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Protist and Fungi

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					Chapter 3
Protist- Eukaryotes that live in moist
 surroundings. “Diversity”

A. Animal Like Protist- “Protozoans”
 Unicellular heterotrophs that move
 around to obtain food.
1.    Pseudopods- “False Foot”
      Temporary bulge that helps in
      moving and feeding.

     a.   Contractile Vacuole- collects
          extra water and expels it from
          cell.
2. Cilia- hair-like projections on cell help to
 move around and obtain food.

3. Flagella- One or more long flagella that
 helps to move.

     a. Symbiosis- relationship where one
 of the species benefits.

          -Mutualism- both partners benefit
 from living together.
4. Parasites- Feed on the cells and body fluids of
their host causing harm.
B. Plant-Like Protists- “Algae” Diverse
 autotrophs
That play significant role in many
 environments.

 -Pigments- chemicals that produce color.
 Allows algae to appear in a variety of
 colors.
1.   Diatoms- unicellular protist with glass
     like cell walls. Found in lakes, oceans,
     on rocks in
     shallow water.

1.   Dinoflagellates- unicellular algae
     surrounded by stiff plates that look like
     a suit of armor. Two flagella held in
     grooves between their plates.
3. Euglenoids- green, unicellular algae
 found in fresh water. Heterotrophic when
 sunlight is not available.




4. Red Algae- most multicellular seaweeds.
 Red pigment good at absorbing light.
5. Green Algae- Mostly unicellular found in
 fresh or salt water, rocks, tree bark, or
 soil.



6. Brown Algae- found in cool rocky water.
 Gas
 filled sacs called bladders that allows
 algae to
 float upright. Ex. Seaweed
C. Fungus-likeProtists-
 heterotrophs with cell walls and
 use spores to reproduce.

    Spores- a tiny cell able to grow
 into a new organism.
1. Slime Molds- Feed on bacteria and
 decaying materials. Use pseudopods.
 Brilliant colors. Forest floors, moist and
 dark places.

2. Water Molds and Downy Mildews- grow as
 tiny threads that look like fuzz. Attack
 food crops, found in water or moist
 places.
D. Algal Bloom- rapid growth of algae from
 nutrients.




 Saltwater Blooms- “red tides” because of
 red pigments
Causes of Red Tides- increase in nutrients
 in water in warmer climate.

Effects of Red Tides- Dangerous toxins
 become concentrated in fish that eat
 algae.
E. Freshwater Blooms- green layer
 consisting of green algae.



 Eutrophication-process in which nutrients
 build up in a lake or pond causing
 increase in algae growth.
Causes of Eutrophication- natural
 events and human activities
 increase rate.

Ex. Fertilizer run off in to nearby
 lakes
Effects of Eutrophicaton- triggers a series
 of events with serious consequences.

 1. Layer of algae prevents sunlight from
 reaching plants.
 2. Organisms die and sink to bottom.
 3. Decomposers break down dead
 organisms and increase in number.
 4. Bacteria use up oxygen in water which
 causes fish and other organisms to die.
Fungi- heterotrophic, eukaryotes with cell
   walls. Absorb food and use spores to
   reproduce.

A.   Cell Structure- Fungi cells have cell
     walls
            Hyphae- branching, thread-like
       tubes that make
       up bodies of multicellular fungi.
B. Obtaining Food- Absorb food through
   hyphae that grow into a food source.
C. Reproduction-
Asexually- Lightweight spores that have
   protective covering and carries easily
   through air or water.
 Sexually- By hyphae of two fungi growing
   together.
Budding- asexual and no spores are
   produced (similar to binary fission) new
   cell breaks away and lives.
        D. Role of Fungi in Nature

Environmental Recycling- decomposers.
 Live in soil and break down chemicals in
 dead plant matter.

Food and Fungi- Important in production of
 food. Fungi called yeast helps bread to
 rise and are eaten as mushrooms.
Disease-Fighting Fungi- Penicillin, an
 antibiotic comes from fungi and kills
 bacteria near it.

Disease-Causing Fungi- Many fungi are
 parasites and cause serious disease in
 plants and humans.
Ex. Ringworm
Fungus-Plant Root Associations- can help
 plants grow larger and healthier when
 hyphae grow into or on plants roots. Helps
 plants to absorb water and nutrients from
 soil. Pg. 94

E. Lichens-consists of a fungus and either
 algae or autotrophic bacteria that live
 together in mutualistic relationship.
Ex. Crusty patches that grow on tree bark
 or rocks.

				
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