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					Revolutionaries and Liberalists
 Reformers   were also known as Liberals
 The boom of the 1890s led to the
  development of a middle class of
  industrialists, lawyers and financiers
 National minorities viewed the liberal
  movement as a means of expressing their
  wish to be independent of Russian control
 Two principal liberal parties came to
  prominence in the pre-1914 period – the
  Octobrists and the Kadets
 Dated  from the issuing of the Manifesto of
  October 1905
 Believed in the Empire and considered the
  Manifesto and creation of the Duma as major
  constitutional advances
 Mainly drawn from commercial, industrial
  and landowning classes
 Leading members were Alexander Guchkov (a
  factory owner) and Mikhail Rodzianko
  (landowner)
 Did not want to overthrow the tsar, but were
  often highly critical of his ideas in the dumas
 Also came into being after the 1905 Revolution
 The largest of the liberal parties
 Believed in constitutional monarchy, the tsar’s
  powers being restricted by an elected national
  assembly
 Wanted full equality and civil rights for all
  citizens, the recognition of trade unions and
  universal, free education
 Members were intelligentsia, entrepreneurs and
  professionals
 Kadet leader was Paul Milyukov (history
  professor)
 The revolutionary forces in Russia comprised
  three major elements:
 The Populists
 The Social Revolutionaries
 The Social Democrats
 Dated from the 1870s, mainly drawn from
  the middle and upper classes
 Regard the future of Russia as being in the
  hands of the peasants
 Believed the peasants should overthrow the
  tsar
 Thought it was their duty to educate the
  peasantry into an awareness of its
  revolutionary role – ‘going to the people’
 Educated revolutionaries went from the
  universities to the countryside to live with
  the peasants
 Peasants  tended to find the Populists
  patronising and failed to cooperate
 In desperation some Populists turned to
  terrorism
 In 1879 ‘The People’s Will’ was founded with
  the intention of murdering the ruling classes
 Assassinated Alexander II in 1881
 Most of the revolutionaries in Russia after
  1870 were inspired or influenced by the
  populist challenge to tsardom
 Grew out of the Populist movement
 After the boom of the 1890s the Populists began
  to agitate among the workers
 Victor Chernov was the brains behind the SR
 Between 1901-05 the SR were responsible for
  over 2000 political assassinations
 After the 1905 Revolution the moderate Right
  SRs experienced growing support from the
  professional classes and trade unions
 From 1906 The SR Party committed itself to
  ‘revolutionary socialism’ and promised the
  peasants it would return the land to those who
  worked it
 The  All-Russian Social Democratic Labour
  Party came into being in 1898
 Main aim was to achieve revolution following
  the ideas of Karl Marx
 Marx argued that the industrial era was the
  final stage of a long class struggle after
  which the working classes would be
  victorious over the bourgeoisie
 The ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’ was the
  prelude to the creation of the perfect society
 George Plekhanov was the ‘founding father
  of Russian Marxism’
 Plekhanov translated Marx’s writings into Russian
  and had worked to promote the interest of the
  industrial workers
 Members of the party soon became impatient
  with him, finding him too theoretical
 Some were angry that he believed Russia was not
  politically advanced enough for a successful
  proletarian rising
 Plekhanov felt the revolutionary parties should
  merely try to improve the workers’ conditions
 Vladimire Ulyanov (Lenin) was an outstanding
  critic of Plekhanov’s line
 With  a colleague, Julius Martov, he founded a
  party newspaper, Iskra (the Spark)
 Lenin argued that Plekhanov was more
  interested in reform than revolution
 Lenin wanted conditions to get worse so that
  the bitterness of the workers would increase
  and drive the proletariat to revolution
 In 1902 Lenin wrote a pamphlet called What
  is to be done? in which he berated Plekhanov
  for seeking cooperation with other anti-
  tsarist groups
 At the 1903 SD Party congress in 1903 Lenin tried
  to force the SDs to choose between his and
  Plekhanov’s ideas
 Lenin wanted a small exclusive party and
  Plekhanov preferred a broad-based party open to
  all revolutionaries
 A deep divide also developed between Julius
  Martov and Lenin. Martov thought Lenin wanted
  to become dictator of the party
 In a series of votes the SD congress was evenly
  split between Lenin and Martov but after a
  particular set of divisions went in Lenin’s favour
  he claimed that he was in the majority
 This led to their being called the Bolsheviks
  while Martov’s group became known as the
  Mensheviks
 By 1912 the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks had
  become two distinct and opposed Marxist
  parties
 Lenin set up his own journal as an instrument
  for attacks upon the Mensheviks
 A Bolshevik daily paper, Pravda (truth) was
  published in 1912
Menshevik view              Issue               Bolshevik view
Russia not ready for            Revolution      The bourgeois and
proletarian revolution –                        proletarian stages could
the bourgeois stage had                         be telescoped into one
to occur first                                  revolution
A mass organisation                 The Party   A tight-knit, exclusive
with membership open                            group of professional
to all revolutionaries                          revolutionaries
Open, democratic             Decision-Making    Authority to be
discussion within the                           exercised by the
party – decisions arrived                       Central Committee of
at by votes                                     the party
•Alliance with all other            Strategy    •No cooperation with
revolutionaries & liberal                       other parties
parties                                         •Economism – playing
•Support of trade unions                        into the hands of
in pursuing better                              bourgeoisie
wages and conditions                            •Turn workers into
for workers                                     revolutionaries

				
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