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Rivers Support the Growth of Civilization

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					       Geography of
       the Fertile
       Crescent
Unit 2 Chapter 3
Section 1
       The Geographic Setting of the
       Fertile Crescent

 Mesopotamia
 had
  Rich  Soil
  Life giving
   rivers
  A location that
   was a center of
   trade
 Why were
people attracted
to the Fertile
Crescent?
Why were people attracted
to the Fertile Crescent?

Rich
 Soil.
             The Location of
             Mesopotamia
   Mesopotamia
    comes from
    Greek words
       Between the
        rivers
       Tigris and
        Euphrates
   Shaped like a
    crescent moon
   Great place for
    growing crops
What is the term
for the area
between the
rivers?
What is the term for the area between the
rivers?


  Mesopotamia
          Rivers Support the Growth
          of Civilization
 Early people settled
  where crops could
  grow.
 Grew well near
  rivers.
 Southwest Asia
  was well suited for
  farming
      Location
 Mesopotamia  is between Asia Minor
 and the Persian Gulf as well.
       The Fertile Crescent

 Fertile crescent is a large arc or
  crescent of fertile farmland.
 Extends to Persian Gulf and
  Mediterranean Sea.
 (In ancient times) Mesopotamia was in
  two parts
    The Rise of Civilization

Hunter-gatherer first
 settled in Mesopotamia
 more than 12,000 years
 ago.
Learned to plant crops
 and grow their own food.
          Rise of Civilization
          (Continued)
 Every  year the Tigris
  and Euphrates rivers
  flooded.
 Brought silt.

 Silt- Mixture of rich soil
  and tiny rocks
 Ideal for farming
      Rivers of Life

      and Euphrates were the
Tigris
 source of life for the people of
 Mesopotamia
 Supplied fish
  Reeds for making boats
 Clay for building
Farming Settlements
                First farm settlements
                 in Mesopotamia about
                 7000 B.C.
                Farmers grew wheat,
                 barely, and other
                 grains.
                Livestock were also
                 good sources of food.
                Plentiful food =
                 population growth.
     Farming Settlements
     Continued
 Population   growth= villages form.
 Villages develop into world's first
  civilization
       Farming and Cities

 Mesopotamia received little rain
 Water levels in Mesopotamia depended on
  how much rain fell in eastern Asia Minor
 If Water got too high floods destroyed
  crops, killed livestock, and destroyed
  homes.
 Water level too low crops dried
 Farmers needed to control river’s flow.
          Rivers of Death
   Tigris and Euphrates
    also sometimes brought
    flood waters
      Deposited good soil
   Flood waters did not
    come at the same time
    every year
      People were swept
       away
      Also houses and
       animals
          Controlling Water

   To solve their problems Mesopotamians used
    irrigation
    Irrigation is a way of supplying water to an area of
    land.
   To irrigate land farmers dug storage basins to hold
    water supplies.
     Controlling Water

 People  dug canals human-made
  waterways.
 Canals connected basins to a network
  of ditches
 Ditches brought water to fields
 To protect fields from flooding
  farmers built up banks
 Built up banks held flood-water back
  when river levels were too high
     Food Surpluses
          increased the
Irrigation
 amount of food farmers
 produced
A surplus or more than of an
 item was developed.
Farmers Used irrigation to
 water grazing areas for cattle
       Food Surpluses (Continued)

 As  a result to food
  surpluses
  Mesopotamians ate
  many foods
 Mesopotamians ate
  fish, meat, wheat,
  barely, and dates
    Dividing Labor

 Fewer   people farmed because of
  irrigation
 People started doing other jobs

New occupations developed
 The type of arrangement where
  each worker specializes in a
  particular task is division of
  labor
      Mesopotamian Society

 With more job occupations society
  accomplished more
 Large projects such as constructing
  buildings were started
 Projects required skilled workers

 Structure and rules provided by
  government
       The Appearance of Cities
 Mesopotamian
  settlements grew
 Developed into cities
  around 4000-3000
  B.C
 Society in
  Mesopotamia based
  on agriculture
 Most people farmed
    The Appearance of Cities
    (Continued)
People    traded
There were political leaders
 with power bases
There was political, religious,
 cultural, and economic centers
 of civilization
Geography of
the Fertile
Crescent
questions
Question #1
 Where is Mesopotamia
        located?
a.) between the Tigris and
  Euphrates rivers
b.) in Europe
c.) the Americas
d.) far from the Mediterranean Sea
Answer To
Question #1
a.) between the Tigris
and Euphrates rivers
Question #2
     How did the Fertile
    Crescent get its name?
a.) it is a large arc of rich soil
b.) it is the moons reflection
c.) it has the same land features as
  the moon when it is a crescent
  shape
d.) it is in the shape of a circle
Answer To
Question #2
a.) it is a large arc of
rich soil
     Question #3
  What was the most important
 factor in making Mesopotamia's
          farmland fertile?
a.) there were many lakes
b.) there was a lot of rain in Mesopotamia
c.) Mesopotamia's land was not fertile
d.) the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
Answer To
Question #3
d.) the Tigris and
Euphrates rivers
Question #4
 What is a large arc of
    rich, or fertile,
       farmland?
a.) Fertile Crescent
b.) Earth
c.) Asia Minor
d.) Mesopotamia
Answer To
Question #4
 a.) Fertile
 Crescent
Question #5
     What is silt?
a.) Grass and rocks
b.) tiny rocks and water
c.) tiny rocks and rich soil
d.) sand
Answer to
Question #5
c.) tiny rocks and rich
soil
Question #6
  Why did farmers need a
   system to control their
           water?
a.) rains caused floods
b.) flooding from the Tigris and
  Euphrates river
c.) they wanted to have extra
  drinking water
d.) all of the above
Answer to
Question #6
b.) flooding from the
Tigris and Euphrates
river
Question #7
What increased the amount of
  food farmers were able to
          produce?
a.) canals
b.) irrigation
c.) rivers
d.) lakes
Answer To
Question #7
 b.) irrigation
Question #8

How did irrigation help farmers?
a.) it provided a way of supplying land
  with water
b.) it produced floods
c.) it collected salt water
d.) all of the above
Answer To
Question #8
a.) it provided a way
of supplying land with
water
Question #9
   What are canals?
a.) Greek myths
b.) surplus
c.) human-made
 waterways
d.) rivers
Answer To
Question #9
c.) human-made
waterways
Question #10
  What is a surplus?
a.) starvation
b.) livestock
c.) more than needed
d.) the Oracle of Delphi
Answer To
Question
#10 than needed
c.) more
Question #11
       What did people in
       Mesopotamia eat?
a.) wheat, meat, fish, barley, and
  dates
b.) sharks
c.) dogs
d.) grasses
Answer To
Question #11
  a.) wheat, meat, fish,
  barley, and dates
Question #12
When worker specialized
 in a specific task it was
a.) the plague
b.) division of labor
c.) metal
d.) the dark ages
Answer To
Question
#12 of labor
b.) division
Question #13
With __________ society
 could accomplish more.
a.) division of labor
b.) farming
c.) astronomy
d.) math
Answer To
Question
#13 of labor
a.) division
Question #14
Between 4000 and 3000 B.C.
 what was society based on in
       Mesopotamia?
a.) agriculture
b.) public leaders
c.) arts and crafts
d.) trade of ink
Answer to
Question
#14
a.) agriculture
Question # 15
  When did Mesopotamia
    develop into cities?
a.) 4000-3000 B.C
b.) 300-250 B.C
c.) 200-10 B.C
d.) 40-30 B.C
Answer to Question
#15
a.) 4000-3000 B.C

				
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