Introduction to ENERGY FLOW

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Introduction to ENERGY FLOW Powered By Docstoc
					 FOOD CHAINS
   & WEBS
What powers life?
the ultimate energy source
Energy Flow in Ecosystems
Energy flows from where into the
         biological world?
       Energy Flow
• How does the sun’s energy enter
  the biological world?
• What is photosynthesis?
              Energy Flow
• Producers use energy from the sun to
  build their bodies.
• Consumers eat plants and use the
  matter and energy to build their
  bodies and do work.



   sunlight   producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
omnivore
-TROPH MEANS WHAT?
Auto - troph      Gives self nutrients
Hetero-troph   Gets nutrients from others
           PRODUCERS
• What are some producers?
• Autotrophs who use photosynthesis to
  produce their own food
• Ex. Plants, algae and some bacteria
• YOUR EXAMPLE



           ``



sunlight   producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
           CONSUMERS
• What are some consumers?
• Heterotrophs that eat other organisms
  to obtain energy
• Examples: deer, rabbits, cows, mice,
  lions, humans, hawks, snakes




sunlight    producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
  -VORE MEANS WHAT?
Carni-vore         Meat eater
Herbi-vore          Plant eater
Omni-vore    Either eater (both meat
                    and plant)
Detri-vore          Dead eater
           HERBIVORES
• What are herbivores?
• Organisms that eat
  plants
• Primary Consumers
• Ex. Cows, caterpillars, bunnies




sunlight    producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
           CARNIVORES
• What are some carnivores?
• Organisms that eat meat (other
  animals/consumers)
• Secondary Consumers
• Ex. tigers, wolves, snakes, hawks




sunlight    producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
           TOP CARNIVORES
• What is an example of a top-level
  carnivore?
• eat secondary consumers; usually
  nothing feeds on them
• Ex. killer whale eating a sea
  lion or hawk eating a snake.
                                             consumer 3




sunlight      producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
       OMNIVORES
 • What are some omnivores?
 • Consumers that eat both plants and
   animals
• Primary and Secondary Consumers
• Ex. bears and humans
      Where do all
   the dead things go?
• They are eaten.   • They decay.
  YUMMMM!             SMELLY!
Detritivore vs Decomposers
• Detritivores and decomposers both feed
  on the remains of dead plants and
  animals and other dead matter (detritus)
• They rely on dead tissues for nutrients.




 detritivore                  decomposer
Detritivore vs Decomposers
• Detritivores eat   • Decomposers
  the remains of       breakdown
  dead plants and      (decay) organic
  animals              matter and feed
                       on it
Crabs, mites,
                      Bacteria & fungi
earthworms,
                      (your example)
snails (your
example)
Detritivore vs Decomposers
• What is a an example of a scavenger?
• A scavengers is a
  type of detritivore
  that feeds on
  carrion (dead
  animal remains).
• Example             Ex. vultures, sharks,
                     maggots, hyenas
Detritivore vs Decomposers
 • Why would they be called the
   environmental “recyclers”?
 • They decompose excrement, dead bodies
   and leaf litter, returning nutrients
   to the physical
   environment.
                        decomposer          consumer 3




  sunlight   producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
           Energy Flow
• The series of steps in which
  organisms transfer energy by eating
  and being eaten is called a Food
  Chain




sunlight    producer   consumer 1   consumer 2
Food Chains & Energy flow Webs
 • The steps in the transfer of energy from
   organism to organism in feeding
   relationships are called Trophic Levels.
 • How does a food chain describe this path of
   energy? (arrows)




  producer   consumer 1   consumer 2   consumer 3
                Food Chains & Energy Webs
          • Name the number of the trophic levels in
            the food chain below.
          • How do the trophic level numbers
            correspond with the “eating terms”?




          producer   consumer 1   consumer 2   consumer 3
Trophic
  Level     1           2             3            4
  Food Chains & Energy Webs
  • What important energy transfer is not
    shown in a food chain?
  • Why is it that some energy is lost from
    one level to the next level?
  • How much energy is actually passed on to
    the next level? (rule of thumb)




producer   consumer 1   consumer 2   consumer 3
           Food Chains & Energy Webs
   • If all of the snakes in this chain died, what
     would happen to the hawk?
    • To the decomposers?


                          decomposer




producer     consumer 1   consumer 2    consumer 3
           Food Chains & Energy Webs
   • If all of the mice in this chain died, what
     would happen to the hawk?
    • To the decomposers?


                          decomposer




producer     consumer 1   consumer 2    consumer 3
Food Chains & Energy Webs
• Most organisms feed on more than one
  trophic level and feed on several different
  species at each trophic level. This is a food
  web.


                                              Producers?

                                            Primary
                                            Consumers?
                                            Top predator?
Antarctic Energy Web
          A large energy web
• http://www.ifaw.org/images_custom/join_ca
  mpaigns/Save_Baby_Seals_End_the_Seal_Hu
  nt/End_The_Seal_Hunt/foodweb_large.jpg

• Information compiled by marine biologists
• Used for fishing regulation
• What else?
Reading an Energy flow web

                                         consumer 2
                   consumer 1




                           decomposer
             producer
                                                       consumer 3




  sunlight     producer     consumer 1          consumer 2

				
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