                                                                                    in more work for this course than they do for most
                                                                                                    others; so why not allow as many of you who wish
                                                                                                    to get a little extra credit for the extra work?
Dropping the Course
If you have financial aid and dropping this or                                                      In figuring points for Super A, as well as for your
other courses will put you below 12 credit hours                                                    regular grade, we figure roughly 10 points per
during the fall or winter, then you should take time                                                hour of effective work. That means 500 extra,
to talk with a financial aid advisor in the Faunce                                                  super-A points = 1 super-A
student center. Each student is evaluated on a
case-by-case basis.                                                                                 So here's the deal:
                                                                                                       First, to get Super A, you must do what it takes
                                                                                                      to get an A in the regular course.



Revised by Kelli Perry                                                                     - 26 -                                                5/8/2013
    For every percentage point above 92% you                            as intellectually reinforcing as teaching a grad. class,
   earn on your cumulative quiz scores, you get 40                        and that's saying a lot. (On the other hand, some
   super-A points.                                                        super students don't need the one-hour's credit or
    We have quite a few students doing the hard                         don't have the time to do the extra work for Super A.
   work needed to get from 95 to 99% on their quizzes,                    That's O.K. too; they're still super students.)
   so why shouldn't they get a little extra payoff. This
   means if you manage to get the big one-oh-oh %,
   you've got 320 out of your 500 Honors points. We
                                                                        Return Your Homework and Lab
   want to arrange the contingencies so super students                  Reports
   will find it a reinforcer to do as well as they                      To retain full credit for your homework and lab
   comfortably can on their quizzes without going into                  reports, please turn in all of them by the last rat lab
   heart-attack city. In other words, if you earn 98%                   of the term. This way we can look at it in more
   that's wonderful; but if you earn "only" 97%, no big                 detail, as we evaluate the effectiveness of the book
   deal; you can earn those extra 40 super-A points in                  and the course. It will also give us ideas about
   many other ways. (Note, these super-A points don't                   materials to add. In addition, this way your
   count as optional-activity points (OAP's), but OAP's
                                                                        answers won’t fall into the hands of future
   do count as super-A points.)
                                                                        students, in spite of your best security efforts. OK?
    All UNSPENT optional activity points count
   as Honors points.
    It ties together. A super student might be super                  Cheating Means Sudden Death!!
   fluent with the definitions on the flash cards. So you               If we catch you cheating or plagiarizing in this
   can earn OAP's by considerably exceeding the                         course, you will receive an E for the course, no
   minimum fluency criteria. Also, if you do a super                    matter how small or trivial was the cheating or
   terrific job on a homework, you might pick up an                     plagiarizing.
   OAP or two. And a super student is a careful reader,
   so you can earn OAP's by being the first to find                     Cheating
   typographical, grammatical, logical, or behavioral
   errors in the course materials. Super students are                   This includes, but is not limited to, copying from
   super interested in behavior analysis and would like                 your neighbor, your notes, or whatever, during a
   to play with the big kids (grad students and faculty)                test or quiz. This also involves talking during a
   by going to the Friday-afternoon colloquia (15                       test or quiz. Cheating also means copying
   OAP's each for a total of about 180 OAPs).                           someone else’s homework and turning it in as
    (If you spend 40 OAP's to pay for a missing                       your own. Please take note of the homework
   seminar class, no problem; but, of course, you can't                 variety of cheating. No, we don’t mind if you
   spend them twice by reusing them as super-A                          complete your homework and call a friend to see
   points.)                                                             if your original example is right. But your friend’s
    Qualifying for Super A is like being in a                         original example better not look like yours the
   special honors section of Psy 360. If you qualify for                next day in class. Keep in mind, that the TAs meet
   Super A, you're an impressive super student (of                      before every class - they talk about their student’s
   course, you can also show what a super student you                   homework and quizzes. So, just because your
   are by qualifying for Super A and not necessarily                    friend is in a different section, doesn’t mean that
   registering for the credit, if you can't use it -- no one
                                                                        cheating wouldn’t be discovered.)
   need be excluded from the club). My guess is
   students who earn Super A are students most likely
                                                                        Additionally, if you are knowingly involved in
   to get into grad. school. My guess is these are the
   students faculty members will be most likely to bend                 providing the occasion for someone else to do any
   over backwards to help. For example, I'll do                         of these forms of cheating, then you too are
   anything I can to make room for Super A student in                   cheating and will also get the ax! Here’s another
   my Psy 460 class, even if the class is full. Why,                    form of cheating that we don’t want to catch you
   because a good super student has earned the                          doing: Don't try the sleazy red-pen cap on black
   privilege of super consideration and because its very                pen trick when you're supposed to be editing your
   reinforcing to teach a class full of super students; its
Revised by Kelli Perry                                         - 27 -                                                   5/8/2013
homework in class with a red pen. We’ll notice,                assignments. Rat lab absences count as missed
and it’s cheating.                                             classes.

Plagiarizing                                                   Optional     Activity    Points    And     Missed
This means turning in written work that includes               Classes
material taken from someone else, without using
                                                               You can substitute a maximum of 80 optional
quote marks or otherwise giving proper credit to
                                                               activity points for missed classes, quizzes not
the true author. In other words, your presentation
                                                               taken, and homework not turned in (or turned in
of someone else’s material in a way that the
                                                               late due to absence). Suppose you had heart
material might be mistaken as your own.
                                                               surgery on a Tuesday. You’d lose 20 participation
                                                               points and 20 quiz points -- down the tubes, gone
Further Details About Academic                                 for ever, no excuses, no whining, no mercy. But if
Integrity                                                      you haven’t spent too many of your optional
You are responsible for making yourself aware of               activity points, you could substitute 40 of them for
and understanding the policies and procedures                  the day you were in the hospital. Even if the day
inthe Undergraduate (pp. 268-270) [Graduate (pp.               you missed had two quizzes, you could use 60
24-26)] Catalog that pertain to Academic                       OAPs, 20 for class, and 20 for each quiz. But
Integrity. These policies include cheating,                    watch the Delightful Details calendar for
fabrication, falsification and forgery, multiple               assignments and quizzes that OAPs cannot replace
submission, plagarism, complicity and computer                 (such as Review Quizzes and Ch. 29). The wise
misuse. If there is reason to believe you have been            student saves those optional activity points until
involved in academic dishonesty, you will be                   the very end of the semester, just in case the heart
referred to the Office of Student Conduct. You                 surgery requires two days instead of one. No heart
will be given the opportunity to review the                    surgery? Great, then you can take a day off
charge(s). If you believe you are not responsible,             sometime when you need a break; but you can't
you will have the opportunity for a hearing. You               blow off the final review quiz, your final paper, or
should consult with me if you are uncertain about              the Final Fiesta.
an issue of academic honesty prior to the
submission of an assignment or test.                           Snow Days
                                                               If the university is closed, we’ll stay on schedule.
Missed Classes                                                 For the next class date when the University opens,
If you miss a class, you don’t get points for                  you will have the missed quizzes and turn in the
participation and you lose the opportunity to take             homework during that next seminar. You’ll also
that quiz. It doesn’t work out for us to try to                keep pace with the Delightful Details calendar of
distinguish between excused and unexcused                      assigments without postponing the scheduled
absences. So once the opportunity has passed,                  assignments. So for the seminar following a snow
it’s gone. This means you should keep your point               day, you will have the snow-day assignments and
average comfortably above the 92% level in all                 the regular, scheduled assignments listed in the
categories; so you can blow off a class or two, if             Delightful Details Calendar.
need be, without losing your A (assuming that’s
what you’re shooting for). If you do miss a class,             Special Get-Tough Policy On
you can turn your homework in the next day, but
you lose 5 points each weekday you’re late.
                                                               Absences
                                                               Most students have no problem with the preceding
You’re responsible for having a reliable buddy
                                                               absence policies. Instead, it helps them get their
who will take notes and pass them on to you, so
                                                               act together, so they’ll do well in the class and
you can find out the details of the next
                                                               earn an A. But there are always a half a handful of
Revised by Kelli Perry                                - 28 -                                              5/8/2013
students who need even tighter contingencies than              On the other hand, if you register late and can
that, to get their act together. These are students            prove it, the missed classes won't count toward
whose behavior is not under the adequate control               your get-tough absences, but you must make up
of rules describing small but cumulatively                     the missed quizzes and homework immediately
significant outcomes (we’ll discuss this in class).            and substitute some of your OAPs for the missed
In essence, they say to themselves, “Just one more             participation.
absence won’t matter. And they're right, until they
finally accumulate so many that they drift from an             Absence does not always make the heart grow
A to a BA to a B and on and on. They need rules                fonder. The absence policy is designed to give
that specify contingencies where one more                      students a little slack for when they get into
absence will matter. They will have less trouble               trouble, mainly when they're ill. (Reminder: This
following such rules and thus will get a much                  get-tough policy has been successful in preventing
better grade in the course. So here’s our special              most students from accidentally drifting into a low
get-tough policy:                                              grade because of the small, cumulative effects of
                                                               "just one more absence.")
Every time you exceed three absences, you lower
your final grade one half a letter grade!                      This get-tough policy applies no matter how
                                                               many OAPs you have. You can't buy your way
Here’s the way it works. (In this example, we                  out of an absence with OAPS, as far as the get-
assume you would get an A, if you had no                       tough policy is concerned, although you could
absences. But, of course, if you had several                   get your attendance points with it.
absences, you probably would already have lost
too many points to get an A; so our penalty of a
half a letter grade or so, would be beyond the                 Lateness
lowering due to the point loss.
                                                               Students
Absences            Grade                                      If you are late for class or leave class early, you
0 to 3              A                                          will lose points for participation. For every 15
4 to 6              BA                                         minutes you’re late, you lose 5 additional
7 to 9              B                                          participation points.
etc.                etc.
                                                               Minutes late     Maximum participation points
This policy helps most students avoid the hopeless             1’ to 15’           15/20
hassle of coming around at the end of the                      16’ to 30’          10/20
semester, desperately, but vainly, pleading for                31’ to 45’          5/20
some way to raise their final grade. Now they’ll               46’ or more         0/20
have that A in the bag, when the end of the
semester rolls around. But even with this policy, a            (By the way, if you’re doing other homework,
small number of students managed to get less than              writing letters, etc. in class, you won’t get full
a BA. Always, this was because of absences or                  participation points either.)
failing to turn in homework.
                                                               Late Homework
Sometimes students have a time conflict, so that               You lose 5 points per business day (business days
they want to come to class, take the quiz                      are normally those days, Monday through Friday,
(depending on when it’s given), turn in their                  when classes are scheduled and the university
homework, and leave. That’s O.K.. They don’t                   offices are open). Ouch! You can slide your
receive many or possibly any participation points,             homework under the BATS office door (Wood
but this does not count as an absence that would               Hall 2536). Late means any time after the
contribute to the penalty contingency.                         beginning of the class when it’s due. Don’t try to
Revised by Kelli Perry                                - 29 -                                             5/8/2013
finish your homework during class; we’ll count                  straight, up front, then you’ll have an almost
that as cheating. If you know you’re going to have              hassle-free term.
to miss class, you can turn in your homework in
advance.

Clarification: You will see this reminder
throughout this booklet: To retain full credit for              Adding Insult To Injury
your homework and lab reports, please turn in                   So that you’ll learn the most, get the best grade,
all of them at the final fiesta. That doesn't mean              and have the most fun, and the least hassles in this
you've got until the Final Fiesta to complete your              course, it’s important that you understand and
homework and lab reports. If you waited until                   remember these Mickey Mouse rules. This means
then, you'd probably not get any credit! What that              you should study them between now and the next
means is that you need to turn in all your                      class and be prepared for a brief written quiz over
homework and lab reports, completed or not, at                  them.
the Final Fiesta, to retain the credit you've
received for work you have completed.                           How to be way cool

Letters of Recommendation                                       The Legend of Sheldon Stone

                                                                One of the coolest cats (woops, excuse me), the
Many students ask me to write letters of                        coolest dudes I ever knew was Sheldon Stone.
recommendation to help them get into graduate
school or to get jobs. I'm happy to do that. I base             Years ago, I used to be real important; I used to
my letter on your record in my courses, with a big              teach our 1000-student introductory psychology
emphasis on your quiz scores and your rank in                   course. And Sheldon was an undergrad teaching
class on those quiz scores. I also report on your               apprentice; the only thing lower in our course
performance on end-of-the-semester evaluations,                 hierarchy was to be a tuition-paying student (the
homework, turning homework in on time,                          ones who pay our salary). Well, Sheldon was
attendance, active participation in seminars, Final-            unhappy about some teaching-apprentice policy I
Fiesta project and presentation, writing and                    had; so he took a group of the undergrads with
speaking skills, social skills, and, if you were a              him to the WMU ombudsman (an even more
Psy 360 Honors Student, I mention that. When                    important person than I was, the person who
possible, I consult your course teaching                        settles squabbles between students and teachers).
apprentice, as well. Other things, too, of course.
Incidentally, it never hurts for you to remind me of            Now the ombudsman’s an option the wise student
any special accomplishments you've achieved,                    saves for only the most extreme emergency,
when asking for a letter.                                       because no professor likes being called before the
                                                                ombudsman; and the wise student knows better
My goal is to help all of you acquire the repertoire            than to risk angering the professor; and there’s no
that will allow me to write a strong letter for you             way the professor isn’t going to be very angry
and that will help you excel in graduate school or              with such a public challenge to authority.
on the job.
                                                                But here’s how cool Sheldon was. He stated his
                                                                case to me and the ombudsman in such a non-
Mickey Mouse Rules                                              emotional, non-hysterical, non-threatening, non-
                                                                challenging, respectful, sympathetic way that I
Sorry for all the preceding nonsense. But we’ve                 caved in immediately, rather than getting my
found that if we get all these ugly little details              hackles up and drawing a line in the sand. Not
                                                                only that, over the next few years, he rose through
Revised by Kelli Perry                                 - 30 -                                              5/8/2013
our hierarchy to be one of my undergrad teaching                 by the end of the semester and joins us in our
assistants ($), to be one of my MA students, to be               struggle to save the world with behavior analysis,
one of my grad teaching assistants (more $), to be               because it’s only with the help of cool people like
a professional organizational behavior-                          her that we’ll have a chance of even getting the
management consultant (much more $), and to be                   world to know we exist.
manager of the world’s largest retail store (mucho,
mucho mas $), in Hawaii, of all paradisiacal                     On the Other Hand
places.
                                                                 A few years ago, we had a guy in Psy. 360 who
Of course, that Sheldon started out as a 60-hour-                was into so much eye-rolling, heavy-sighing,
per-week undergrad didn’t hurt. (Yeah, I know,                   snotty-out-of-the-corner-of-his-mouth-remarks by
slackers say, 60 hours a week! Ugh, a book head!                 way of displaying his displeasure with our course
Who wants to be a book head!? What the slackers                  that the TA pulled him aside for a private self-
don’t know is that it’s the 60-hour-per-week book                development interview, where she explained that
heads who win the game. And there are a lot more                 his behavior was very disruptive for the class and
of those students leading highly successful                      made it hard for her to do a good job teaching. He
undergrad careers than the slackers can even                     said he understood and would try to do better, but
imagine.)                                                        he felt like the TAs were a bunch of rats with
                                                                 Malott leading them along by a string.
The Legend of the Cool Coed
                                                                 Now the poor TA’s feelings were really hurt.
Third week of the semester. I’m briskly walking                  She’d never been so insulted. But here’s the point:
down Dunbar hallway. A young woman comes up                      She was sure the guy had no idea how aversive
to me and asks, “Alright, if I walk with you to                  and inappropriate his comment was. He had no
discuss something?” “Sure.” (Note how respectful:                idea that his social insensitivity and his inability to
She asks permission to walk/talk, and she’s not so               stay away from those petty aggression reinforcers
presumptuous as to try to stop me from going to                  would so trash his life and career as to cost him at
what ever very important-person meeting I’m                      least $20K a year in salary, ‘cause no one wants to
headed for [actually I was headed to the John].)                 be around someone who’s that aversive (inter-
                                                                 observer reliability: in earlier courses his fellow
She says, “I find your Psy. 360 course really hard,              students found his remarks so aversive that they
and I don’t think behaviorism is for me. Are all                 were constantly asking him to shut up).
the courses in this department behavioral? And are
there other colleges where the psych. departments                Isn’t that sad, regardless of the guy’s technical
aren’t behavioral?”                                              skills, his social skills are so poor that he really is
                                                                 doomed; no one will want him spreading karmic
Well, she’s broken my heart. Not only is she                     pollution in their environment.
rejecting my course but also she’s rejecting
behaviorism, my treasure, my most cherished
world view, my faith. Like I really believe in my                The One Pointer
slogan, “Save the world with behavior analysis,”
even though I know it’s a bullshit fantasy.                      More common is the high-achieving student who
                                                                 is such a high achiever because she gets
But here’s the point: In rejecting me and all I stand            completely bent out of shape every time she loses
for, she’s so cool, so non-emotional, so non-                    a point on a quiz. The good side of this
hysterical, so non-threatening, so non-challenging,              compulsive neurosis is that the fear of losing a
so polite, so respectful that I’m so impressed with              single point in the game of life is what motivates
her I want to share this incident with you, that I’m             high achievers to achieve so highly. One of the
so impressed with her that I hope she gets the faith             bad sides of this compulsive neurosis is that
Revised by Kelli Perry                                  - 31 -                                                  5/8/2013
they’re constantly so up tight about point losses,                 to really get enough studying done and do well to
that they have a hard time asking for a re-grade in                pass the exam, let alone ace it.
the manner of Sheldon Stone and the Cool Coed,
in a non-emotional, non-hysterical, non-                           How To Avoid Being a Social
threatening, non-challenging, respectful,
sympathetic way, in a way that will make us want
                                                                   Disaster
to interact with them more often, rather than less                 When I used to do organizational-behavior-
often. In emotionally going for that single, lost                  management workshops for managers in business
quiz point, they lose 10 life points, even if they do              and industry, one of my most popular modules
get the quiz point.                                                dealt with social skills. When introducing this
                                                                   module, I’d say, “Fifty percent of a person’s
Bottom Line                                                        success in an organization has to do with social
                                                                   skills and other skills that have little to do with the
The point is not to be a yes-person, lie-down-and-                 person’s job description.” If those managers ever
let-them-roll-over-me kiss ass. The point is to                    disagreed, it was to say, “No, 50% is an
choose your battles carefully and then treat them                  underestimate.”
not as battles but rather as opportunities for                     Now here’s something that’s even weirder than
pleasant social discourse. The point is to carefully               this extreme importance of social skills: no one
prepare what you’re going to say and how you’re                    ever tells you how important those social skills are
going to say it, and mull it over for a day before                 or what they are, let alone, how well the you are
engaging in the battle.                                            doing in that crucial area.

And the point for those of us in authority (TA’s,                  So you’re playing a game; no one tells you the
teachers, etc.) is to be so socially cool, on our side,            rules; no one tells you the score; and you don’t
that we don’t get up tight and escalate                            even know you’re playing. All you know is
confrontations, but rather we de-escalate them,                    eventually you get a raise, get promoted, or don’t
helping everyone to chill, and then getting back to                get fired. If you lose, if you don’t get the raise or
the aggressor a day or so after that person has had                the promotion or if you do get fired, no one will
a chance to cool down, conducting a self-                          tell you the real reasons about where you screwed
development interview, perhaps with further                        up -- too much hassle. So many people go through
follow through, in an effort to salvage a soul who                 life clueless about what determines their
might otherwise lose many of life’s opportunities                  professional success.
because of being socially clueless.
                                                                   This course is much the same sort of organization
Concerning "compulsive neuroses," I do observe                     as a business is. But in this course, we’ll make a
that highly productive and successful people are                   small attempt to correct the clueless problem.
irrationally fearful that they are going to fail in                We’re going to tell you some of the subtle things
every endeavour they undertake, such as a course                   that will help you be a good member of this
they might be taking or an exam they might be                      organization, how to succeed in this organization,
taking. And to somewhat reduce their fear or                       how to get this organization to give you strong
anxiety, they work their tails off, for example,                   letters of recommendation for practica,
starting to prepare for the exam as soon as the                    assistantships, grad school, and jobs; and also how
instructor announces it. As a result they get the top              to contribute to this organization, in a positive
score in the class, though, ironically that does little            manner.
to reduce their fear the next time a text is
announced. Whereas, the cool, "mentally healthy"                   Now, if you’re cool, you’ll use being in this
people, don't start studying until right before the                organization as an opportunity to learn how to be
exam, because they have a wonderfully positive                     successful in other organizations, like where you
self-image; but as a result they wait a little too late            will be working when you graduate. Here’s a
Revised by Kelli Perry                                    - 32 -                                                 5/8/2013
general list of skills for succeeding in almost any             6. Be pleasant in interactions (i.e.. zero negative
organization, with comments about how they                          comments, well mannered). Be the kind of
apply in this course.                                               person your TA and your classmates want to
                                                                    be around.
Interpersonal Style and Skills                                  7. Speak in respectful ways -- with peers.
1. Give corrective feedback in appropriate                      8. Speak in respectful ways -- with TAs and
   situations (not in the presence of others). If                   professors. Respect and brown nosing ain’t the
   you’re unhappy about some feature of the                         same thing.
   course, discuss it with your TA or instructor                9. Be properly assertive in disagreeing with
   privately before or after class. Never                           others, including other students, your TA and
   embarrass your TA or instructor by pointing                      your professor. That means: Smile, be tactful,
   out in front of the class some really stupid                     be private, be cool, be rational, be polite, be
   thing they did or some really dumb or unjust                     pleasant. But that does not mean you should be
   feature of the course. Your TA or instructor                     a yes person. That does not mean you have to
   will just get up tight and defensive, dig in the                 agree with everything. But if you lost a point
   heels, be even dumber or more unjust -- like                     on a quiz, assume you were wrong, and
   anyone else would. We’re just dealing with                       smiling and respectfully ask for help in getting
   people here, and people are easily embarrassed                   your error clarified, even if you know damned
   and upset.                                                       well the TA screwed up. If, after discussion, it
2. Provide corrective feedback in a non-punitive                    looks to you like the TA really is wrong, then
   style (i.e. specify appropriate desired behavior,                see if you can gently guide him or her to your
   don’t be critical of person). Never say how                      way of seeing it. If you can’t, then decide how
   stupid the teacher was to assign a quiz on                       important it is. If it’s one only one point and
   Thanksgiving Day. Just ask if they realized                      you’re already way above your A, consider
   that the fourth Thursday of November was T-                      bagging it. Just chill out. But if it’s a bigger
   day. Then tactfully point out the implications                   deal, politely and gently ask permission to
   of that, if need be, but, in private, of course.                 discuss the issue with the professor, and so on.
3. Respond in a socially appropriate manner to                      But always be cool and smiling and end each
   positive or negative feedback (i.e. says thank                   discussion with a sincere thank you.
   you, without disagreement). If the TA or                     10. Actively listen when spoken to (i.e.. good eye
   instructor marks something off on a quiz or                      contact) where appropriate.
   homework, say thank you and then think about                 11. Do not dominate discussions at meetings and
   how you can use that feedback to do better                       seminars ( i.e. speak during no more than your
   next time. Better to lose a point on a quiz, even                appropriate share of the class time).
   if you know you’re right and the rest of the                 12. Carry your share of the discussion in meetings
   word is wrong, than to lose a friend, especially                 and seminars (don’t just sit there listening).
   if that friend is your TA or teacher. Win the                13. Appear appropriately receptive to others’
   war, not the battle.                                             values and viewpoints. In this course, you’re
4. React in a rational, as opposed to an emotional                  going to run up on some strange ideas, like
   manner, when faced with problems. Control                        maybe what you’re reading now. Relax and
   emotions effectively ( e.g. do not cry or yell)                  check ‘em out. You’ll have plenty of time to
   in frustrating situations (i.e.. under extinction                reject them later, if you still find them too
   or aversive conditions), in professional,                        strange by the end of the course.
   school, and peer settings. Never, ever lose                  14. Quality: produce a good product with good
   your cool.                                                       results.
5. Smile. During good times and bad times. The                  15. Timely (reliable): complete tasks by the
   grinners shall inherit the earth, not the                        deadline.
   meek.                                                        16. Don’t be absent.
                                                                17. Don’t be late.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                 - 33 -                                              5/8/2013
Technical Skills                                                 start with just a little gentle feedback, a little
1. Use good speaking skills: grammar, clear                      gentle guidance. We want you to go away from
   descriptions,       loudness,       enunciation,              the discussion feeling really happy that you got
   confidence, articulateness, and fluency.                      that info and eager to give the new, cool way a
2. Use good writing skills: grammar, spelling,                   shot. There ain’t enough good students that we can
   and organization.                                             afford to waste any of them. We just want to help
3. Use good systems-analysis skills: Effectively                 you so you don’t eye-roll yourself out of the
   detect, analyze and clearly specify problems                  opportunity to save the world with behavior
   within the system and then suggest and                        analysis. And that world does need a savin’. And
   implement good solutions.                                     you can do it. Opps, did I hear a little, under-
4. Use high-quality behavior-analytic skills.                    breath, who-do-they-think-they-are sigh of
                                                                 exasperation? Hurumph.
Now, you get your act together along all these
dimensions; and you’ll not only succeed in the                   Vita for Richard W. Malott
organization, you’ll become president of the
organization!                                                    Dr. Richard Malott received his Ph.D. at Columbia
                                                                 University in New York City where he did
So, we’re taking the time to go through all this for             research in the experimental analysis of behavior
two reasons. One is to help you succeed in this                  and studied with William Cumming, Nat
organization (this class) and to succeed in future               Schoenfeld, and Fred Keller. For the last 30 years,
organizations (your job, your family, your                       he has taught at Western Michigan University, a
church).                                                         major center for the teaching of behavior analysis.
                                                                 He has had two Fulbright Senior Scholar Awards,
The other is to help this class and future                       one to Peru and one to Uruguay. He is one of the
organizations succeed. One negative, whiny, eye-                 founders of the Association for Behavior Analysis
rolling, sighing, “do we really have to do this?,”               (ABA), the founder and co-chair of the Teaching
under-breath “this really sucks,” constantly                     Behavior Analysis Special Interest Group of ABA,
challenging student can bring a whole class down                 chair of the Education Board of ABA, and a
and make the whole semester a drag for the other                 member of the editorial board of the Journal of
students and the TA or teacher. And running about                Organizational Behavior Management. He has
8 seminars a semester, with about 20 students in a               presented talks, workshops, and seminars in 13
seminar, there’s a good chance that 1 out of those               countries—Canada, Newfoundland, Germany,
160 students will be clueless about the bad karma,               Sweden, Mexico, Panama, Columbia, Peru, Brazil,
vibes, or feelings they’re accidentally polluting the            Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong, and Italy. He has
classroom environment with. But mama never told                  published 11 books and 98 articles and has made
me. And we’ll come down pretty heavy on                          160 presentations at professional meetings and
preventing a whole course from getting messed                    128 invited presentations in other settings. He just
over in that way -- now and in the future. I don’t               completed the fourth edition of the book
want anyone in my future classes, practica, or                   Principles of behavior (earlier versions have been
graduate school programs who’s going to be a                     translated into Spanish and Japanese) and has just
constant pain in the rear or screw up future                     begun the book I’ll Stop Procrastinating when I
courses, practica or grad programs. Wow! Heavy.                  Get Around to It.
Yes. But I just rolled my eyes a little. I didn’t                He specializes in the theoretical analysis of
really mean anything by it. Right. But that’s the                behavior, applied behavior analysis, and
stuff that makes and breaks an organization and                  behavioral systems analysis. He does research on
makes and breaks you.                                            instructional technology and performance
                                                                 management in university-level education, staff
Now don’t panic. If you screw up, we’ll let you                  management, and self-management. He teaches
know, but we try to practice our preaching; we                   courses at the undergraduate and graduate level on
Revised by Kelli Perry                                  - 34 -                                              5/8/2013
the principles of behavior and applied behavior
                                                                                              What is your overall evaluation of the
analysis, as well as a practicum on the use of                                                              course?
behavior analysis to help autistic children.
                                                                                         25




                                                                    Number of students
Philosophically, Dr. Malott is a radical                                                 20

behaviorist—he consistently tries to understand all                                      15
psychological phenomena in terms of the                                                                                                Fall 2007
                                                                                                                                       Spring 2008
                                                                                         10
principles and concepts of behavior analysis.
Practically, he is a thoroughgoing behaviorist—he                                         5


consistently tries to apply the principles and                                            0
                                                                                                 1     2      3      4      5
concepts of behavior analysis to all aspects of his                                            Good                        Bad

life, personal as well as professional. His interests
in performance management in general and staff                   Psy 360 (Spring 2008) comments: “Awesome
management and self-management in particular                     GSIs!” “I learned a lot and actually retained the
have grown from his orientation as a                             material!” “Seeing the principles of behavior in
thoroughgoing behaviorist. An example of this                    action in the lab was phenomenal and then talking
work is the development of performance-                          about it in class made it better.” “I learned a lot
management technology to help graduate students                  and became interested in behavior analysis. I may
accomplish the difficult task of completing their                do that as my grad school choice!”
masters theses and doctoral dissertations—a
serious problem in both around the world.

Dr. Malott’s theoretical work attempts to explain
the role of language and rule-governed behavior in
performance-management contingencies where
the outcomes are too delayed to directly reinforce
or punish the behavior of interest and yet the rules
describing those contingencies reliably control
that behavior. This work also attempts to explain
why some types of important contingencies fail to
reliably control behavior.



Let the Good Times Roll!
We look forward to working with you this term,
‘cause we’re all going to have a great time.




Revised by Kelli Perry                                  - 35 -                                                                             5/8/2013
  Principles of Behavior Review Quiz                                           Principles of Behavior
               Terms #1                                                        Review Quiz Terms #2
                                                                     Chapter 9
Chapter 1
                                                                     1) Unlearned reinforcer
1) Reinforcer
                                                                     2) Deprivation principle
2) Behavior
                                                                     3) Satiation principle
3) Behavior analysis
                                                                     4) Establishing operation
4) Baseline
                                                                     5) Premack principle
Chapter 2
                                                                     6) Unlearned aversive condition
5) Reinforcement contingency
                                                                     Chapter 10
Chapter 3
                                                                     7) Addictive reinforcer
6) Escape contingency
                                                                     8) Aggression reinforcer
7) Differential          reinforcement   of   alternative
behavior                                                             Chapter 11
Chapter 4                                                            9) Learned reinforcer (Secondary or conditioned
                                                                     reinforcer)
8) Punishment contingency
                                                                     10) Generalized learned reinforcer
9) Social validity
                                                                     Chapter 12
Chapter 5
                                                                     11) Discriminative stimulus (SD)
10) The law of effect
                                                                     12) S-delta
11) Penalty contingency
                                                                     13) Operandum (manipulandum)
Chapter 6
                                                                     14) Prompt
12) Extinction
                                                                     Chapter 13
13) Recovery from punishment
                                                                     15) Stimulus class
Chapter 7
                                                                     16) Stimulus generalization
14) The differential reinforcement procedure
                                                                     17) Concept training
15) Task analysis
                                                                     18) Conceptual stimulus control (Conceptual
16) Response class                                                   control)
17) Single subject research design                                   Chapter 14
Chapter 8                                                            19) Imitation
18) The procedure of shaping with reinforcement                      20) Imitative reinforcers
19) The procedure of variable-outcome shaping
                                                                        Danger: You will also be
20) Terminal behavior
                                                                       quizzed on the terms from
                                                                       the previous review quiz.


Revised by Kelli Perry                                      - 36 -                                          5/8/2013
             Principles of Behavior                                          Principles of Behavior
             Review Quiz Terms #3                                            Review Quiz Terms #4
Chapter 15                                                         Chapter 22
1) Avoidance contingency                                           1) Rule
2) Avoidance of loss contingency                                   2) Indirect acting contingency
3) Warning stimulus                                                3) Rule-governed behavior
Chapter 16                                                         4) Contingency control
4) Punishment            by   prevention   of   removal            5) Rule-governed analog to a behavioral
contingency                                                        contingency
5) Punishment by prevention of a reinforcer                        Chapter 23
contingency
                                                                   6) Covert behavior
Chapter 17                                                         7) Feedback
6) Schedule of reinforcement                                       8) Task analysis
7) Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement
                                                                   Chapter 24
8) Intermittent reinforcement
                                                                   9) Rules that are easy to follow
Chapter 18                                                         10) Rules that are hard to follow
9) Variable-interval schedule of reinforcement
                                                                   Chapter 25
10) Superstitious behavior
                                                                   11) Pay for performance
11) Fixed-interval scallop
                                                                   12) The deadline principle
12) Resistance to extinction and intermittent
reinforcement (Principle)
                                                                   Chapter 26

13) Fixed-time schedule of reinforcement                           13) Values
                                                                   14) Legal rule control
Chapter 19
14) Concurrent contingencies
                                                                   Chapter 27
                                                                   15) Performance maintenance
15) Differential reinforcement of incompatible
behavior                                                           16) Behavior trap
Chapter 20                                                         Chapter 28
16) Behavioral chain                                               17) Transfer of training
17) Dual-functioning chained stimuli                                  Danger: You will also be
Chapter 21                                                          quizzed on the terms from the
18) Respondent conditioning                                           previous review quizzes.
19) Conditioned stimulus
20) Unconditioned response

    Danger: You will also be
  quizzed on the terms from the
    previous review quizzes.

Revised by Kelli Perry                                    - 37 -                                             5/8/2013
                                                                                       The story could be true, fiction, comedy,
   Objectives for the                                                          romance, horror, science fiction. You could even
                                                                               write an epic poem

   Final Fiesta Paper                                                      A brief, one-act play. You or you and some of the other
                                                                            students could write it and star in it.
 A Few of the Types of Essays You                                          A behavioral crossword puzzle like Jennifer Rivers did.
 Might Write, Along with Some Hints                                         Chris Simmelink created one using a special MS/DOS
                                                                            computer shareware program (December 16, 1992).
  as to How You Might Write Them
                                                                           If you do a game, it must be something the whole class
    A real intervention and real data                                      can play at the same time. Please see you TA for
      makes the best final paper. Your intervention could be:               approval before putting the time in on this one.
                  self-management                                                    It must be mainly composed of questions
                  studying                                                   where you've given original examples that
                                                                               demonstrate your brilliance and creativity. You
                  smoking or other drugs
                                                                               won't get many points for your project, if its just
                  housekeeping                                               definitions etc. you've copied from the book. No
                                                                               more word search games; they were good for a
                  negative comments
                                                                               while, but no longer.
                  procrastination
                                                                                       If it were really a good and useful game, it
    management of others                                                      might be something you could evolve into an
                children                                                     independent research project or honors thesis.

                roommates
                                                                           Lori Johnson did The Tyler Tales, for our rat lab
                                                                            manual (December 16, 1992). In designing your
                spouse                                                    project, you might format it so we could incorporate it
                employee                                                  in future instructional materials if the opportunity
                                                                            allows.
    animal training
                                                                           Rent a puppet from the Portage Public Library
    Something you disagree with in the readings, for the                   (Michelle Phillips did) and put on an entertaining and
      semester.                                                             educational show (December 16, 1992).
                  State Malott's position.                               Maybe a video tape?
                  Then state yours.                                       (We can show VHS or you can bring your own
                                                                            playback unit.) DANGER! DANGER! I'm nervous
                And then provide your evidence or                         about this option, because for some reason almost
         argument.                                                          every video-tape presentation has been a total loser; but
    Relate something in the readings to something outside                  a few have been good. The odds are against you if you
      the readings.                                                         select this one. Proceed at your own risk, but precede if
                                                                            you wish.
                 This might involve showing how a concept
         in a chapter relates to other concepts, in an                     News flash: I wish to change my position on video
         interesting manner.                                                tapes, since I wrote the preceding. Although there were
                                                                            a few good ones before, in the summer of 1992, Katari
                Or this might involve providing another                   Brown did one that can serve as a model for future
         example of one of the concepts in the chapter.                     student productions. (It took her about 16 hours to
                Or it might be an example of how you                      produce it, whereas 10 hours is what I normally expect
         would like to apply a procedure from the chapter to                for a final paper.) We'll show her video in class so you
         your own life or someone else's life.                              can get an idea of what to do. If you can match, or
                                                                            exceed the quality of her tape in terms of behavioral
    An overall reaction to all the chapters                                precision, entertainment, and video production, we'll
      could be a good essay.                                                show yours in future semesters also. I'd be happy if you
    Or a behavioral short story, clearly illustrating as many              wanted to illustrate the same basic contingencies she
      of the concepts as possible.                                          did, within a similar structure, but with new examples.
                                                                            But this time, why don't you do it in an instructional
                 You can integrate the technical
                                                                            mode where you present the example, allow the
         terminology throughout the story, or you could have                instructor to push the pause button so the students can
         an analysis section at the end of the story where you              write what they think the example illustrates and
         do the behavior analysis of the events in your story.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                           - 38 -                                                    5/8/2013
      perhaps discuss it. Then the instructor could push the                             Demonstrate it live.
      unpause button and your video would then present
      what you think is the answer, along with a contingency                             Or with a video tape.
      diagram and any essential clarification.                                           Or with photos.
    Photocopy comics onto transparencies                                    True confessions. Some students almost get into true
      (like Far Side); but add behavioral words in the                        confessions, as they do behavior analyses of really
      captions or balloons.                                                   important parts of their lives.
    A poem, a song, a picture, cartoons?                                    You got a better idea? Go for it.
    How about a trained-animal act?
      Lynne Sulka demonstrated her use of behavioral
      principles in obedience training with her two dogs at                Some Vague Guidelines
      the Summer, '92 Final Fiesta.                                          Danger: You will get no more than 50 points for your
                It's best if it’s clearly something you                     presentation, if you read it. If your presentation is so
         taught your pet during this course, using the                        deep and complex and precise that you must read it to
         behavioral procedures of this course.                                be sure you get it right, then it's too deep and complex
                                                                              for your listeners to understand in an oral presentation.
                  You can bring your pet to the Final Fiesta.               Here are two exceptions for reading (but it must be
                  Or a video tape.                                          well read, even dramatically read):
                  Or photos.                                                           A poem.
                  Record data, like baseline, intervention,                            A short story.
         reversal, and graph it.                                             You get brownie points if your presentation
    A special Rudolph the Rat demonstration -- some                                     Is funny.
      advanced experiment you might go way above and
      beyond the call of duty to produce and then bring                                  Uses tough concepts well.
      Rudolph to the Final Fiesta to amaze, educate, and                                 Has nice graphics.
      entertain us.
                                                                             If you use graphics, we evaluate them in terms of
    Super heroes. Students often find it reinforcing to write
      about super heroes such as Captain Contingency                                     Color (a bonus)
      Management, Behaviorwoman, Behaviorman, and Dr.                                    Quality (a bonus)
      Whiskers.
                                                                                         Size (a bonus)
    Explaining life's mysteries. Here's one that would be
      great: An essay showing how you can use the concepts                               Number (a bonus)
      of the course to explain something you couldn't                                    Relevance (crucial)
      understand before the course.
                                                                                         Technical correctness, from a behavioral
    The value of our analyses. I'd love to see an essay on                      view (crucial)
      the value or lack of value of analyses in terms of
      indirect-acting contingencies and rule-governed                        Poems should really rhyme.
      behavior. Like some original notions about areas it                    Do your presentation in terms of one or more posters --
      clarifies that traditional behavioral approaches just                   maybe just one, where you explain it.
      confuse or ignore.
                                                                             Be technically tight (precise use of behavioral
    RGB. A presentation and discussion of rule-governed                      terminology).
      analogs that weren't covered in the course (for example
      a rule-governed analog to discriminative stimuli).
                                                                                         You lose points for each incorrect use of a
                                                                                 technical term.
    Philosophy, anyone? Seriously consider doing a
      philosophical essay, if you'd like to really impress us.                           However, it's O.K., if once in a while
                                                                                 you're not sure which of a couple of concepts apply
    An original behavioral project, for this course, present                    to an example. Simply indicate the two concepts you
      the data, and analyze it in terms of the class concepts.                   think may apply and explain why for each.
                  Do a baseline, an intervention, and a                    Here's something you want to be especially careful
         reversal, if possible.                                               about because it still trips up some students: Don't
                  Reliability measures would be great.                      confuse direct-acting contingencies with indirect-acting
                                                                              ones. The error is almost always in the direction of
                  Graph it.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                            - 39 -                                                     5/8/2013
      talking about an indirect-acting contingency in terms as              Don't just present an interesting example and conclude
      if it were a direct-acting contingency.                                with the weak statement that behavior analysis might
    Apply the deadman's test to all your examples. Never                    be used to deal with this problem. Give us the details of
      put a contingency on not doing something. Dead men                     how you would use behavior analysis.
      have no trouble not doing all sorts of things. For                    Be brilliant.
      example, dead men often fail to arrive on time. So you
      can't punish not arriving on time. The contingency                    Be about three to five pages long. No longer!
      you're probably looking at is an analog to an avoidance               Be neat (only typewritten papers need apply -- no
      contingency where the person leaves from home early                    crayon on yellow lined Golden Rod paper).
      because that response will avoid getting yelled at by
                                                                            Here’s my latest fantasy: Each semester we’ll publish
      the boss. So don't give your classmates a chance to
                                                                             two of the best student papers from each seminar
      giggle and shout that your example failed the
                                                                             section in the Sample Student Papers and retire the
      deadman's test.
                                                                             same number, of course.
    Don't be mentalistic: Betsy will realize her bad                                   That means you should desktop publish
      behavior is being punished and stop doing it.
                                                                                your paper, to the extent that you can; so it will look
    Reinforce behavior, not people.                                            real good. In other words, you should make it look
    Probably the word you want is behaviorist, not                             as much like a magazine or book article as you can,
      behavioralist.                                                            for example neat single-spaced typing (not double
                                                                                space like most of your term papers).
    And aversive, not adversive.
                                                                                         Also put the title and your name at the top
    Don't assume all of the analyses in the student papers                     of the first page and then start your essay right
      are correct or that all use of terminology is correct. So                 below, on the same page; in other words, we don't
      use the papers as models, but with discretion.                            want next semester's students to have to pay for all
    You get more points for the use of more concepts.                          those pages that just have a title and a name (single
                                                                                spacing will cut down on student cost also).
    Be grammatically great (don't use no bad English).
                                                                                        Don't use blue ink on any of your graphics
    You lose points for grammatical errors                                     in your paper, because that won't reproduce well.
    Don't say exscape, say escape.                                         And graphics are great, either in your paper or as a
    Be logically tight and right.                                           separate poster. So we’ll also select a couple of the best
                                                                             posters from each seminar section to go in our Great-
    Be well organized.                                                      Graphics Gallery. This means, if you do posters, you
                Each paragraph should have a single main                   should do them so they tell a complete story by
         point.                                                              themselves, without your paper or your oral
                                                                             presentation to help them (of course, we’ll expect a
                 Express that main point in a topic sentence
                                                                             little talkin’ when you present your poster at the Final
         near the beginning of each paragraph.
                                                                             Fiesta.)
                 Each sentence in a paragraph should
         support the topic sentence of that paragraph.
                                                                                        It also means you should sign them so
                                                                                future students will know who to admire when they
                Each paragraph should lead to the next                        see your works in our Gallery.
         paragraph.
                                                                                         Also, let's go for a new consistency-
    Be thoughtful.                                                             control criterion: Your poster should be on 22 x 28
               Don't give us something superficial. Show                      inch poster board. And it should be in portrait mode
         us that you care.                                                      (the long, 28 inch length should be vertical -- it
                                                                                should be taller than it is wide). That way we will
                  Be original.                                                have room for more student presentations in our
               Don't just go through the book and                             Great-Graphics Gallery.
         summarize the concepts and their applications.                     Just because your paper might not end up in the
                  Present original examples and analyses.                  Sample Student Papers at the end of the semester
                                                                             doesn't mean it wasn't as good as many that did.
    Be entertaining.
                                                                                        First of all, we select for various criteria
    Be thorough and comprehensive (cover as many of the                        including variety.
      concepts from the course as you can, without it
      seeming too artificial or strained).                                              Second, our selection may not be that
                                                                                consistent. (Probably clean printing, laser printing if
Revised by Kelli Perry                                            - 40 -                                                      5/8/2013
         possible, really may influence my decision about                                           have your professor be the hero (or the
                                                                                                    Don't
         what to include, more and more, in the future.)                                           villain) of your story or poem. Be more imaginative;
                 And third, your printer ribbon may not                                          make yourself the hero!
         have been dark enough! In fact, as I go through this                                       generally a good idea to use contingency
                                                                                                    It's
         last semester's papers, at this very moment, I see                                        diagrams.12
         more papers deserving of inclusion than we have
         room for.                                                                                                                    You can use single contingency diagrams.

     Be well read. Read the papers in the section labeled                                                                    Or you can use trios of contingency
      Student Papers at the back of your notebook. They                                                                diagrams as in the three-contingency model of
      should give you some good ideas.                                                                                 performance management.

     However, there is no need to go to the library to get                                                                    You can use the attached diagrams or
      other references. This is not a research paper. The only                                                         copies of them, if you wish.
      books you need examine are those assigned for this                                            you do a play, bring it quickly and gracefully to
                                                                                                    If
      class.                                                                        the point. Don't ramble.
     Be well prepared.                                                            If a schedule conflict forces you to attend the Final
                                                                                    Fiesta with another section, be sure you give a copy of
     Some students even summarize their presentations on                           your project to your seminar assistant so you can get it
      flip charts. (I noticed that some of these students had to                    graded and receive the credit you've earned.
      blow up the copies of the contingency diagram, so I've
      included one extra large model, in case it will help.
     Others use overhead transparencies. (Let me know if                      Social Validity
      you will need an overhead transparency projector.)
                                                                                    Student Evaluation of
       (The letters on transparencies should be 4 times the                        the Final Fiesta
      normal size of typescript. So fold a piece of paper in
      half and then in half the other way. Then type on it and                                                     30
      use a Xerox to enlarge it until it is 8.5 x 11 again. Then
      the letters will be the right size.)                                                                         25
                                                                                              Number of Students




      
       Some sort of visual aid is usually, though not                                                              20
                                                                                                                                                                         Overall
                                                                                                                                                                         Preparation
      always, a good idea.                                                                                         15                                                    Presenting
                                                                                                                                                                         Listening
      
       Generally it's a bad idea to read your paper, though                                                        10
                                                                                                                                                                         At Malotts'
      two or three have gotten by with it when they
      dramatically read their short stories. (I've been                                                                5

      disappointed to note that the preceding suggestion is                                                            0
                                                                                                                             much 1          2          3           4        5 little
      not controlling behavior the way it should, so let me                                                                                 Value Assigned by Students
      shout it: Don't read your paper unless it's absolutely
      necessary. Nothing is worse than listening to someone
      read a complex philosophical analysis).                                     Student Evaluation of
      
       Though you shouldn't read your paper, you can                              the Final Fiesta: How Fun Was It?
      have note cards, as long as you don't just read them to
                                                                                                          25
      us.
       could even work cooperatively with some
       (You                                                                                               20
                                                                                   Number of Students




      students to present a brief behavioral play, if you
                                                                                                          15
      wished.)
      will grade the quality of your presentation as well
       I                                                                                                  10

      as the quality of your paper. But don't worry, as long as
                                                                                                                   5
      you do a reasonable job, you'll be O.K. So take it
      seriously, but don't panic.                                                                                  0
                                                                                                                           much fun 1       2          3           4     5 little fun
      
       Practice your presentation so it goes really                                                                                        Value Assigned by Students

      smoothly and is within the time limit.
1
 Footnotes from a Radical Behaviorist: Here’s my latest fantasy: Each semester we’ll publish two of the best student papers from each seminar
section in the Sample Student Papers and retire the same number, of course. That means you should desktop publish your paper, to the extent
that you can so it will look real good. In other words, you should make it look as much like a magazine or book article as you can, for example
neat single-spaced typing (not double space like most of your term papers). And graphics are great, either in your paper or as a separate poster.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                                - 41 -                                                                                                     5/8/2013
So we’ll also select a couple of the best posters from each seminar section to go in our Great-Graphics Gallery. This means you should do your
posters so they tell a complete story by themselves, without your paper or your oral presentation to help them (of course, we’ll expect a little
talkin’ when you present your poster at the Final Fiesta.) It also means you should sign them so future students will know who to admire when
they see your works in our Gallery.
2
  Someplace in the next few pages, you'll find model diagrams you can photocopy for your presentation, if you wish. The Copy Desk can even
photocopy them onto transparencies.



                    Final Fiesta Paper Cover Sheet
Title of Paper:
First and Last Name:
Course:
Section:



I have evaluated my paper and presentation in terms of the criteria listed on the check list on the back of this page and
have indicated my evaluation by appropriately marking each item in that check list.

Signature ________________________________________________


Can we include your final paper in the next student notebook?
We sometimes select one or two student papers to include in the course materials for the next semesters. Sometimes
the student papers may have a few or many technical errors. We may be including them, just to represent the range of
options, or because they have other virtues. Please indicate whether or not we might include yours. Whether you wish
us to consider your paper has absolutely no effect on your grade, our opinion of you, or anything else, except whether
we consider using your paper. Thanks.
Yes, you may use my paper. _______
Please do not use my paper. _______

Signature ________________________________________________
Date _____________________

Please staple this along with the following Checklist and Self-evaluation Form to the first page of your final
paper. Thanks.




Revised by Kelli Perry                                               - 42 -                                                          5/8/2013
                                                                       good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
Checklist and Self-evaluation Form                                     good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
Please check off each of these items to make sure you've
taken them into consideration. Then evaluate your paper and
presentation according to each item. Do this before you
come to the Final Fiesta, so you can make any corrections
you need to make. Sign this form and turn it in with your
paper.
Paper
1. ___ All terms were technically correct.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
2. ___ All contingency diagrams were correct.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
3. ___ Used a large number of concepts.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
4. ___ Grammatically perfect.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
5. ___ Logically tight and right.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
6. ___ Each paragraph has a single main point.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
7. ___ That main point is expressed in a topic
   sentence near the beginning of each
   paragraph.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
8. ___ Each sentence in a paragraph supports
   the topic sentence of that paragraph.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
9. ___ Each paragraph leads to the next
   paragraph.
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
10. ___ Thoughtful. (Don't give us something
   superficial. Show us that you care.)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
11. ___ Original. (Don't just go through the book
   and summarize the concepts and their
   applications. Present original examples and
   analyses.)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
12. ___ Entertaining.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                        - 43 -                                           5/8/2013
13. ___ About three to five pages long.                                      good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
                                                                             good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)                       18. ___ Within time limit.
14. ___ Neat (only typewritten papers)                                       good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
                                                                             good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)                       19. ___ Use of visual aids, if appropriate.
15. ___ Used             contingency     diagrams,       if                  good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
   appropriate.                                                              good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)                 20. ___ Oral style (generally not read).
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)                             good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
16. ___ Poster is 22 x 28 inches and in the                                  good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)
   portrait mode, if you are using 2a poster,                          Signature
                                                                       _____________________________________
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (student's self-evaluation)
        good 1 2 3 4 5 bad (grader's evaluation)                       Date _____________________

Presentation
                                                                       Please staple this to the first page of your final
Base this self-evaluation on your practice of this                     paper. Thanks.
presentation prior to our Final Fiesta.
17. ___ Smooth presentation.




Revised by Kelli Perry                                        - 44 -                                                 5/8/2013
             Instructor's Evaluation of
                 Oral Presentation
              (for reference, no need to hand in)
Presentation grade: 1
Paper grade:

Student's name _______________________________
Title of Presentation____________________________________________________________________

     Grammar errors
     Pronunciation errors
     Technical errors
     Contingency diagram errors
     Logical errors
     Relevance to behavior analysis
     Thoughtfulness
     Originality
     Entertaining
     How many non rhymes in the poem
     Smoothness of presentation
     Oral style
     Audiovisual aids
     Duration

Comments:




1
 Footnotes from a Radical Behaviorist: Not to panic. This is a sample of the evaluation sheet I'll use, if I have
my act together. I share it with you, just to encourage you to have your act together and do a great job. But
the main point is to have a lot of fun with this presentation and show how brilliant you are. If you put in 10
careful, thoughtful hours on your presentation, you'll do real well. The Final Fiesta is a rite of passage and an
intellectual party.
Revised by Kelli Perry                                - 45 -                                            5/8/2013
                 Sample Student Papers




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             Directions to Malott's                                                                                                       N
             for the Final Feast
             8971 W. KL Avenue                                                                                                      W          E
             372-1268
             6 miles straight west of Wood Hall.
                                                                                                                                          S
             When you hit 4th Street, back up 100 ft.
             Malott's is on the left, back a 100 ft. dirt road.
             All you can see is the roof.
             There will probably be a motor home in the driveway.

                                         M 43                         West Main                               Kalamazoo Ave.


                                                        9th St.
       4th St.




                                                                                                                                                   Kzoo
                               W. KL Ave.                           W. KL Ave.                  W. Mich.




                                                                                   Drake Rd.
                                                        9th St.



                  Malott's                                                                                              WMU
                   8971
                                                                                                              Stadium Drive




                 Not to scale.
                                                                                                                                 Bronco
                 Not to anything.                                                                                                Stadium
                                                        9th St.




                 Most details missing.
                 Just the big picture.
                                                                                   I94


                                                                                               Please car pool, because there's limited parking.
                                                                                                                   Thanks.




Revised by Kelli Perry                                                    - 58 -                                                                     5/8/2013

								
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