4. The Thirty Years War _pp. 531–537_ by yaofenjin

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									   Chapter 14:
 Wars of Religion
THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

ANTICIPATORY SET

Analyze the illustration on page 509.
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)
BASIC QUESTION
 What caused the Revolt of the Low Countries, and what were the effects
  of the ensuing war?

KEY IDEA
 King Philip II’s absolutist governing style and fervent Catholicism
  contributed to unrest in the prosperous and independent-minded Low
  Countries. After a Calvinist iconoclastic campaign in the Low Countries,
  Philip II repressed the entire region harshly in the Spanish Fury, which
  prompted the Calvinist William of Orange to invade against the Spanish.
  When England entered the war, the Low Countries became divided
  permanently between the Calvinist United Provinces in the north and the
  Spanish Netherlands in the south. The economy in the south was ruined,
  and Amsterdam became the commercial and financial center of Europe.
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:

 Why might religious zealots as well as nobles have wanted to throw off the yoke of
the Spanish monarch?
    1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was Philip II’s lifestyle?
An ardent Catholic and the most powerful man in Europe, he lived a
simple and austere lifestyle.

How did Philip II rule?
He was an absolute ruler who was very hands-on, sending thousands of
orders all over the world from his small cell.
    1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How did Philip II behave upon conquering the Papal States?
He was magnanimous and apologized to the Pope for needing to invade
his territory.

How were the Low Countries economically?
They were very prosperous with both a thriving agricultural and
commercial economy and a thriving population.
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How successful was naval trade in the Low Countries?
It was very successful; some 500 vessels entered and left the port of
Antwerp each day.

How was the government in the Low Countries unique?
Each of the seventeen provinces was a state unto itself with its own
legislature and local government. There was a central government in
Brussels that led the federation only in times of trouble.
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How was Philip II’s policy toward the Low Countries different from
that of his father Charles V?
Charles V was fair and evenhanded, tolerating Calvinists and Anabaptists.
Philip II intended to bring absolute rule to the Low Countries.

What was the political dimension of the rebellion in the Low
Countries?
The local nobles did not like the presence of the 3000 Spanish soldiers
that Philip II had sent to guard the border with France.
    1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTION

What was the religious dimension of the rebellion in the Low
Countries?
Philip II intended to impose the Tridentine reforms by restructuring the
dioceses, which upset some Catholic nobles and abbots. Protestant civil
leaders were wary that Catholicism would be forced upon them, and there
was a rumor that an Inquisition would be established.
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Work with a partner to perform a paragraph shrink on the paragraph
“Alba was a superior…” (p. 514) to summarize Phillip II’s reason for a
campaign against the Low Countries.
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTION

What improper actions did the Duke of Alba take toward the Low
Countries?
The Spanish army under the Duke of Alba repressed the Low Countries
mercilessly: their rights were ignored, there were summary executions of
thousands, lands were confiscated, heavy taxes were imposed, and trade
was brought to a standstill.
    1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How was William of Orange a religious chameleon?
When with Philip II, William was Catholic; when with German princes, a
Lutheran; and when Calvinism became the prominent religion among the
Dutch, he was a Calvinist.

Why did the Duke of Alba think that the campaign against William
of Orange’s invasion was over quickly?
William and his brother’s army of German mercenaries were driven out
of the Low Countries quickly.
    1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was the Spanish Fury?
The Spanish army, which had not been paid, mutinied and sacked
Antwerp, pillaging the city and killing over 6000 people.

What was the consequence of the Spanish Fury?
Almost everyone in the Low Countries, even Catholic leaders, joined the
Calvinist William of Orange against the Spanish.
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

FOCUS QUESTION

How did Spain win back much of the Low Countries?
Military victories, religious toleration, a promise of the restoration of
political rights, and fear of the Calvinist William of Orange’s growing
power resulted in the ten southern provinces remaining loyal to the
Spanish crown.
    1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                (pp. 510–518)

GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

Complete the following table according to the map “The Revolt of the
Low Countries Against Spain” (p. 516).
1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
            (pp. 510–518)
     1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                 (pp. 510–518)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Perform a focused reading of the section “English Support and the End
of the Conflict” (p. 518) using the following question:

 What effect did England have by entering the war on the Protestant side?
      1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                  (pp. 510–518)

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

   Study Questions 1–10 (p. 540)
   Practical Exercise 1 (p. 541)
   Workbook Questions 1–18
   Read “The Huguenot Wars” through “Richelieu’s Influence and Power”
    (pp. 519–524)
    1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                (pp. 510–518)

CLOSURE

Write a paragraph about the cause of the Revolt of the Low Countries
and the effects of the ensuing war.
      1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II
                  (pp. 510–518)

ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT

Read aloud the Catechism, nos. 2307 and 2308 (p. 542), and then discuss
how the following parties in the wars of the Low Countries might
respond to these points:

   Philip II of Spain
   Catholic nobles of Spain
   William of Orange and the Calvinists
   Spanish soldiers
   Queen Elizabeth I of England
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

ANTICIPATORY SET

Analyze the illustrations on page 520.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

BASIC QUESTION
 What were the cause and effects of the Huguenot Wars?

KEY IDEA
 Three factions strove for political dominance in France: The House of
  Guise, a Catholic dynasty that had claims to the throne; the Huguenots,
  a professional warrior class of landed gentry who adopted Calvinism
  largely as a pretext to protest the king; and the politiques, rulers out for
  political power, the most noted of which were Catherine de Medici and
  Cardinal Richelieu. The Huguenot Wars were bloody civil wars; their
  result was increased power for the monarch and the elimination of
  Calvinists from French society.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How was conversion from Catholicism to Calvinism largely a
pretext for many of the French landed gentry?
Many of the landed gentry became Protestant to distinguish themselves
from their Catholic monarchs. Religious belief had little to do with any
political group in France.

What factors made the Tridentine reforms difficult to implement in
France?
The Popes had very little prestige or authority in France.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

Why did the populace tend to side with the king over the lords of
France?
The king represented a power to which people could appeal to seek
redress from local lords, who in some regions had nearly absolute
authority.

What was the political thrust of Francis II’s short rule?
His uncles, who dominated the teenage king, maintained Catholicism as
the only licit religion in France and thus persecuted Huguenots.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How is it clear that Catherine de Medici’s only real concern was
political power?
To offset the power of the Guise family, Catherine appointed Huguenots
to positions of power and tried to arrange marriages for her children with
Protestant leaders, including Queen Elizabeth I, as well as a marriage for
her daughter with the Catholic King of Spain.

What set a civil war in motion in France?
The assassination of Francis, Duke of Guise, resulted in a Catholic-
Huguenot civil war.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

Complete the following table about the French factions.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was the immediate effect of the St. Bartholomew’s Day
Massacre?
Catholics murdered Admiral Coligny and perhaps 2000 Protestant leaders
and supporters.

How did the violence spread during the next few weeks?
Catholic mobs and the King’s Swiss Guards killed up to 100,000
Calvinists throughout France.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How did both parties respond to the violence following the St.
Bartholomew’s Day Massacre?
Each party hired mercenary soldiers who slaughtered each other and
terrorized civilians. Some 20,000 Catholic churches were looted and
destroyed, and thousands of priests and religious were massacred.

Why were so many of the Huguenot leaders in Paris at the time of
the
St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre?
They were in Paris to attend the wedding of Henry of Navarre, a
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What rumor did Catherine de Medici start?
A Protestant insurrection was being planned in Paris.

How did Catholic supporters react to this rumor?
They carried out a preemptive counterattack.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

Who were the three Henrys?
King Henry III of France was the youngest son of Catherine de Medici;
he wanted to tolerate Protestants for the sake of peace. Henry of Guise,
founder of the Catholic League, demanded the suppression of
Protestants. Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, was an heir to the French
throne.

What was the fate of the three Henrys?
King Henry III and Henry of Navarre orchestrated the assassination of
Henry of Guise, and then King Henry III was assassinated. This left
Henry of Navarre heir to the throne.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

Why did Henry of Navarre convert from Calvinism to Catholicism?
It was a legal requirement to ascend to the throne. He is reputed to have
said, “Paris is well worth a Mass.”

Who ruled France during the minority of Louis XIII?
Cardinal Richelieu ruled France.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was Cardinal Richelieu’s goal?
He wanted to centralize the government of France and advance the
power of the monarchy by fostering religious unity and promoting anti-
Hapsburg policies.

How did Cardinal Richelieu seek to achieve his goal?
He helped France recover financially from the civil wars by encouraging a
mercantile economy and overseas exploration, destroyed all fortified
castles not under the king, and rolled back the rights that Protestants had
been granted by the Edict of Nantes.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Discuss the rights that Protestants gained through the Edict of Nantes.
Write them in your notebook.
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

   Study Questions 11–19 (p. 540)
   Practical Exercise 2 (p. 541)
   Workbook Questions 19–33
   Read “The British Isles” through “St. John Ogilvie” (pp. 525–530)
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

CLOSURE

Write a paragraph in response to the following question:

 What was the outcome of the Huguenot Wars?
2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT

Analyze the illustration on page 509, titled “The St. Bartholomew’s Day
Massacre.” Reinterpret the painting in light of what you know about the
Huguenot Wars.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

ANTICIPATORY SET

Analyze the illustration of Queen Elizabeth I’s “Armada Portrait” (p. 529),
and then read the speech that Elizabeth gave to her troops before they
battled the Spanish Armada, which was sailing to invade England.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

BASIC QUESTION
 How did the British Isles become the major European Protestant
  power during the latter half of the sixteenth century?

KEY IDEA
 Elizabeth I contained and eliminated any real or imaginary threat her
  cousin Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, posed to her rule. Elizabeth
  encouraged or engaged in persecution of Catholics in Scotland,
  England, and Ireland and was fortunate to have avoided an invasion
  from Philip II of Spain. As a result, England emerged from the
  sixteenth century as the major defender of Protestantism in Europe.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What role did England play to spread Protestantism in Europe?
England was the major defender of Protestantism in the latter half of the
sixteenth century, influencing the balance of power in the Low Countries,
France, and the German States in her favor.

How did Protestantism arise in Scotland?
Many nobles sought to enrich themselves and gain political power by
seizing Scottish churches and monasteries, which was encouraged by
Elizabeth I.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)
FOCUS QUESTIONS

Who was the major Calvinist figure in Scotland?
John Knox was a Calvinist preacher who encouraged violence against
Catholics and iconoclastic attacks on churches and monasteries.

What did Elizabeth I hope to accomplish by prohibiting the Catholic
Faith?
She hoped that Catholics would either convert to Anglicanism or die out.

What steps did Elizabeth take when Catholics resisted her?
She increased the severity of penal laws against Catholics, finally decreeing
that the practice of the Catholic Faith or adherence to Rome was treason,
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was Douay, and who was its most famous product?
Douay was an English seminary in the Spanish Netherlands to train
priests for the Catholic Church in England. St. Edmund Campion was a
young Anglican who abandoned a promising career after converting to
Catholicism. He trained at Douay and joined the Jesuits. He returned to
England in secret to minister to the underground Catholic Church. He
was eventually arrested and then tortured and martyred.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Write a paragraph on how Mary, Queen of Scots, was an unfortunate
figure.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:

 Why might Philip II have been offended by England?
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Work with a partner to complete a paragraph shrink of the paragraph
“The planned invasion…” (p. 529).
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What did Elizabeth I hope to accomplish in Ireland?
She wanted to exterminate the Catholic Faith there.

What are some tactics she employed to this end?
She abolished the Gaelic language, sent Protestant overlords to control
agriculture, and destroyed the crops and livestock in rebellious areas.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was the effect of the English persecution of Catholics in
Ireland?
The persecution of the Irish Catholics simply deepened their faith.

How did St. John Ogilvie become acquainted with Catholicism?
He studied at Louvain, where Catholic and Calvinist scholars often
debated religion.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What did St. John Ogilvie do upon his return to Scotland?
St. John returned to Scotland as a Jesuit priest; he ministered to Catholics
and won back some converts.

Why was St. John Ogilvie tortured before he was hanged?
He refused to give the names of other Catholics he knew.
    3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

   Study Questions 20–26 (p. 540)
   Practical Exercise 3 (p. 541)
   Workbook Questions 34–44
   Read “The Thirty Years War” through “Conclusion” (pp. 531– 537)
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

CLOSURE

Free write for five minutes on how the British Isles became thoroughly
Protestant during the sixteenth century, focusing on Scotland, England, or
Ireland.
 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT

Discuss the following question:

 Was Elizabeth I justified in persecuting Catholics given the historical circumstances
  in which she found herself?
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

ANTICIPATORY SET

Explain the Objective of this lesson.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

BASIC QUESTION
 Why was the Thirty Years War fought, and what was its outcome?

KEY IDEA
 The Thirty Years War began with the outrage of Protestant Bohemian
  nobles to the appointment of the Hapsburg Catholic Ferdinand of Styria
  as successor to the Holy Roman emperor Mattihas, who was also the King
  of Bohemia. It was fought through a series of four phases in which, on the
  one hand, Calvinist, Lutheran, and Catholic principalities fought each
  other, and on the other, France, England, Spain, Denmark, and Sweden
  contended on “neutral” German soil. France emerged from the war as the
  dominant European power. Germany was both devastated and disunited,
  although Catholic and Protestant regions were established for many years.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How was the fate of Germany different from that of the rest of the
European states by the end of the Thirty Years War?
Whereas most nations emerged from the wars of religion as powerful
nation-states, the German states were left as a collection of small,
disunited kingdoms.

Who waged the Thirty Years War?
It was waged by independent German princes who resisted the growing
imperial designs of the Austrian Hapsburgs.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What had the Peace of Augsburg accomplished in 1555?
It divided Germany between Lutheran princes in the north and Catholic
in the south.

What did Lutherans in Germany have to worry about in the early
seventeenth century?
They were losing power to Calvinists.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

How was Catholic reform in southern Germany?
St. Peter Canisius’s Catechism of Trent and the preaching of Capuchin friars
and Jesuits resulted in the return of thousands to the Catholic Faith.

What prompted the Thirty Years War?
Phillip III launched a campaign from Spanish-controlled Burgundy into
the Netherlands, attempting to defeat the Calvinists in one blow.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was the Defenestration of Prague?
This event usually marks the beginning of the Thirty Years War. Two
emissaries of the Holy Roman emperor were thrown out a window
(defenestrated) in outrage over the results of choosing the new king.

Who were the main opponents in the Bohemian Phase of the war?
Ferdinand II, a Catholic supported by the Pope and Spain, fought
Frederick V, a Protestant supported by the Dutch and English.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was the outcome of the Bohemian Phase?
Ferdinand II defeated Frederick V.

Why did the Danish Phase of the war break out?
The king of Denmark, Christian IV, wanted to stop the Catholic
resurgence and extend Danish influence over northern Europe.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

Who was Wallenstein?
This Protestant Bohemian noble, a politique, stood to gain from helping
the Catholic emperor. He raised an army for Ferdinand and defeated the
Bohemian rebels, enriching himself on the lands taken from Protestant
nobles.

What was the character of Wallenstein’s Catholic army?
They were an unruly but successful private army whose soldiers pillaged
for pay.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

What was the result of the Danish Phase of the war?
This was another Catholic victory, cementing Germany under
Frederick II’s control.

What was the effect of Wallenstein’s advances on Lutherans and
Calvinists?
With the Protestant Reformation in danger of being undone, these
former enemies united their efforts to resist the Catholics.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

Why did a Catholic cardinal support Protestants in the Swedish
Phase?
Cardinal Richelieu wanted to check the power of Ferdinand II.

Why did Sweden enter the war?
The Swedish king Gustavus Adolfus wanted to control the Baltic region
and incorporate northern Germany into his Swedish empire.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

Complete the following table according to the map “The Thirty Years
War in Germany” (p. 534).
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

GRAPHIC ORGANIZER

Complete the following table according to the map “After the Wars…the
Catholic Recovery” (p. 535).
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

GUIDED EXERCISE

Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:

 How did the Treaty of Westphalia make France the dominant power in Europe?
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTIONS

Why was Sweden successful initially in the third phase of the war?
Gustavus Adolfus had the quickest and most advanced army on the
continent, and he defeated the forces of Ferdinand II, who had removed
Wallenstein.

What was the ultimate, underlying cause of the war in Germany?
It was an international battleground in which Spain and France vied for
power, giving little care for Germany.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

FOCUS QUESTION

What were the effects of the French phase of the war?
Germany experienced economic and political chaos. Horrible atrocities
resulted: 300,000 soldiers killed and millions dead from malnutrition and
disease, including three-quarters of the peasantry. Germany was divided
into hundreds of tiny principalities surrounded by powerful nation-states.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT

 Study Questions 27–33 (p. 540)
 Workbook Questions 45–61
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

CLOSURE

Free write for five minutes on how the Thirty Years War affected
Germany. Compare the results of the Thirty Years War with such tragic
events as the Black Death or modern wars such as World War I or World
War II.
4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT

Discuss how Pope Bl. John Paul II’s prayer (cf. p. 510) might apply
especially to the Thirty Years War.
THE END

								
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