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					Traditional Islamic Architecture                           Source 1

S                                                     42


 Typical Islamic buildings usually reflected Islamic history and
    achievements through paintings and murals

 Master builders built earliest Muslim structures

 Distinctive building; mosque- a place of worship

 Grave markers, bath houses, commercial buildings, and homes
Mosques, Domes, and Minarets                          Source 1


S                                                     43

 Mosques were largely enclosed areas w/ flat roof and open
  courtyard, built from Spain to central Asia
 In 1000s, balconies on 2 or more sides of unroofed central
  courtyard, from Egypt to India
 In 1400s, dome-covered central prayer space in courtyard, from
  Balkans to Saudi Arabia- during Ottoman rule
 Domes were a signal to public, a place of prayer and Islamic
  learning
 Minarets- used to call the faithful to prayers, tall slender tower of a
  Muslim mosque
 Domes and Minarets differed in shape, building materials, other
  features
 Mamuluk- style domes were originally made of stone, now made of
  concrete
Mosques, Domes, and Minarets                       Source 1


S                                                  43

 Timurid dynasty dome- high sides, rounded top, glazed tiled surface
 World famous Taj Mahal
 Most common form of minaret is tapering, rounded shaft found
  throughout Turkey, Iraq, and Iran
 Ruling dynasties modified basic form of minaret to reflect their own
  architectural style
 Ottoman style is taller and more tapered than basic form (mid
  1400s- 1900s)
 Mimar Koca Sinan was greatest Ottoman architect
 Sinan built more than 300 structures in Istanbul including mosques,
  palaces, tombs, schools, hospitals
 Crowning achievements Selimiye Mosque at Edine, in Western
  Turkey
Grave Markers                                           Source 1


S                                                       44

 Mid- 600s, tombstones were commonplaces in Egypt
 Masonry screens shielded burial sites in 700s
 1200s= made of wood
 Mausoleum= most elaborate form of grave markers, small building-
  like structures where people were buried
 Materials= mud bricks to marble depending on how important the
  person was
 Shape of mausoleum reflected the time and place it was built
Bathhouses                                        Source 1

S                                                 44

 Prior to the 1900s, built near Mosques so worshippers could bathe
  before prayers
 Changing rooms, hot and worn water chambers, and a steam room
 Steam came from holes in the wall
 Had a dome allowing air to circulate
 Men and women used the same facility, but at different times,
  unless there were two bathhouses in a community
Commercial Buildings                             Source 1

S                                                44

 Most common were structures for storage and lodging, and
  covered marketplaces
 Caravansaries were two story structures used for temporary
  lodging for traveling merchants and their animals
 Animals on 1st floor, merchants on 2nd floor
 Covered market places= expensive goods, such as metals,
  silks, and jewels
 Formal entrance that can be closed at night and locked for
  security
Houses                                         Source 1

S                                              44

 Separate spaces for public and private functions
 Men= public space, women and children= private space
 Big homes had separate entrances and separate rooms for
  men and women
 Small homes- people hung curtains to separate men and
  women spaces
 Sometimes men and women shared the same space- part of it
  for men, part for women
Contemporary Islamic Architecture Influence of the West   Source 1


S                                                             45


 Western architects left their mark on the architecture of Egypt,
  Turkey, Iraq, India, Indonesia, and Afghanistan
 They designed palaces and mosques, and commercial and
  government buildings
Development of Local Architecture in Islamic Countries   Source 1

S                                                        45

 Memet Vedad and Ahmet Kemalettin were amongst the earliest
  Turkish professional Islamic architects
 Studied architecture in Europe and came home and designed
  buildings for Ottoman rulers in 1900s
 Evolved into Turkey’s 1st “national style”
 Sayyid Kurayyid, egyptian who trained in Switzerland
 Founder of 1st architecture journal in Islamic world
 mid-1900s, he was the busiest architect
Development of Local Architecture in Islamic Countries   Source 1


S                                                        45

 Hassan Fathy, also Egyptian, received most international recognition
 Late 1900s, Islamic architects developed individual architectural
  styles and designed schools in home countries
 mid 1980s, over 60 architecture schools existed in Islamic world
 Aga Khan Award reflects the contemporary design, community
  improvement, and concern for environment= $500,000
New Building Types and Styles                                  Source 1

S                                                              45

 Recent developments in Islamic architecture= airports, museums, banks,
  university campuses, and apartment buildings
 National mosques have been built in Malaysia, Morocco, Jordan, Saudi
  Arabia, Kuwait, and Pakistan
 1950s, western architects adopted Modernist style (technology over
  tradition)
 Late 1900s, Islamic architects returned to traditional Islamic architecture
The Muslim West                                      Source 1

S                                                    131

 Abd al-Rahman b. Mu’awiya was only survivor of the Abbasid
  Massacre of Umayyad Princes in 750
 He escaped from Spain
 Was an independent governor
Cordova, Great Mosque                                 Source 1

S                                                     134-135

 Four domes
 Main dome- in front of the minrab, preserves traditional octagon
 Carried on eight large ribs which rest on colonnettes that are
  wedged in between the sides of the octagon
 Shortened- staggered shape formed by 24 mosaic- covered
  centripetal ribs
 Other 3 domes have similar theme
 Changes in construction of domes and arches increased the
  decorations in both
Cordova, Great Mosque                               Source 1

S                                                   134-135

 Classical dome complicated dome with combinations of lines and
  shapes
 Derived from units of construction
 Muslim architects of Spain recognized significance of Cordova
 Same ribs in Cordova, Armenian churches, Sasanian and Iranian
  dome construction
Traditional Islamic Architecture                          Source 1

Q                                                         42

“In many ways, traditional Islamic architecture provides a visual
overview of Islamic history.”
Influence in the West                                   Source 1

Q                                                       45

“In the 1800s and early 1900s, Western architects traveled to Islamic
countries to work either for the local rulers of for colonial powers.
Many of these architects influenced the architectural development of
the regions in which they worked.”
New Building Types and Styles                            Source 1

Q                                                        45

“During the colonial period, Western architects brought elements of
classical and neo-Renaissance revivals to the structures they designed
in Islamic regions. Based on much earlier styles of architecture, these
revivals were eventually replaced by a return to a more traditional
Islamic style.”

				
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