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Gendered Education Communication in Schools

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					Gendered
Education:
Communication in
Schools

Chapter 8
Communication in
Schools
 Historically, girls had less
  educational opportunity
 Now much discrimination
  eliminated
 Schools still marked by gendered
  dynamics
Communication in
Schools
 Schools are agents of gender
  socialization
 What schools teach us about
  gender is not static
Academics
   Males and females encounter
    gendered expectations in schools
    Males
   Boys developmentally
    disadvantaged in early school
    environment
    ◦ Feminine environments
    ◦ Adult females outnumber adult
      males
    ◦ Boys have less impulse control –
      difficulty adjusting to school
Males
   Males lag behind females
    ◦ Biology contributes to males’
      slower development of verbal
      skills
    ◦ Males more likely to drop out of
      high school
    Males
 Gap expands after high school
 Females likely to attend college
 Race and socio-economic class
  also linked to success in higher
  education
Males
   Personal choices affect academic
    performance
    ◦ Studying or engaging in
      recreation
    Males
   Schooling reproduces gender
    stereotypes
    ◦ Men not encouraged to enter
      feminine fields
    Females
   Belief females have less ability in
    math and science helped erect
    barriers
    ◦ Girls do as well as boys in math
      in early years
    ◦ Male and female high school
      students perform equally well on
      math tests
Females
 Girls are taking more advanced
  math classes
 With equal training they do well
 Females progressively drop out of
  math and science
Females
 Encounter faculty and peers who
  assume they are less able
 Sex stereotypes affect women’s
  self-confidence
Females
   Women may face gender-related
    barriers in fields such as
    engineering
    ◦ Social disapproval
    ◦ Assertiveness needed in field
      may be counter to social
      prescriptions for femininity
    Females
 Sex-related differences in brains
  and hormones give males edge in
  math and science
  ◦ Higher mean averages for males
    come from a few males
 Innate differences less important
  than social influences in the U.S.
  ◦ Not true in all cultures
Stereotyped
Curricula
 Curriculum content is less biased
  than in past
 But gender stereotypes persist
  ◦ Accounts of war focus on battles
    and leaders
  ◦ Women’s contributions on home
    front seldom noted
Stereotyped
Curricula
   Women highlighted in curricula:
    ◦ Women who fit traditional
      stereotypes
       Betsy Ross
    ◦ Women who distinguished self
      on men’s terms
       Ella Baker
Stereotyped
 Curricula
 Epochs taught in terms of effects
  on men
 Neglect impact on women and
  minorities
Stereotyped
Curricula
 Science has gender stereotypes
  that distort how taught
 Sexism in education intersects
  with other forms of discrimination
  ◦ Minorities underrepresented in
    educational materials
Stereotyped
Curricula
 Curriculum diminishes education
 Students deprived of
  understanding how half the
  population experiences the world
 Encourages men to see
  themselves as able to fulfill
  ambitions and women not able
    Athletics
   Female students have
    unprecedented athletic
    opportunities
    ◦ Due in part to Title IX
    ◦ Learn about the history of Title
      IX at
       http://www.ed.gov/pubs/TitleI
        X/index.html
Athletics
   Title IX basics
    ◦ Women must be provided
      equitable opportunity
    ◦ Colleges must provide with
      proportional scholarships
    ◦ Equal treatment includes more
      than playing time and
      scholarships
Athletics
   Playing field not even
    ◦ Male athletes and coaches
      continue to have more support
    ◦ Number of female athletes in
      college has not increased
      proportionately
Athletics
 Prior to Title
  IX, most
  coaches of
  women’s
  sports were
  women
 Today fewer
  women’s
  sports coached
  by women
Athletics
 Division I colleges pay male
  coaches more than women
  coaches
  ◦ Read more at
     http://chronicle.com/free/v47/i
      39/39a03801.htm
 Only 38% of expenses for
  athletics allocated to women
Athletics
   2005 – Supreme Court ruling
    regarding Title IX:
    ◦ All college required to do is
      send students survey about
      athletic interests and abilities
    ◦ If don’t reply, may assume
      satisfied with policies
Gender Socialization
in Peer Cultures
 Peers exercise strong influence on
  gender attitudes and identities
 Acceptance by peers higher when
  children conform to gender
  stereotypes
 College is training ground for
  adulthood
Pressures to Conform
to Masculinity
 Males more insistent boys do boy
  things than females are that girls
  do girl things
 Gender socialization more rigid
  for boys
Pressures to Conform
to Masculinity
 Boys learn they have to be strong
  and tough to fit in
 Learn they must not show signs
  of femininity
  ◦ Reinforces message masculine is
    more valuable than feminine
Pressures to Conform
to Masculinity
 Male bonding in peer groups
  reinforces masculine identification
 Often engage in drinking and
  sexual activity
Pressures to Conform
to Masculinity
 Fraternities encourage brothers to
  embody extreme versions of
  masculinity
 Heavy drinking
 Sex
 Demeaning women
Pressures to Conform
to Masculinity
   Desire to be accepted
    overshadows values and sense of
    decency
Pressures to Conform
to Femininity
 Female peer groups reinforce
  identity in girls
 Make fun of or exclude girls
 Many do what is necessary to
  gain approval
 Frustrating to some parents
Pressures to Conform
to Femininity
   Male students jeer, make lewd
    suggestions, touch women
    without consent
Pressures to Conform
to Femininity
 Faculty treat women students in
  gender-stereotyped ways
 These actions tell women
  students they are not taken
  seriously
Pressures to Conform
to Femininity
   Women in college feel two sets of
    pressures:
    ◦ Be successful as feminine
      woman
    ◦ Be smart and academically
      successful
Pressures to Conform
to Femininity
 Relentless pressure to achieve
  effortless perfection
 Undergraduate women feel
  overwhelmed by expectations
Pressures to Conform
to Femininity
   Culture of romance
    ◦ Discouraged by academic
      barriers
    ◦ Intense peer pressure
Single-Sex Programs

   Single-sex schools may solve
    some of these problems
    ◦ Heterosexual males more likely
      to make academics priority in
      single-sex schools
Single-Sex Programs

   Disproportionate number of
    women in Congress and running
    top businesses graduated from
    women’s colleges
Single-Sex Programs

 Critics argue sex-segregated
  education isn’t answer
  ◦ Better solution is make sure
    teachers in all schools treat
    students equally
 Single-sex schools tend to be
  private and charge tuition
Pressures Facing
Faculty
 Gender stereotypes also affect
  faculty members
 Gender biases and barriers
  greater for women faculty than
  for women students
    Gendered
    Hierarchies
   More prestigious the institution,
    greater proportion of male faculty
    ◦ Elementary schools – vast
      majority women
    ◦ High schools – imbalance less
      pronounced
    ◦ Colleges – number of men
      increases
Gendered
Hierarchies
   Proportion of male and female
    faculty affect students
    ◦ Women and minority students
      have fewer role models
    ◦ If more men in administrative
      roles, students may infer it’s
      normal for men to hold
      positions of status
Gender Bias in
Evaluations
   Bias against women influences
    hiring decisions, performance
    reviews, promotion
Gender Bias in
Evaluations
 Women and minorities more likely
  to be hired when blind selection
  process
 Predominantly male hiring
  committees hire fewer female
  faculty
Gender Bias in
Evaluations
   Once hired, women continue to
    face bias
    ◦ Performance more closely
      scrutinized
    ◦ Judged by stricter standards
       Hard to be perceived as
        competent
Gender Bias in
Evaluations
 Men have to give more convincing
  demonstrations of incompetence
 Male candidates judged on
  promise
 Female candidates judged by
  accomplishments
Gender Bias in
Evaluations
 Invisible hand discrimination –
  unwitting discrimination in
  applying policies that are not
  inherently biased
 Largely unconscious – makes it
  difficult to eliminate
Gender Bias in
Evaluations
   Gender bias in evaluations has
    material consequences
    ◦ Discrepancies between salaries
    ◦ Slower rates of promotion
    Gender Bias in
    Evaluations
 Assertiveness     Women’s
  in males taken     achievements -
  as brilliance      luck
 Assertiveness     Men’s
  in females         achievements -
  judged             competence
  negatively
Gendered Policies &
Expectations
 Institutions based on outdated
  family model
 Assume faculty committed to job
  don’t have to worry about
  domestic life
Earning Tenure

 Early years require long hours
 These years usually coincide with
  ideal years for bearing children
 Women faculty find it challenging
  to be professionals and parents
Earning Tenure

 Faculty member who has child
  loses work time
 Tenure clock penalizes women
 Males penalized if career is not
  primary focus
 No paternity leave
Service Expectations

   Due to small numbers, excessive
    service and mentoring
    responsibilities for women
    ◦ Contribute to overload on
      female faculty

				
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posted:5/8/2013
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