Protist- Eukaryotes that live in moist
A. Animal Like Protist- “Protozoans”
Unicellular heterotrophs that move
around to obtain food.
1. Pseudopods- “False Foot”
Temporary bulge that helps in
moving and feeding.
a. Contractile Vacuole- collects
extra water and expels it from
2. Cilia- hair-like projections on cell help to
move around and obtain food.
3. Flagella- One or more long flagella that
helps to move.
a. Symbiosis- relationship where one
of the species benefits.
-Mutualism- both partners benefit
from living together.
4. Parasites- Feed on the cells and body fluids of
their host causing harm.
B. Plant-Like Protists- “Algae” Diverse
That play significant role in many
-Pigments- chemicals that produce color.
Allows algae to appear in a variety of
1. Diatoms- unicellular protist with glass
like cell walls. Found in lakes, oceans,
on rocks in
1. Dinoflagellates- unicellular algae
surrounded by stiff plates that look like
a suit of armor. Two flagella held in
grooves between their plates.
3. Euglenoids- green, unicellular algae
found in fresh water. Heterotrophic when
sunlight is not available.
4. Red Algae- most multicellular seaweeds.
Red pigment good at absorbing light.
5. Green Algae- Mostly unicellular found in
fresh or salt water, rocks, tree bark, or
6. Brown Algae- found in cool rocky water.
filled sacs called bladders that allows
float upright. Ex. Seaweed
heterotrophs with cell walls and
use spores to reproduce.
Spores- a tiny cell able to grow
into a new organism.
1. Slime Molds- Feed on bacteria and
decaying materials. Use pseudopods.
Brilliant colors. Forest floors, moist and
2. Water Molds and Downy Mildews- grow as
tiny threads that look like fuzz. Attack
food crops, found in water or moist
D. Algal Bloom- rapid growth of algae from
Saltwater Blooms- “red tides” because of
Causes of Red Tides- increase in nutrients
in water in warmer climate.
Effects of Red Tides- Dangerous toxins
become concentrated in fish that eat
E. Freshwater Blooms- green layer
consisting of green algae.
Eutrophication-process in which nutrients
build up in a lake or pond causing
increase in algae growth.
Causes of Eutrophication- natural
events and human activities
Ex. Fertilizer run off in to nearby
Effects of Eutrophicaton- triggers a series
of events with serious consequences.
1. Layer of algae prevents sunlight from
2. Organisms die and sink to bottom.
3. Decomposers break down dead
organisms and increase in number.
4. Bacteria use up oxygen in water which
causes fish and other organisms to die.
Fungi- heterotrophic, eukaryotes with cell
walls. Absorb food and use spores to
A. Cell Structure- Fungi cells have cell
Hyphae- branching, thread-like
tubes that make
up bodies of multicellular fungi.
B. Obtaining Food- Absorb food through
hyphae that grow into a food source.
Asexually- Lightweight spores that have
protective covering and carries easily
through air or water.
Sexually- By hyphae of two fungi growing
Budding- asexual and no spores are
produced (similar to binary fission) new
cell breaks away and lives.
D. Role of Fungi in Nature
Environmental Recycling- decomposers.
Live in soil and break down chemicals in
dead plant matter.
Food and Fungi- Important in production of
food. Fungi called yeast helps bread to
rise and are eaten as mushrooms.
Disease-Fighting Fungi- Penicillin, an
antibiotic comes from fungi and kills
bacteria near it.
Disease-Causing Fungi- Many fungi are
parasites and cause serious disease in
plants and humans.
Fungus-Plant Root Associations- can help
plants grow larger and healthier when
hyphae grow into or on plants roots. Helps
plants to absorb water and nutrients from
soil. Pg. 94
E. Lichens-consists of a fungus and either
algae or autotrophic bacteria that live
together in mutualistic relationship.
Ex. Crusty patches that grow on tree bark