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Lecture 17-ag

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					Ethers and Alcohols
                   Ethers
• Functional group is C-O-C
  – Oxygen is in the main carbon chain
• Name by naming the hydrocarbon group
  on each side of O
  – Example:
                                    CH3
                         H3C        CH2
                               O
  – Methyl ethyl ether
                  Ethers
• Many are anesthetics
• Very flammable
• Diethyl ether is most common
  – Often called just ether
  – No longer used as an anesthetic
  – Used as an organic solvent
• MTBE is used as oxygenator and octane
  booster in gasoline
                   MTBE
• Very stable in the environment
  – Is starting to show up in ground water
  – Banned by California
  – Phase-out mandated by congress
• Being replaced by ? Exercise 6.7
                   CH3
       H3C
              O      CH3
                    CH3
                    Alcohols
• Functional group is –OH
• Primary, 1°
  – Carbon that OH is on has only one carbon on it.
• Secondary, 2°
  – Carbon with OH has 2 carbons on it.
• Tertiary, 3°
  – Carbon with OH has 3 carbons on it.
• Behave differently
• Isomers & naming – C4 alcohols
                Methanol
• Most simple
• Very toxic
                     H3C OH
  – Can cause blindness and death
• Flammable – used as a fuel
  – Oxygenates and boosts octane
  – Corrosive
  – Gives off formaldehyde
• Also called “wood alcohol” and “methyl
  alcohol”
                   Methanol
• Most now made from natural gas
  (methane)
• Most used to produce MTBE
• M85 and M100 common fuels
  – M100 almost exclusively used in race cars
    • Not a likely to cause fireball
  – M85 used in FFV’s
                             H3C C OH
                     Ethanol     H2
• Most well known alcohol (grain alcohol)
    – In alcoholic beverages      (ethyl alcohol)
    – Is also toxic but not at such low levels
•   Up to 12% by fermentation – distillation
•   Proof is twice the % alcohol
•   1 pt of pure ethanol will kill you
•   Denatured alcohol
•   Affects many parts of your body
Legal Limit = .05%
                    Ethanol
• Also used as a fuel
  – E10, E85, E100
  – Also corrosive
  – Gives off acetaldehyde
• Should we use food crops for fuel?
  – Renewable fuel
     • No gain in CO2 and supply renewable
  – Fertilizer, machinery and distillation
• Also used as a solvent (cough syrup)
              2-Propanol
• Common name – isopropanol
• Rubbing alcohol is a 75% solution in water
• At that concentration, can enter cell walls
  of bacteria and kill them.
• Don’t drink!
                            OH
                  H3C       C      CH3
                            H
                 H16 – C6
• 1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12 - 14, 17, 32, 36 - 40, 42,
  52, 54, 55, 58, Ex 6.7
  – Name all isomers

				
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posted:5/7/2013
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