Docstoc

Metadata

Document Sample
Metadata Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Art8.1a Physical features: Metadata (v7) 27/04/2012




             A                       B                              C                                                 D                                            E                                  F                                 G                                        H                                                I                                    J                             K                                          L                                              M                                    N                               O                    P   Q   R   S   T   U   V

     Ref.        Physical features          Format                                            Enter information
1
                                            Options: use 2-digit ISO code (see 'Country
                 Member State                                                                 EL
2                                           codes' tab)
                                            Options: select one from list:
                                            Baltic Sea
                                            North-east Atlantic Ocean: Greater North Sea,
                                            incl. Kattegat & English Channel
                                            North-east Atlantic Ocean: Celtic Seas
                                            North-east Atlantic Ocean: Bay of Biscay &
                                            Iberian Coast
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Fields to be completed as a
     Art 4       Region/Sub-region          North-east Atlantic Ocean: Macaronesia        Mediterranean Sea: Aegean-Levantine Sea                       Key to colours of cells:           Fields to be completed                                         Fields about data sets which are not yet defined
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       priorty
                                            Mediterranean Sea: Western Mediterranean
                                            Sea
                                            Mediterranean Sea: Adriatic Sea
                                            Mediterranean Sea: Ionian Sea & Central
                                            Mediterranean Sea
                                            Mediterranean Sea: Aegean-Levantine Sea
3                                           Black Sea

                                            Name of area: text (aim for defined list later)

     Art 4       Assessment area            In the future, aim to link to a series of GIS     Central Aegean
                                            polygons that MS will define to cover their
                                            assessments.
4
5    Metadata for characteristics assessment                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Enter information

6                Topic                      Information needed                                Topography and bathymetry                         Sea surface temperature                Sea bottom temperature            Ice cover                        Salinity                                           Current velocity                             Wave exposure                Upwelling                       Mixing characteristics                            Residence time                               Water transparency        Turbidity
7    Art 8       Assessment date / period   Period used for reporting                         1953-1972                                         1985-2003                              1980-2000                         1900-2012                        1985-2008                                          2002-2009                                    2000-2012                    1985-2003                       2002-2009                                         2002-2009                                      1994-2001               1994-2001
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         There are several; ways to estimate
                                                                                                                                                Satellite infrared AVHRR data are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        residence times. In the North Aegean, the
                                                                                                                                                provided monthly for the period from                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     method of choice is estimating the average
                                                                                                                                                Jan 1985 to May 2003 at a resolution                                                                                                                     The best available information to measure                                                                                                                       time spent by a drifter in the sub-region of
                                            Describe / give reference to the methodology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sea-surface temperature
                                                                                                                                                of 9km×9km, and have been extracted                                                                                                                      currents is the use of surface drifters.                                                                      Surface Drifter and sub-surface ARGO-type         interest, normalized using the size of the
                                                                                                                                                                                       The basic information source                                                                                                                                                                    maps from satellite data.
                                            used; also indicate whether quantitative                                                            for the Hellenic Seas, and secondly,                                                                                                                     There is very little and sporadic information                                                                 float tracks are exploited in order to estimate   track relative to the size of the sub-region.                          The analysis is based on the
                                                                                                                                                                                       is the MedAtlas II data base.                                                                                                                                                                   Statistical quantities have
                                            assessments are used, or if it is mainly expert                                                     for the Central Aegean sub-region.                                                                        . Fast preliminary analysis is performed using regarding subsurface currents. The drifter                                                                    horizontal eddy diffusivities. New Lagrangian     An additional method is the Optimal Multi-                             comprehensive work by Karageorgis et
     Art 8       Method used                                                                  Scientific Literature Research / Review                                                  Fast preliminary analysis is      Scientific Literature Research                                                                                                                                been calculated through                                                                                                          Free text
                                            judgement-based. For trends, include                                                                Annual and seasonal maps have been                                                                        the Ocean Data View software.                  velocities were distributed in a 20 m grid,                                                                   methodology is applied. Bibliographic             Parameter Analysis, which however has                                  al., 2008.
                                                                                                                                                                                       performed using the Ocean                                                                                                                                                                       spatial averaging, temporal
                                            justification for timescale used (e.g. data                                                         produced. Time series of spatial                                                                                                                         and Eulerian statistics were applied, thus                                                                    information also used to obtain mixing            relatively low resolution, at least in our own
                                                                                                                                                                                       Data View software.                                                                                                                                                                             ternds and seasonal cycles
                                            availability, appropriate for the subject)                                                          means over theCentral Aegean sub-                                                                                                                        providing surface mean velocity maps                                                                          coefficients through other methods.               application here. More classical methods
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       have been estimated.
                                                                                                                                                region have been computed to                                                                                                                             accompanied by variance ellipses.                                                                                                                               (like volume of water divided by water fluxes)
                                                                                                                                                investigate temporal variability.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        may be used, but there are errors introduced
                                                                                                                                                Quantitative assessments are made                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        by subjectiveness in selecting limiting
8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        parameters
                                                                                            Carter, G. ., Flanagan, I.P. et al., 1972. A new
                                                                                            bathymetric chart and physiography of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Basic bibliographic literature:
                                                                                            Mediterranean Sea. In: D.J. Stanley (Editor) The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Basic bibliographic literature:                    Lascaratos, A., 1992. Hydrology of the
                                                                                            Mediterranean Sea-A Natural Sedimentation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Theocharis, A. et al., 1993, Deep-Sea Res.         Aegean Sea, In: H. Charnock, Winds and
                                                                                            Laboratory. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross,
                                                                                                                                                Physical Oceanography Distributed      Basic bibliographic literature:                                    II, 40, 6, 1121– 1142.                             currents of the Mediterranean Basin (pp.     In the Central Aegean Sea,                                   Oceanographic literature:
                                                                                            Stroudsburg, Pa., pp. 1-23.
                                                                                                                                                Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) at     Velaoras, D. and A.                                                Velaoras, D. and A. Lascaratos,2010,               313–334), NATO Advanced Science              the main source of           Basic Oceanographic             Kioroglou et al., manuscript submitted
                                                                                            Intergoverment Oceanographic Comission,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Leontiou, 2010: Application of the Optimum
                                                                                                                                                NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory,        Lascaratos, 2005, Journal of                                       Journal of Marine Systems 83, 58–66.               Institute: atmospheric and oceanic           information are the two      literature:                     Zervakis et al., 2003. Deep-Sea Research I,
                                                                                            1981.International Bathymetric Chart of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Multi-parametric analysis in the
                                                                                                                                                Pasadena, CA,                          Marine Systems, 53, 59– 85.                                        Zervakis, V. et al, 2005. The Global               circulation in the Mediterranean Basin,      oceanographic and            Skliris et al., 2010.           50, 53–71.
                                                                                            Mediterranean. Scale 1:1.000.000.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Mediterranean basin. B.Sc. Thesis, Dept of
                                            Provide links to web resources, or references                                                       http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov.            Velaoras, D. and A.                                                Atmosphere and Ocean System, Vol. 8, No.           Reports in Meteorology and Oceanography,     meteorological platforms     Continental Shelf Research,     Zervakis et al., 2009, 9th Symposium on
                                                                                             International Hydrographic Organization. “Limits                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Marine Sciences, University of the Aegean,
                                            to papers or datasets, of information used. If                                                                                             Lascaratos, 2010, Journal of                                       2–3, pp. 141–162.                                  Harvard University no. 40,                   deployed at the sites        30, 403–418                     Oceanography & Fisheries, 2009 -                                                               Karageorgis et al., 2008,
                                                                                            of Oceans and Seas” , 1953, 3rd edition                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mytilene, Greece                                                       Karageorgis et al., 2008, Deep Sea
     Art 8       Sources of information     information from other Directives is relevant,                                                      Literature on SST future trends:       Marine Systems, 83, 58–66.        Free text                                                                           Theocharis, A. et al., 1993, Deep-Sea        Mykonos and Santorini by     Georgopoulos, D., 2002.         Proceedings, Volume Ι, 462-467.                                                                Deep Sea Research I,
                                                                                            Hellenic Hydrographic Service (www.hnhs.gr).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Research I, 55, 177–202
                                            indicate which Directive and date of reporting.                                                     Somot et al., 2006, Clim Dyn,                                                                             Literature on salinity future trends:              Res. II, 40, 6, 1121– 1142.                  the Hellenic Centre for      Water masses, dynamic           Zervakis et al., to be submitted                                                               55, 177–202
                                                                                            Laboratory. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Drifter and float data sources:
                                                                                                                                                27,851–879.                            The basic information source                                       Somot et al., 2006, Clim Dyn, 27,851–879.          Zervakis, et al., 1998: European             Marine Research's            structure and circulation in
                                                                                            Stroudsburg, Pa., pp. 1-23.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  http://nettuno.ogs.trieste.it/sire/medsvp/
                                                                                                                                                DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0167-z          is the MedAtlas II data base,                                      DOI 10.1007/s00382-006-0167-z                      Geophysical Society XXIII General            operational oceanography     the N. Aegean Sea. Ph.D.        Drifter and float data sources:
                                                                                            Intergoverment Oceanographic Comission,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      http://www.oc.phys.uoa.gr/aeg_drifter.html
                                                                                                                                                Somot et al., 2008, Global and         as well as data from HCMR                                          Somot et al., 2008, Global and Planetary           Assembly, Nice, France, 20-24 April 1998.    system "POSEIDON"            Thesis (in Greek), University   http://nettuno.ogs.trieste.it/sire/medsvp/
                                                                                            1981.International Bathymetric Chart of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  http://runt.ocean.washington.edu/uoa/
                                                                                                                                                Planetary Change, 63, 112–126.         and the University of the                                          Change, 63, 112–126.                                                                                                         of Patras                       http://www.oc.phys.uoa.gr/aeg_drifter.html
                                                                                            Mediterranean. Scale 1:1.000.000.
                                                                                                                                                                                       Aegean                                                                                                          Drifter and float data sources:                    www.poseidon.hcmr.gr                                         http://runt.ocean.washington.edu/uoa/
                                                                                             International Hydrographic Organization. “Limits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The basic information source is the MedAtlas http://nettuno.ogs.trieste.it/sire/medsvp/
                                                                                            of Oceans and Seas” , 1953, 3rd edition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          II data base (http://www.ifremer.fr/medar/)  http://www.oc.phys.uoa.gr/aeg_drifter.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       http://runt.ocean.washington.edu/uoa/
                                                                                              Hellenic Hydrographic Service (www.hnhs.gr).
9
10               Reporting information      Format                                            Enter information
11               Reported by                Name of person                                    George Anastasakis                                Elina Tragou                           Vassilis Zervakis                 Vassilis Zervakis                Vassilis Zervakis                                  Vassilis Zervakis                            Vassilis Zervakis         Vassilis Zervakis         Vassilis Zervakis                                          Vassilis Zervakis                            Vassilis Zervakis       Vassilis Zervakis
12               Reported by                Contact email                                     anastasakis@geol.uoa.gr                           tragou@marine.aegean.gr                zervakis@marine.aegean.gr         zervakis@marine.aegean.gr        zervakis@marine.aegean.gr                          zervakis@marine.aegean.gr                    zervakis@marine.aegean.gr zervakis@marine.aegean.gr zervakis@marine.aegean.gr                                  zervakis@marine.aegean.gr                                            zervakis@marine.aegean.gr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      zervakis@marine.aegean.gr

                                                                                              Faculty of Geology and Geo-Environment,                                                  Dept of Marine Sciences,          Dept of Marine Sciences,                                                                                                         Dept of Marine Sciences,     Dept of Marine Sciences,                                                                                                       Dept of Marine Sciences,
                 Reporting organisation     Name, address of organisation
                                                                                              University of Athens, Greece                      Dept of Marine Sciences, University of University of the Aegean,         University of the Aegean,        Dept of Marine Sciences, University of the         Dept of Marine Sciences, University of the   University of the Aegean,    University of the Aegean,       Dept of Marine Sciences, University of the        Dept of Marine Sciences, University of the   University of the Aegean, Dept of Marine Sciences, University of
13                                                                                                                                              the Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Greece     81100 Mytilene, Greece            81100 Mytilene, Greece           Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Greece                     Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Greece               81100 Mytilene, Greece       81100 Mytilene, Greece          Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Greece                    Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Greece               81100 Mytilene, Greece the Aegean, 81100 Mytilene, Greece
14               Report date                DD/MM/YYYY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


          A              B                       C                                                                               D                                                                                               E

1
    Art 8.1a                                                                  Analysis of essential features and characteristics (Art 8.1a - Physical features)
    A-3 =
                Topic             Information sought              Descriptive text                                                                                                                   Summary information 1
2   Annex III
                                                                  Provide brief summary information, not extensive descriptive text                                                                  Select from categories provided




3




                                                               The Central Aegean Sea is dominated by the Cyclades plateau that hosts dozens of islands and isles surrounding small basins
                                                               and separated by straits down to several hundred meters deep. The extensive shelf area of the Cyclades is separated to the
                                                               west from mainland Greece by the Myrtoon Basin over 1100m deep and the Argolikos Basin that represents the deeper
                                                               section of the submarine Argolikos Fault Valley.
                                                               Saronikos Gulf marks the NW butt end of the Central Aegean and contains three small basins; the deepest is the Epidavros
                                                               Basin down to 450m deep.
                                  Topography and Bathymetry of
    A-3         Characteristics                                To the east the Cyclades plateau is separated from the SE Aegean Sea islands through open seaways that often host deeper
                                  Seabed
                                                               basins. The deepest basinal area is encountered north of Ikaria Island, the north Ikaria Basin over 1000 m while to the south of
                                                               the island the South Ikaria Basin is over 600m deep. West of Kalymnos island the Kalymnos Basin is over 400m deep while
                                                               between Astipalea and Kos the Kos-Astypalea Basin is over 600m deep. South of Kos Island two basins are forming, the West
                                                               Kos Basin over 400 m deep and the East Kos Basin over 600 m deep. In-between the islands of Tilos-Symi the marine Tilos
                                                               Basin attain depths over 800m.




4



                                                                                                                                   ℃
                                                                Sea surface temperature spatial characteristics (annually and seasonally)
                                                                The long term annual mean SST for the Central Aegean is 19.34 . Seasonal variations closely follow the atmospheric
                                  Sea surface temperature (SST) temperatures lagged by approximately one month. Apart from the expected north-south gradient, the annual mean spatial
    A-3         Characteristics
                                  (annual and seasonal)         distribution is controlled by the circulation of the warmer Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) inflowing from the
                                                                                                                                                                       ℃
                                                                southeastern part of the basin combined with the circulation of the cooler modified Black Sea Water (BSW) entering from the
                                                                                             ℃
                                                                north-northwestern part. This leads to annual mean lowest SSTs at the northwestern part of ~18.5 and highest at the
                                                                southeastern part of ~20.0 .                                                                  ℃                      ℃
5                                                               The seasonal distribution of the SSTs in the Central Aegean is affected by the seasonal variability of the wind driven circulation
                                                                (summer Etesian winds, in particular). Winter (Jan-Feb-Mar) SSTs range from 14.5 to 17.5 with a mean of ~15.7 , with
                                                                colder waters occupying the northwestern part of the basin as colder BSW waters (modified in the North Aegean) enter from
                                                                                                                                                                                   ℃
                                                                the northwest, whereas warmer LIW enter from the southeast. During spring (Apr-May-Jun) the horizontal SST distribution is
                                                                          ℃
                                                                similar to the winter, although gradually warmer values are observed. Spring SST values range from 15.3 to 23 with a mean
                                                                of ~ 18.6 . Summer (Jul-Aug-Sep) SSTs are clearly affected by the onset of the Etesian winds (see Upwelling Characteristics)
                                                                                                                                                              ℃                        ℃
                                                                so that the east-west gradient is reversed. Thus the resulting SST spatial distribution shows lower values close to the eastern-
                                                                part gradually increasing to the west. Values during summer are ranging from 22.5 to 25.5 with a mean of ~ 23.7 . Fall
                                                                                                                                                   ℃                         ℃
                                                                (Oct-Nov-Dec) SSTs show a transitional distribution from summer to winter conditions, where lower values occupy again the
                                                                northwestern basin. Temperature values during fall are ranging from 16 to 22.5 with a mean of ~ 19.6 .
                                                                                                                                                         ℃                                           Recent trends in annual average sea surface temperature
                                                                Trends in SSTs and Interannual variability
                                                                                 ℃                                                                                                                   (select one): Increasing
                                  Trends in Sea surface         The lowest SST observed during the period 1985-2002 in the Central Aegean is 12.72 (during the winter of 1993), and the
    A-3         Trends                                                                                                                                                       ℃
                                  temperature                   highest is 26.25 (during the summer of 2002).               ℃                                                                        Specify the timescale used for trend assessment: start
                                                                The time series of the basin-average monthly SSTs show a considerable warming tendency of about 1.06 , during the 18-year            date: 1993; end date: 2007
                                                                period from 1985 to 2002, or a net warming rate of 0.06 /year. This tendency is not monotonic but it is modified by
                                                                significant interannual variability. More specifically, a notable subdecadal signal is detected with a period of approximately 5
                                                                years (or less) in the basin average SSTs. This implies that despite the increasing trend in SSTs, there could be shorter cooling
                                                                periods of about 2-3 years.




6
                                  Near-bottom temperature
    A-3         Characteristics
                                  (annual and seasonal)
7




                                                                  The Central Aegean Sea is a Mediterranean sub-region characterized by very variable topography, including shallow shelves,
                                                                  continental slope regions and deep basins exceeding 1000 m depth. Furthermore, the vertical structure of its water column
                                                                  consists of three distinct layers: the northern-eastern limit of the Central Aegean is characterized by a discrete surface layer
                                                                  containing modified Black Sea Waters: the temperature in this layer, in the region that starts north of Cape Kafireas and
                                                                  includes the northern edges of the Cyclades archipelago, can be quite low (reaching 13 degrees) in extreme cases. The
                                                                  southeastern corner of the domain (vicinity of Rhodes) is characterized by the entrance of very warm waters of Levantine
                                                                  origin (reaching maximum temperatures of 27 degrees C). The intermediate layer of 100-350 m is occupied by Levantine
                                                                  Intermediate (or Cretan Intermediate) Water, at 16 ± 2 degrees C. The deep layer is occupied by North Aegean Deep Water
                                                                  north of the Cyclades (with Chios basin characteristics), at about 13.5 degrees C, while the deep layer south of the Cyclades
                                                                  islands is occupied by Cretan Deep Water, characterized by temperatures of about 14.5 degrees C.
                                                                  Thus, the spatial distribution of temperature near the sea-bed is determined by the overall depth of the water column: Most
                                                                  areas with depths shallower than 50 m exhibit sea-bed temperature statistics and temporal variability similar to the sea-
                                                                  surface temperature’s, described at another section of this report. The temperature at depths from 50 to 400 meters depends
                                                                  on the depth due to the presence of a classical thermocline, and may exhibit a seasonal cycle (characterized by a decaying
                                                                  amplitude with increasing depth). The temperature at deeper depths is determined by the processes dominating the
                                                                  characteristics of the Chios basin Deep Waters or the Cretan Sea, thus its temporal variability exhibits interannual variability
                                                                  with minimal seasonal signal (Velaoras and Lascaratos, 2005; 2010).
                                                                                                                                                                                                               MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


           A            B                        C                                                                            D                                                                                               E
  A-3 =
               Topic             Information sought            Descriptive text                                                                                                                   Summary information 1
2 Annex III
                                                               Provide brief summary information, not extensive descriptive text                                                                  Select from categories provided




3




                                                               The Central Aegean Sea is a Mediterranean sub-region characterized by very variable topography, including shallow shelves,
                                                               continental slope regions and deep basins exceeding 1000 m depth. Furthermore, the vertical structure of its water column
                                                               consists of three distinct layers: the northern-eastern limit of the Central Aegean is characterized by a discrete surface layer
                                                               containing modified Black Sea Waters: the temperature in this layer, in the region that starts north of Cape Kafireas and
                                                               includes the northern edges of the Cyclades archipelago, can be quite low (reaching 13 degrees) in extreme cases. The
                                                               southeastern corner of the domain (vicinity of Rhodes) is characterized by the entrance of very warm waters of Levantine
                                                               origin (reaching maximum temperatures of 27 degrees C). The intermediate layer of 100-350 m is occupied by Levantine
                                                               Intermediate (or Cretan Intermediate) Water, at 16 ± 2 degrees C. The deep layer is occupied by North Aegean Deep Water
                                                               north of the Cyclades (with Chios basin characteristics), at about 13.5 degrees C, while the deep layer south of the Cyclades      Recent trends in annual average near-bottom temperature
                                                               islands is occupied by Cretan Deep Water, characterized by temperatures of about 14.5 degrees C.                                   (select one): Unknown
                                 Trends in near-bottom
     A-3       Trends                                          Thus, the spatial distribution of temperature near the sea-bed is determined by the overall depth of the water column: Most
                                 temperature
                                                               areas with depths shallower than 50 m exhibit sea-bed temperature statistics and temporal variability similar to the sea-          Specify the timescale used for trend assessment: start
                                                               surface temperature’s, described at another section of this report. The temperature at depths from 50 to 400 meters depends        date: 1985; end date: 2008
                                                               on the depth due to the presence of a classical thermocline, and may exhibit a seasonal cycle (characterized by a decaying
                                                               amplitude with increasing depth). The temperature at deeper depths is determined by the processes dominating the
                                                               characteristics of the Chios basin Deep Waters or the Cretan Sea, thus its temporal variability exhibits interannual variability
                                                               with minimal seasonal signal (Velaoras and Lascaratos, 2005; 2010).




8
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Average duration of ice cover per year in the assessment
     A-3       Characteristics   Ice cover (annual/seasonal)                                                                                                                                                                 area:
9                                                                                                                                                                                                                           - None
                                                                                                  There is no ice cover reported in the Central Aegean Sea                                           Recent trends in average extent of ice cover per year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (select one):Not Relevant
     A-3       Trends            Trends in ice cover
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Recent trends in average duration of ice cover (select
10                                                                                                                                                                                                                   one): Not relevant.




                                                               The Central Aegean exhibits a very wide salinity range at its surface layer due to the presence of two major water
                                                               masses, mainly the modified Black Sea Water, entering the domain in the region of the Cape Kafireas through the
     A-3       Characteristic    Salinity                      southeastward propagating jet of North Evoia (where surface salinities can be as low as 37) and the Levantine
                                                               Surface Waters entering the domain through the northwestward flow of Asia Minor Current through the eastern
                                                               Cretan Arc straits in the region of Rhodes (where surface salinities have been recorded to reach 39.6). At the
                                                               surface layer of the whole Central Aegean sub-region, a zonal salinity gradient can be identified, with the salinity
                                                               minimum values to the western and maxima to the eastern parts of the domain.
                                                               The salinity in the 100-300 dbar layer varies between 38.8 – 39.0, with the larger part of variability being interannual
                                                               (Theocharis et al., 1993; Velaoras and Lascaratos, 2010).
                                                               North of the Cyclades the salinity of the intermediate layers tend to be lower than south of the archipelago. Indirect
                                                               evidence suggests the presence of tongues of modified BSW laying between the surface and intermediate layers
                                                               especially in the northwestern part of the region of interest (Zervakis et al., 2005).
                                                               A core of salinity minima of the order of 38.8 is often recorded in the Central Aegean Sea south of the Cyclades
11
                                                               (Theocharis et al., 1999), depending on the intensity of the exchanges through the Cretan Arc Straits.
                                                               The salinity of the deeper layers of the Central Aegean exhibit different values north of the Cyclades (where the
                                                               characteristics are those of Chios basin deep waters) or south of the Cyclades (where the presence of Cretan Deep
                                                               Waters sets salinity values higher than 39.0).                                                                           Recent trends in salinity range (select one): Increase
                                                               The salinity in the Central Aegean sub-region follows the general, mostly anthropogenic Mediterranean trend for
     A-3       Trends            Trends in salinity            rising salinities. However, it has been shown that over shorter times-scales (of the order of several years), there is a Specify the timescale used for trend assessment: start
                                                               superimposed variability of surface salinity that can be related (a) to the variability of the Mediterranean circulation date: 1985; end date: 2000
                                                               and possible internal modulations of the basin, and (b) teleconnection and the related changes of the freshwater
                                                               fluxes in the region.
12


                                                               The currents in the Central Aegean exhibits a few major features. The area north of the Cyclades is dominated by a strong
                                                               southeastern flow, extension of the Evoia jet, that forms part of the large cyclone of Chios basin (Olson et al., 2007). Drifter
                                                               evidence though testifies for permanent or recurrent southwestern flows through the Cyclades islands, in flows resembling
                                                               the Indonesian throughflow. These flows (including the flow through the Cape Kafireas –Cavo d’ Oro- Strait) gradually reduce
                                                               the intensity of the current north of Cyclades, while at the same time provide waters of North Aegean origin to the South
                                                               Aegean. The easternmost part of the domain is characterized by northward flow along the Asia Minor shores.
                                                               The currents in the Myrtoan Sea, west-southwest of the Cyclades, form a large permanent cyclone. To the Southwest of this
     A-3       Characteristics   Current velocity
                                                               feature there is a permanent anticyclonic feature of the western Cretan Sea. The northern edges of this structure are
                                                               identified as westward currents along the southern shores of the islands of Milos and Santorini (Zervakis et al., 1998).
                                                               There is some evidence that the stability of the dipole formed by the anticyclone over western Cretan Sea and the cyclone
                                                               over the eastern Cretan Sea is depended on the variability of the stratification of the region (Zervakis et al., 1998). These
                                                               features had not been identified before the Eastern Mediterranean Transient phenomenon that increased the stratification of
                                                               the Cretan Sea. Currently there is evidence that the stability of these features has decreased.


13
                                                                                                                                                                                                           MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                                                               Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


           A            B                       C                                                                        D                                                                                                E
  A-3 =
               Topic             Information sought       Descriptive text                                                                                                                    Summary information 1
2 Annex III
                                                          Provide brief summary information, not extensive descriptive text                                                                   Select from categories provided




3


                                                          There are very few, sporadic and short-spanned coastal data describing the exposure of a certain coast to the surface waves.
                                                          There are a few models describing the expected exposure of a beach to waves, developed mostly at different regions, and
                                                          they require calculation of fetch, which for complex coasts like the Greek one vary greatly over small distances.
                                                          The deployment of the Hellenic Centre's for Marine Research ocean monitoring system "POSEIDON" in 1999, introduced a
                                                          new era in observing and forecasting the surface waves in the Hellenic Seas. However, most of the "POSEIDON" system's
                                                          buoys were deployed in the Aegean Sea, thus these are the only areas that extended time-series are available.
                                                          Two buoys of the “POSEIDON” system have been deployed in the Central Aegean, one SE of Santorini island and the other one
                                                          north of the island of Mykonos. The former one provides wave statistics for the southern part of the Cyclades islands, mostly
                                                          exposed to strong southerlies and the latter represents the northern Cyclades, presenting large fetch to the North.
                                                          The wave time-series recorded at Santorini covers the period from 2000 until 2012. The azimuthal distribution of both mean
                                                          significant wave height and maximum recorded waves reveal that the maximum waves come from the SW, SE and N
                                                          directions. The maximum mean annual significant wave height of 1.58 m at that location took place in 2005, and amounted to
     A-3       Characteristics   Wave exposure            a wave coming from the SE (157.5 degrees). Also, the mean zero-crossing periods in that region range around 3.3 to 4.1 s,
                                                          with the maximum mean zero-crossing period to be 4.12 s, propagating from the SW (247.5 degrees).
                                                          Despite the large fetch from SE and SW direction in that position, the highest wave recorded was in winter 2008, travelling
                                                          from the North, and was 7.5 m high. In winter the mean significant wave heights originate from SSE and SSW directions,
                                                          reaching values about 1.1 m, while the corresponding mean waves from the north slightly exceed 0.9 m. The mean significant
                                                          heights in spring range from 0.57 m from SSW directions to 0.98 from the SW. The respective zero-crossing periods range at 3
                                                          – 4 s.
                                                          In the summer, the mean significant wave height ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 m, while the maximum recorded wave was at 3.6 m
                                                          from the North, and the zero-crossing periods range from 3 – 3.8 s. Finally in the fall, the recorded mean significant wave
                                                          heights range from 0.4 to 1 m (with the highest recorded wave at 5.5 m from the SW). The zero-crossing periods range at 3.3
                                                          – 4.2 s.
                                                          Analysis of the Mykonos data will be included as soon as it becomes available.


14
                                                          There is no recorded evidence of localized wind-forced coastal upwelling in the region of the Central Aegean. However,when
                                                          strong wind is funneled through inter-island channhels, localized upwelling can be expected on the left side of the jet formed.
                                                          However, the impact of the seasonal coastal upwelling taking place in the north-east Aegean every summer under the
     A-3       Characteristics   Upwelling                influence of the Etesian winds is vary strong in the Central Aegean, as the summer inversion of the temperature zonal
                                                          gradient testifies.
                                                          Furthermore, the presence of two semi-permanent cyclonic features, the cyclones of Myrtoan Sea and the cyclone of the
                                                          eastern Cretan Sea has often been witnessed through the rise of isopycnals. These cyclonic features must also be associated
15
                                                          with upwelling, however there has not been a comprehensive study of the upwelling rates.
                                                          The Central Aegean is a region with a very complex topography and strong currents funneled through the islands. Thus, the
                                                          presence of islands introduced vorticity in the flows, and generates strong mixing, evidence for which has been provided
                                                          through hydrographic measurements. This is the reason that a focused experiment on mixing in complicated topography was
                                                          conducted in 2004 by a joint US / Greek scientific team (Gregg et al., 2012). Performing extensive microstructure profiling at
                                                          the southern edge of the Cyclades plateau, Gregg et al., found minimal vertical eddy diffusivities (10 -6 m2s-1) in the
                                                          pycnocline, fast increasing to 10-4 m2s-1 a few meters above the bottom, probably due to internal wave scattering. Also, areas
     A-3       Characteristics   Mixing characteristics   of very strong mixing (even reaching 10-3 m2s-1) were identified over a pinnacle of the seabed, along a lee wave from a
                                                          bottom extremity, and along an internal tide beam radiating from the shelf.
                                                          In the Central Aegean we also applied the method of estimating Lagrangian time-scale to assess horizontal mixing in the
                                                          surface and deep layers, on drifter and ARGO float tracks respectively. Overall 68 drifter tracks were used, provided by OGS,
                                                          Italy and the University of Athens through their cooperation with R.S.M.A.S. of Miami, Florida. The drifters provided diffusivity
                                                          estimates of 1000 (zonal) to 1200 m2 s-1 (meridional directions respectively), with corresponding length scales of 10 and 15
                                                          km, and temporal scales of 11 and 12 hours respectively. Unfortunately, there were no ARGO float tracks within the Central
16
                                                          Aegean sub-region. is characterized by very complex morphology, thus the circulation is very complex and
                                                          The Central Aegean
                                                          determining the residence time of the water in the region is as complex. The availability of drifters tracks provided by
                                                          the University of Athens and HCMR through their cooperation with the Rosenstiel School of Marine and
                                                          Atmospheric Sciences of Miami, U.S.A., as well as by the Osservatorio Geofisico Sperimentale of Trieste, Italy,
                                                          permits the computation of the residence time of the surface layer in the sub-region of interest.
                                                          The drifter tracks were exploited to estimate the temporal duration of each drifter track in the area of interest. Due to
                                                          the fact that some drifters tracks do not cross through the whole extent of the domain, but are shorter, due either to
                                                          instrument failure or to stagnation of the flow, a bulk normalization is applied, taking under consideration the
     A-3       Characteristics   Residence Time
                                                          extreme zonal and meridional positions of the track in comparisons to the extreme corresponding limits of the area
                                                          of interest.
                                                          Applying the above-described method in the Central Aegean sub-region, the un-normalized mean residence time is
                                                          estimated to 20 days (with a 21 day standard deviation). The corresponding normalized values are a mean
                                                          residence time of 67 days, with a standard deviation of 47 days.
                                                          Far less can be argued about the residence time in the subsurface layers of the Central Aegean. Where possible,
                                                          ARGO-type profiling floats can be used for the same calculation, if the time spent in the so-called ‘parking depth’ is
17                                                        much larger than the time spent in profiling or transmitting mode. Unfortunately, no float track was available in the



     A-3       Characteristics   Tranparency

18

                                                          Description of water tranparency in the assessment area, including significant spatial and temporal variation and trends. [Free
                                                          text. Max words 500]                                                                                                            Recent trends in water transparency (select one):
                                                                                                                                                                                          Increasing, Stable, Decreasing, Unknown, Not Relevant
     A-3       Trends            Trends in transparency
                                                                                                                                                                                              Specify the timescale used for trend assessment: start
                                                                                                                                                                                              date: YYYY; end date: YYYY

19
                                                                                                                                                                                                    MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                                                        Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


           A            B                       C                                                                    D                                                                                             E
  A-3 =
               Topic             Information sought    Descriptive text                                                                                                                Summary information 1
2 Annex III
                                                       Provide brief summary information, not extensive descriptive text                                                               Select from categories provided




3


     A-3       Characteristics   Turbidity

20                                                     The Central Aegean is a region devoid of riverine outflows, thus there are no strong signals of surface nepheloid layers, and
                                                       the values of turbidity remain approxiamte 0.1 per m throughout the region. Exception constitutes the western Saronikos
                                                       Gulf, where the effluent of the Athens Waste Water Treatment Plant forms a subsurface "tongue" of high turbudity reaching
                                                       values of beam attenuation coefficient of 0.8 per m. The tongue depth varies seasonally between 45 and 80 m. Another high
                                                                                                                                                                                       Recent trends turbidity (select one): Unknown
                                                       turbidity layer in this region is found at a depth of about 200 m, probably corresponding to a high stratification at the -
     A-3       Trends            Trends in Turbidity   impenetrable since 1993- interface between the intermediate layer and the local deep waters of Epidavros basin
                                                                                                                                                                                       Specify the timescale used for trend assessment: start
                                                                                                                                                                                       date: 1994; end date: 2001

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
                                                                                                                                                                   MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                       Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


                                F                                            G                                           H                     I   J               K                        L                M         N     O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   AA   AB   AC

s)   1

         Summary information 2                          Detailed information / data                   Limitations
     2
         Select from categories provided                Detailed information and data to be           Free text commentary on limitations
                                                        reported are likely to be based on the        of information and data reported; use
                                                        following data types (GIS/timeseries) and     especially if low confidence is
                                                        topics (based on GES indicators). These are
                                                                                                      reported.
                                                        provided as a framework for further
                                                        discussions which will develop and agree
                                                        on datasets and data specifications to be
                                                        reported/shared’

     3
                                                        GIS - bathymetry and topography maps
                                                        using water depth in gridded form, vector
                                                        form or raster form, or depth profiles
                                                        along tracklines.




     4
                                                        GIS layer(s) showing average SST
                                                        (seasonal/annual)?




                                                                                                      More recent data will be provided soon




     5
                                                        Data on average annual SST for past years




         Future trends in annual average sea surface
         temperature is expected to (select one):
         Increase

         Specify the timescale used for future trend
         prediction: start date: 1961; end date: 2099




     6
                                                        GIS layer(s) showing average sea bottom
                                                        temperature (seasonal/annual)?
     7
                                                                                                                                                                         MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                             Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


                             F                                                  G                                           H                        I   J               K                        L                M         N     O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   AA   AB   AC

     Summary information 2                                Detailed information / data                   Limitations
2
     Select from categories provided                      Detailed information and data to be           Free text commentary on limitations
                                                          reported are likely to be based on the        of information and data reported; use
                                                          following data types (GIS/timeseries) and     especially if low confidence is
                                                          topics (based on GES indicators). These are
                                                                                                        reported.
                                                          provided as a framework for further
                                                          discussions which will develop and agree
                                                          on datasets and data specifications to be
                                                          reported/shared’

3
                                                          Data on average annual sea bottom
                                                          temperature for past years




                                                                                                        Estimating the average salinity or
                                                                                                        temperature of a basin requires a
                                                                                                        network of CTD stations covering the
                                                                                                        whole domain. The last time that the
                                                                                                        average salinity or temperature of the
                                                                                                        Aegean could be computed was in 1988,
                                                                                                        through a homogeneous station network
     Future trends in annual average near-bottom
                                                                                                        performed in the framework of the
     temperature (select one): Increase
                                                                                                        project POEM. Estimating trends in the
                                                                                                        salinity and (bottom) temperatures in the
     Specify the timescale used for future trend
                                                                                                        Aegean Sea requires the annual or
     prediction: start date: 1961; end date: 2099
                                                                                                        seasonal repetition of a carefully planned
                                                                                                        CTD station network covering the whole
                                                                                                        region of the Aegean Sea. The estimation
                                                                                                        of trends lacking such information would
                                                                                                        result in severely biased mean spatial
                                                                                                        values, thus introducing errors in the
                                                                                                        temporal variability estimates




8
                                                          GIS layer - maximum extent of ice cover

9
       Future trends (based on predicted levels of        Data on maximum extent of ice cover for
         pressures, improvements from ongoing             past years
       measures) in the average extent of ice cover
        are expected to(select one): Not Relevant
10
                                                          GIS layer(s) with spatial distribution of
                                                          salinity                                      Estimating the average salinity or
                                                                                                        temperature of a basin requires a
                                                          Data on average salinity                      network of CTD stations covering the
                                                                                                        whole domain. The last time that the
                                                                                                        average salinity or temperature of the
                                                                                                        Aegean could be computed was in 1988,
                                                                                                        through a homogeneous station network
                                                                                                        performed in the framework of the
                                                                                                        project POEM. Estimating trends in the
                                                                                                        salinity and (bottom) temperatures in the
                                                                                                        Aegean Sea requires the annual or
                                                                                                        seasonal repetition of a carefully planned
                                                                                                        CTD station network covering the whole
                                                                                                        region of the Aegean Sea. The estimation
                                                                                                        of trends lacking such information would
                                                                                                        result in severely biased mean spatial
                                                                                                        values, thus introducing errors in the
                                                                                                        temporal variability estimates
11
                                                          Data for recent years on average salinity     Estimating the average salinity of a basin
     Future trends (based on predicted levels of                                                        requires a network of CTD stations
     pressures, improvements from ongoing                                                               covering the whole domain. The last time
     measures) in salinity range is expected to (select                                                 that the average salinity of the Aegean
     one): Increase                                                                                     salinity could be computed was in 1988,
                                                                                                        through a homogeneous station network
     Specify the timescale used for future trend                                                        performed in the framework of the
     prediction: start date: 1961; end date: 2099                                                       project POEM. Estimating trends in the
12                                                                                                      salinity and (bottom) temperatures in the
                                                          GIS maps/data showing surface/bottom
                                                          current velocity and direction




13
                                                                                                                                                               MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                   Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


                            F                                            G                                           H                     I   J               K                        L                M         N     O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   AA   AB   AC

     Summary information 2                          Detailed information / data                   Limitations
2
     Select from categories provided                Detailed information and data to be           Free text commentary on limitations
                                                    reported are likely to be based on the        of information and data reported; use
                                                    following data types (GIS/timeseries) and     especially if low confidence is
                                                    topics (based on GES indicators). These are
                                                                                                  reported.
                                                    provided as a framework for further
                                                    discussions which will develop and agree
                                                    on datasets and data specifications to be
                                                    reported/shared’

3
                                                    GIS map showing wave exposure

                                                    Data on wave exposure measurment (e.g.
                                                    Average annual or seasonal wave height,
                                                    period, fetch length, other?)




                                                                                                  We will provide additional information
                                                                                                  from the Mykonos buoy as soon as the
                                                                                                  "POSEIDON" system is operational again




14
                                                    GIS map showing upwelling




15
                                                    GIS showing degree of mixing per season in
                                                    the assessment area.

                                                    Data on: mixing measurement (specify
                                                    parameter and units)




16
                                                    GIS map showing residence time in the
                                                    assessment area

                                                    Data on: residence time (seasonal/annual)




17
                                                    GIS map showing level of transparency in
                                                    assessment area.

                                                    Data on: average transparency
18                                                  (seasonal/annual)
     Future trends (based on predicted levels of    Data for recent years on: average
     pressures, improvements from ongoing           transparency (seasonal/annual)
     measures) in water transparency is expected to
     (select one): Increase, Be Stable, Decrease,
     Unknown, Not Relevant

   Specify the timescale used for future trend
19 prediction: start date: YYYY; end date: YYYY
                                                                                                                                                                  MSFD WISE-Marine 2012 reporting sheets
                                                                                                                                                      Art8.1a Physical features: Characteristics/Analysis (v7) 27/04/2012


                            F                                             G                                            H                      I   J               K                        L                M         N     O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z   AA   AB   AC

     Summary information 2                           Detailed information / data                   Limitations
2
     Select from categories provided                 Detailed information and data to be           Free text commentary on limitations
                                                     reported are likely to be based on the        of information and data reported; use
                                                     following data types (GIS/timeseries) and     especially if low confidence is
                                                     topics (based on GES indicators). These are
                                                                                                   reported.
                                                     provided as a framework for further
                                                     discussions which will develop and agree
                                                     on datasets and data specifications to be
                                                     reported/shared’

3
                                                     GIS map showing level of turbidity in
                                                     assessment area.

                                                     Data on: average turbidity (light
20                                                   attenuation (seasonal/annual)
     Future trends (based on predicted levels of     Data for recent years on: average turbidity
     pressures, improvements from ongoing            (seasonal/annual)
     measures) in turbidity is expected to (select
                                                                                                   Data availability and temporal / spatial
     one): Increase, Be Stable, Decrease, Unknown,
                                                                                                   distribution does not permit a confident
     Not Relevant
                                                                                                   estimation of interannual trends
   Specify the timescale used for future trend
21 prediction: start date: YYYY; end date: YYYY
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:5/8/2013
language:Unknown
pages:9
gegouzhen12 gegouzhen12
About