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Courtney V. Galatioto
Lead Energy Policy Intern
Student Energy Internship and Fellowship Program
University of North Carolina Asheville

             SEIP Final Energy Policy Revision Companion Recommendations

       According to North Carolina Senate Bill 668, passed in 2007, “the energy consumption
per gross square foot for all State buildings in total shall be reduced by twenty percent (20%) by
2010 and thirty percent (30%) by 2015 based on energy consumption for the 2003-2004 fiscal
year. Each State agency and State institution of higher learning shall update its management plan
annually and include strategies for supporting the energy consumption reduction requirements
under this subsection.” (General Statute 143-61.12 (a)) The goals set in S.B. 668 are extremely
challenging and require all NC institutions to develop and implement aggressive energy policies
and plans.

Currently, the University of North Carolina Asheville’s energy conservation initiatives are driven
by an overall institutional commitment to sustainability. These initiatives have been forwarded
by departments, offices, and individuals, rather than a comprehensive energy policy. Since the
late 1990s, this practice has enabled the University to become one of the most energy efficient in
the UNC System with energy consumption (BTUs) of buildings per square foot being
consistently lower than state goals. However, since 2008, UNC Asheville’s annual BTUs per
square foot have experienced increases, a trend that has continued into 2011. These increases
can be attributed to new construction and renovation, but they can also be attributed to
weaknesses in planning and policy. This means that UNC Asheville’s ability to continue to
maintain current energy consumption levels, and even decrease energy consumption, will
become more difficult with each year.

The Student Energy Internship and Fellowship Program energy policy interns, Courtney V.
Galatioto (full-time post-graduate), Emily Cedzo and Austin Fero (part-time student interns),
have committed a combined total of approximately 1,600 hours to understanding UNC
Asheville’s energy and sustainability policy needs. This has included reviewing nationwide
university and college sustainability policies in order to identify “best practice” models and
components for energy and sustainability policies. We determined that “best practice” policies
and plans included chapter-like section formatting, utilized clear and straightforward language,
and addressed various sustainability topics (buildings, behavior, energy, water, waste reduction,
etc.). Recommendations reflect consideration of UNC Asheville’s institutional resources,
policies, goals and characteristics of the “best practice” models that would benefit UNC
Asheville’s sustainability efforts. Revisions and recommendations aim to help the University
exceed their current energy conservation and savings initiatives. Also, to ensure that the policy
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revision and additional recommendations are well-researched and thoughtful, we have contacted
various staff members and departments that are impacted by the current energy policy and would
be impacted by future revisions to accurately reflect current practices and provide feedback on
revisions and recommendations.

 The current Comprehensive Energy Efficiency Policy has not been revised since 1997. The
document’s procedures are no longer accurate, the goals no longer pertinent, and the responsible
office unclear. As a result, the document is unenforceable and obsolete with the majority of the
campus community unaware of its’ existence. From our perspective, the University of California
Berkeley energy policy provided the most comprehensive and relevant “best practice” model
based on UNC Asheville’s needs. It included energy, water, transportation, building and
construction, purchasing, and enforcement goals and procedures. As a result, the revisions made
to the Comprehensive Energy Efficiency policy are structured similarly to that document with
alterations made based on the needs and realities of UNC Asheville. Each of the sections in this
policy have many other sustainability facets that are not directly energy related, but deal with the
holistic impacts of the University’s decisions on members of the campus community and the
environment. Each section should be revisited in the writing of a complete comprehensive
sustainability document. To ensure that revisions made to Comprehensive Energy Efficiency
Policy are explained, below is an account of how and why revisions were made.

Revisions to the Comprehensive Energy Efficiency Policy

       The revised formatting of the document, divided by sections that are numerically
subdivided, is intended to ensure that the document is more user-friendly. Individuals can utilize
the “Table of Contents” to review sections relevant to them or to locate specific policy
requirements. Additionally, numerically subdividing each section enables the policy
requirements to stand alone from one another. As a result, each requirement reads as a short
individualized statement, which makes it easier to understand, search through, and reference.

Section 1: Background
This section is a new addition to the energy policy. It has been added to ensure that the current
energy policy archives the history of the policy, changes made, and the University’s
sustainability initiatives. A breakdown of N.C. Senate Bill 668 is included because it mandates
the participation of all state institutions and requires that institutions decrease their energy
consumption by 30% by 2015, as previously mentioned. Though S.B. 668 does not intend for
each individual institution to reduce energy consumption by 30%, it does mandate energy
consumption decreases and planning to achieve decreases. Though S.B. 668 was a state
mandate, through this project we learned that the majority of the campus community we
interfaced with, including faculty, staff, and students, were largely unaware of it and its’
requirements. As a result, compliance is extremely spotty. For instance, it bans the backlighting
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of drink machines in all state facilities, yet this year 10 drink machines still had backlighting.
The 2006-2008 Strategic Plan’s sustainability section was referenced to establish UNC
Asheville’s current sustainability mission, goals, and the benchmarks used for measurement.

Section 2: Policy Summary
This section is a new addition to the energy policy, which is comprised of various sections from
the original policy. A portion of the Mission Statement was included to highlight the
institutional commitment to environmental stewardship and that sustainability is incorporated
into all facets of campus life. The original scope was maintained with the exception of specifics
related to temperature setpoints, humidity levels, and individual comfort exceptions. These
details were previously outdated and updated figures were placed in more relevant sections of the
revised policy. The integrity of the short term goal was maintained and remains to limit and
reduce energy consumption and costs. The long term goal is based on the statewide goals
established by N.C. S.B. 668 and the UNC “Sustainability Policy.” The long term goals were
replaced because placing pressure on the state utility budgeting and utility commission to
incentivize utility savings does not currently guide the energy saving and sustainability initiatives
of the University, nor are they goals that are actively pursued.

The revised long term goals and short term goals are not extensive enough to truly drive a
university’s sustainability “mission.” Currently, UNC Asheville’s only sustainability goals are
set in the most recent Strategic Plan (2006-2008), which only targets three specific areas. This
would be sufficient if additional sustainability goals were made in other plans or policies,
however, that is not the case and responsibility for doing so is unclear. It is recommended that
the Master Planning Sustainability Committee set long term goals for campus sustainability and
the energy policy revised to reflect those goals. It is also recommended that the Sustainability
Work Group set short and long term goals for campus sustainability (aligned with the Master
Planning Sustainability Committee’s goals) and the energy policy revised to reflect those goals.

In the original policy, “Committee Membership” did not refer to a committee by name, so in the
revision the Sustainability Work Group was assigned committee responsibility over the policy.
Membership still includes facilities members, faculty, staff, and students. However, it does
detail who is responsible for making each appointment. This follows other campus committee
appointment guidelines and is to ensure consistency in the Work Group and in membership
appointment over the years. Additionally, because it appears that there is more than one
sustainability committee it is confusing which committee is ultimately responsible for
sustainability efforts and implementation. Therefore, all sustainability committees and their
roles and responsibilities need to be identified to avoid overlap.
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Section 3: Definitions
This section is a new addition to the energy policy, which is based on the definitions section in
UC Berkeley’s energy policy. A definition section is included to make the policy more user-
friendly, especially to individuals and departments outside of facilities and environmental-based
studies. Providing definitions to terms, practices, or technology ensures that individuals
unfamiliar with specific terms in the policy can revert back to the “Definitions” section when
necessary. This is especially important when the policy scope impacts faculty, staff, and
students. Currently, there are only a few terms included, which we anticipate will increase upon
review of the policy by others who suggest adding other words and upon revision.

Section 4: Buildings and Facilities
This section is a new addition to the energy policy, which is comprised of various building and
facilities related sections in the original policy. First, the temperature setpoints are updated to
reflect the new setpoints and climate controls according to the DDC management system in
place. All setpoints, building specifics, and exceptions were taken directly from Norman
Richards, the DDC Computers Systems Operation manager, to accurately reflect HVAC
practices. We also established that any exceptions (setpoint changes, use of portable heaters,
open windows, etc.) have to be submitted and approved by the Director of Facilities
Management. An exception process is to ensure that the campus community is aware that
exceptions require valid reasons and that official approval will only be granted in such situations.
Additionally, we include the facilities contact information for when individuals are experiencing
temperature discomfort. Throughout the duration of the SEIP grant, countless members of the
campus community stated that they were unaware of who to contact when experiencing
temperature discomfort, which increases the instances of portable heaters and open windows.

We also addressed the personal responsibilities of individuals utilizing campus building and
facilities. All individuals who use campus buildings are responsible for turning electronic
devices off or to sleep mode when leaving their office or a classroom. Individuals are also
responsible for turning off office and classroom lights when they are leaving a room and it
should not be assumed that someone will be utilizing the space afterwards.. However, addressing
individual behaviors requires enforcement and awareness initiatives. The Student Environmental
Center and SEIP interns piloted an awareness effort where “don’t open windows” and “turn off
light” prompts were placed in classrooms and offices. Based on anecdotal observation, these
prompts have not been very successful in altering the campus community’s behavioral patterns.
We included in the enforcement section that energy conservation notes should be left in offices
and classrooms where the lights have been left on by Campus Police and Housekeeping.
Leaving the note as a response to leaving lights on, rather than preventatively, may have a
greater impact on the campus community’s behaviors. But, additional enforcement and
awareness efforts must be developed and implemented to ensure that these policy requirements
serve a functional purpose.
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Additionally, the equipment and appliances that are kept in University buildings and facilities
should be Energy Star rated for commercial use only. This practice ensures University purchases
the most energy efficient equipment, but it also intends to prevent individuals from bringing
additional appliances and equipment on to campus. Individuals should be utilizing provided
shared office equipment and appliances whenever possible and not personal equipment for
convenience as it adds unnecessarily to the University’s energy consumption. For instance,
numerous faculty and staff members keep personal mini-fridges in their office, even when an
office refrigerator is provided. Similarly, numerous faculty and staff members use personal
printers, even when an office printer is provided. Though we recognize that in some instances,
such as an office or department not providing a refrigerator, these personal appliances may be
necessary, they should not be allowed out of simple convenience. A “Faculty & Staff Energy
Assessment” survey was sent to the UNC Asheville faculty and staff official email list to try and
better understand their campus energy behaviors. This survey only reflects approximately 250
individuals, so it does not function to represent the entire campus community. However, the
“Which electronics do you have in your office?” question revealed that individuals who used
personal appliances and equipment were fairly common. For instance, 60 individuals noted that
they have a personal printer, 23 individuals noted that they had a micro-fridge, and 21
individuals noted that they have a coffee or tea maker. Though the survey only reflects the
patterns of the 250 individuals that chose to participate in the survey, it is likely that if more
people were surveyed those numbers would increase, which unnecessarily adds to the
University’s energy consumption. Ideally, personal office equipment and appliances would be
located and individuals asked to remove the equipment from campus. It is recommended that all
offices and departments be prevented from purchasing individual office equipment and
appliances, notably printers, with departmental funds.

Because lighting accounts for such a large amount of the University’s energy consumption, a
separate subsection was created. The lighting revisions centralize on the concept that
overlighting should be eliminated and that buildings and facilities should only be lit to meet the
necessary safety and security guidelines. Those SEIP interns working on campus facilities
management focused largely on lighting and found many opportunities for energy savings. These
included delamping, light bulb upgrades (primarily to LED’s), and the installation of motion or
light sensors. The team was only able to implement projects in four residence halls and the
Highsmith Student Union, but achieved calculated annual savings of over $10,000. This
highlights that there is still plenty of “low hanging fruit” when it comes to energy savings, as
lighting upgrades have some of the quickest payback periods of any efficiency upgrade.

We recommend that natural light should be incorporated whenever possible, delamping should
continue to remove excess lighting, and any remaining T-12 lighting fixtures should be
retrofitted to T-8 (a change that should be prioritized due to the removal of T-12 bulbs from state
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purchasing in June 2012). Finally, equipment maintenance and repair should be prioritized to
obtain optimal energy-efficient operation of all equipment and prolong the need for replacement.

Section 5: Energy Conservation Project Prioritization and Record Keeping
This section is a new addition to the energy policy, which is comprised of various building and
facilities related sections in the original policy. Most importantly, this section states that records
(location, date completed, and specifics of work done) must be kept of all energy conservation
measures. Record keeping ensures that the University can identify remaining energy saving and
sustainability projects and can track past savings utilized to document reduced environmental
footprint and justify funding additional projects. During the SEIP grant, it became clear that
energy saving projects could have been implemented more effectively if there was a greater
awareness of the location of implementation and savings associated with past efforts. For
example, rather than having a comprehensive list of where T-12 lighting fixtures had been
retrofitted to T-8, facility interns had to go physically look at light fixtures building by building.
Ideally, when the University has money to fund into energy saving initiatives, these initiatives
can be quickly identifiable and with the payback already documented or estimated. We also
noted that documenting these efforts will enable the University to more easily participate in
programs, such as H.B. 1292, where energy savings realized can be kept by the institution to
reinvest in more energy saving initiatives. Currently, this section does not include actual energy
conservation projects being prioritized, but we anticipate that this section will include actual
projects once short and long terms goals are established.

Section 6: New Building Construction and Renovations
This section was included in the original policy, but it has been combined with the new
construction section. Currently, this section is fairly vague due to a lack of a revised
construction and building policy. We recommended that the 2009 Design Guidelines and
Review of Campus Projects policy be approved as an official university policy (the status of this
is unclear, according to Don Gordon), which would allow for more specifics to be included in the
energy policy. We did note the sustainability section the 2009 Design Guidelines Draft to act as
a placeholder and referenced the S.B. 668 building standards to establish that the state has set
energy efficiency standards. However, UNC Asheville’s construction and renovation projects
tend to exceed theses efficiency standards, so the University needs to document their current
standard and potentially develop or seek out more aggressive standards. Also, this section states
that renovation and repurposing should always be prioritized to reduce the waste of existing
structures and reduce the need for new materials. This is an area that is not directly energy
related to energy savings, but repurposing of buildings conserves the energy that is embodied in
existing buildings, instead of using new resources. Additionally, it is noted that solar and
thermal systems should always be considered in construction and renovation projects.
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Section 7: Information Technology Services (ITS)
This section is a new addition to the energy policy. After discussion with the Sustainability
Work Group, it was agreed that due to the amount of energy consumption associated with
technology services a specific ITS section should be incorporated into the policy. This section is
an adaptation of ITS’ “Sustainable Computing” page (http://its.unca.edu/sustainable-computing),
which reflects the current energy saving efforts of ITS. These efforts include Energy Star
equipment selection, refresh standards, and equipment sleep mode settings. In 2008, a server
virtualization initiative replaced 20-30 physical computers with a virtual system, which gave the
campus more server capacity though there are fewer physical pieces of server equipment using
electricity. A recent move to hosting Banner at the Western Data Center has resulted in the
removal of UNC Asheville’s largest remaining stand-alone servers, which decreased the campus’
power consumption in the server room. Also, ITS has consolidated the majority of campus
servers into a VMware virtualized server environment, or engaged off-campus hosted server
solutions, such as Google Apps. This results in fewer physical computers in the campus server
room (less e-waste), which reduces the energy consumption (electricity, heating, and cooling)
used to run campus systems. This section was developed in collaboration with Jeff Brown, the
Chief Information Officer. The section centers on current practices and procedures because ITS
has already implemented the major energy saving opportunities.

However, one area that could result in significant energy savings (and is one of the simplest
ways to save energy use from computers) is actually turning campus computers off at nights and
over weekends and breaks. Currently, campus computers must stay on for network updates that
are scheduled for around 2:00 AM, which means that computers are on or in sleep mode.
However this wastes an enormous amount of power, as computers use energy even when they
are in sleep mode. According to Reid Conway of the NC State Energy Office, Lincoln County
School system paid $15,000 for software to shut computers off at night (8500 computers) to a
first year savings of $300,000. This type of software and the goal to reduce the amount of time
that computers are powered on should be examined further. Over time this section will need to
be revised to update current practices and reflect some short and long term ITS energy efficiency
and sustainability goals.

Section 8: Transportation
This section is a new addition to the energy policy. In order to make this policy more
comprehensive of sustainability efforts, transportation was included. Transportation sections
were also in many of the “best practice” models that we reviewed, including UC Berkeley’s. We
wanted to emphasize commuter habits (how faculty, staff, and students come to campus each
day) and what services the University can offer to encourage more sustainable commuter
behaviors. Additionally, the motor fleet that UNC Asheville maintains should be comprised of
more alternative fuel vehicles and electric vehicles. This is a purchasing pattern that will result
in the immediate lowering of the University’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Ideally, this
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section will be further developed when short and long term GHG emissions reduction goals are
set and efforts can be prioritized around those goals. A transportation section could realistically
be so extensive to serve as a policy by itself.

Section 9: Behavior and Education Outreach
This section is a new addition to the energy policy, but combines sections from the original
policy. The goal of this section is identify ways to address faculty, staff, and student energy and
sustainability habits and behaviors in University facilities. Individuals’ behaviors (bringing
personal appliances, leaving on classroom lights, opening windows, etc.) can significantly
impact the University’s energy consumption. Therefore, it is important to educate the campus
community about the UNC Asheville’s energy consumption and costs in relation to their habits.
During the 2011-2012 academic year, the Student Environmental Center and SEIP grant
assumed responsibility for educating the campus community on energy consumption and costs,
the current policy, and energy saving tips. However, a greater institutional commitment needs to
be made to informing the campus community. We have suggested that Finance & Campus
Operations and Academic Affairs be charged with developing incentive programs and awareness
initiatives. Finance & Campus Operations is suggested because they are the responsible office
for this policy. Academic Affairs is suggested because of the need to reach out to faculty and
students, while drawing the connection between behavior changes and the overall sustainable
mission of the institution. Ideally, when incentive programs and awareness efforts are developed
some of the more annual and consistent ones will be described in this section.

Section 10: Energy Efficiency Funding
This section is a new addition to the energy policy, but combines sections from the original
policy together. The Institutional Conservation Program (ICP) was originally mentioned as a
source of funding for energy efficiency grants, however, the ICP no longer exists. In the
revision, we limited the search for funding sources to the state budgeting system, the
University’s power company, and grants. This section is vague and notes that funding should be
sought after and that Finance & Campus Operations is the responsible office for initiating
funding searches. A responsible office needed to be identified because in the past UNC Asheville
has missed several funding opportunities because a specific individual or department was not
charged with the responsibility, so it was not prioritized. One great way to safeguard against
missing funding opportunities is to increase the number of contact people for UNCA with Reid
Conway at the State Energy Office. Reid is happy to add more staff to his mailing list and
ensures us that the State Energy Office will only send out emails with pertinent information. His
email is rconway@nccommerce.com. Due to budget limitations, external funding sources have
to be identified and sought after in order to continue energy saving and sustainability initiatives.
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Section 11: Enforcement
This section is a new addition to the energy policy. There were minimal models for enforcement
in the “best practice” policies reviewed and other UNC Asheville policies lack enforcement
sections, which made it difficult to suggest enforcement strategies. However, we decided to
include this section to identify a responsible office and because the original policy was
implemented due to a lack of enforcement and awareness. It is more likely that if educational
outreach was the focus, individuals would be aware of the energy policy and the benefits of the
initiatives, so that enforcement would be unnecessary.



Recommendations

         The SEIP interns’ revisions to the Comprehensive Energy Efficiency document are
thorough, but are by no means complete. There are numerous energy saving and sustainability
initiatives that SEIP interns believe should be included in the University’s energy and
sustainability planning. However, some of them were not included in the energy policy revision
because they were outside of the scope of the energy policy, unrealistic due to staff and funding,
and related to the wider UNC System. Therefore, this companion document lists both UNC
Asheville specific recommendations and statewide recommendations that should be included in
future energy policy revisions and sustainability planning in order to maximize energy saving
and sustainability initiatives.

UNC Asheville Recommendations
  ● Incorporation into the University’s Policy on Policies review and revision process
  ● Need to hire a Sustainability Director and/or Energy Manager
  ● Need to develop an Office of Sustainability that would be housed within the Facilities
     Department and under the Office of Finance & Operations
         ○ Attached is the UNC System Sustainability Management Spreadsheet, which
             tracks how other UNC institutions manage energy consumption and sustainability
             initiatives and provide UNC Asheville with some examples of how they could
             incorporate a sustainability office or officer into campus operations
  ● The Sustainability Work Group and Sustainability Master Planning Committee need to
     set both short term and long term energy consumption and sustainability goals
         ○ In the SEIP’s revised energy policy (Section 2.3) these are based on N.C. Senate
             Bill 668 goals, but do not reflection an institutional direction or mission
  ● Need to document all energy saving efforts (location, date completed, and specifics of
     work done) in one place and in a consistent format
  ● Each office and department needs to include an Energy and Sustainability section to their
     policies. This ensures that each department becomes aware of what their campus
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     environmental footprint is and thinks of ways specific to their department to reduce that
     impact
   ● Pass the 2009 Design Guidelines and Review of Campus Projects draft, in order, to
     ensure responsible use of energy and natural resources and sustainability as a design
     priority in new construction and renovation
   ● Need to develop a comprehensive water policy (can be incorporated into the energy
     policy, but may be so extensive that it serves as a policy by itself )
   ● Need to develop indoor air quality standards for campus buildings. See EPA’s indoor air
     quality tools for schools: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schooldesign/index.html

Statewide Recommendations
   ● Office of State Construction needs to allow individual institutions to have more
      autonomy over decisions pertaining to building construction and renovation. Currently
      many of these decisions are out of the hands of individual institutions, preventing those
      who wish to have buildings built to higher energy standards from doing so
   ● General Administration needs to have system-wide energy benchmarks and policy, which
      are to be implemented and enforced
   ● General Administration needs to have a system-wide energy manager to assist
      universities in implementing the system-wide policy and achieving system-wide
      benchmarks
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                       UNC System Sustainability Management Spreadsheet
                                                    Office of
                          Sustainability        Sustainability and
    Institution          Manager and Title            Title           Responsible Office      Responsible Officer

  UNC Asheville
                           Y, Sustainability       Y, Office of                                Vice Chancellor of
Appalachian State              Director           Sustainability        Business Affairs        Business Affairs
                          N, Sustainability
                        Officer (Same person
                         as Associate Vice       N, Incorporated                                Associate Vice
                             Chancellor of      under the Office of        Office of             Chancellor of
                            Environmental         Environmental         Environmental           Environmental
   East Carolina         Health and Safety      Health and Safety      Health and Safety       Health and Safety
Elizabeth City State              N                     N                     N/A                     N/A
                          N, Sustainability
                        Officer (Same person
                         as Associate Vice       N, Incorporated                                Associate Vice
                            Chancellor for      under the Office of      Department of           Chancellor of
                               Facilities            Facilities          Business and            Business and
 Fayetteville State          Management           Management               Finance                    Finance
                                                                                                 Assistant Vice
                                                 N, Incorporated                                 Chancellor of
                                                under the Office of   Division of Business       Business and
     NC A & T           Y, Energy Manager            Facilities           and Finance                 Finance
                                                                                                Associate Vice
                                                                                                 Chancellor for
                                                                          Facilities                 Facilities
    NC Central                   N                      N                Management              Management
                                                                                                 Assistant Vice
                           Y, Sustainability     Y, Sustainability                               Chancellor for
     NC State                  Director                Office         Facilities Operations   Facilities Operations
                        Y, Director of Energy       Y, Energy          Facilities Services     Facilities Services
 UNC Chapel Hill            Management            Management                  Division         Executive Director
                           Y, Sustainability     Y, Sustainability    Division of Business    Vice Chancellor for
  UNC Charlotte              Coordinator               Office                  Affairs          Business Affairs
                           Y, Sustainability        Y, Office of             Facilities       Vice Chancellor for
 UNC Greensboro              Coordinator          Sustainability          Management            Business Affairs
                                                                                                 Assistant Vice
                                                                                                 Chancellor for
                                                                          Facilities                 Facilities
  UNC Pembroke                   N                      N                Management              Management
                                                                        Environmental         Vice Chancellor for
 UNC Wilmington                  N                      N               Health & Safety         Business Affairs
                                                 N, Incorporated                              Vice Chancellor for
                                                 under Facilities         Facilities           Administration and
 Western Carolina       Y, Energy Manager         Management             Management                   Finance
                                                                                                Associate Vice
  Winston-Salem                                                                                  Chancellor for
      State                      N                      N             Facilities Operations   Facilities Operations
12

				
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