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					English Phonetics and Phonology

          Lesson 5B



          Stress



                              1
    Stress for Italian learners of
               English
  English stress patterns are generally rather irregular.
  Let’s make a comparison with a language like Italian,
  which is highly regular.
  Any native speaker of Italian will know where the stress
  should lie on the following nonsense words:

            toderno         entedettoli.

Unusual stress patterns are marked orthographically,

   e.g. calamita/calamità                  meta/metà         2
          English not sure

• Native English speakers cannot be so sure
  about placement of stress in words they
  have never heard.

• Accents (ò,à,ù etc.) are not used in the
  writing system.


                                             3
Where is the stress?




                       4
Where is the stress?




                       5
i TOLD you to go




                   6
i told YOU to go




                   7
    Word and Phrasal Stress
• The conventions for marking stress are: an
  upper vertical bar before primary stress
  e.g.
                / ’ kreizi /




                                          8
    What is word and phrasal
             stress?
• A series of factors combine to give us
   what is known as word stress:
1) Pitch
2) Vowel quality
3) Length
4) Loudness
We can illustrate these factors by using
   nonsense words.

                                           9
                   Pitch

In the following word the third syllable will
  be perceived as being stressed given its
  falling intonation.


            /di:di: di:di:di:/


                                                10
                Vowel quality
In the following word the third syllable will be
  perceived as being stressed as it has a different
  vowel phoneme.


             di: di: da: di: di:
This seems to be an important factor in English, as
  central vowels are often used in unstressed
  positions.

                                                      11
                   Length
Vowel phonemes tend to be longer in
 stressed positions. The only example we
 can give with length having phonemic
 value in English is:
          da da da da: da da
Obviously stressed syllables do not necessarily
 have long vowel sounds, e.g explicit

                                                  12
                Loudness
In the following word the third syllable will be
  perceived as being stressed as it is louder.


           /di: di:   di:   di: di:



                                               13
         Combined factors

Note that usually all four factors combine to
give us what is known as word stress. So
much so that it is in fact difficult to utter the
preceding examples e.g. that of loudness
without involving the other three.



                                               14
Speaker and Regional Variation

Stress placement is by no means uniform all over the
English-speaking world.

• Some differences are regional, e.g. magaZINE (GB)
  vs. MAGazine(NZ)

• Other differences are between individuals in the same
  geographical area (e.g. kiLOmeter, KIlometer).


                                                       15
Consequences of misplaced
         stress
   Placing stress on the wrong syllable in a single
   word usually does not usually lead to
   comprehension problems, although it does
   require extra effort by the listener.

   Stress (together with intonation) has important
   functions, misplacing, or not placing enough
   stress may make communication ambiguous.



                                                      16
      Acquiring stress patterns
• English word stress is not totally random and
  many authors have proposed systems to explain
  its functioning.
• While some recommend that learners utilise
  these rather complicated systems, others feel
  that it is better to take words one-by-one.
• Clearly if words are to be taken individually the
  learner must do a lot of listening and/or
  dictionary work.


                                                  17
      Schwa = unstressed
                     @

• Photograph
                     @       @

• Photographic
                 @       @   @

• Photographer

                                 18
              Quiz

•   Apply       •   Enter
•   Arrive      •   Envy
•   Japan       •   Equal
                •   Open
•   Attract
                •   Money
•   Assist
                •   Product
•   Estate      •   Hollow
•   Balloon
•   Correct
                • entertain
                              19
     Stress in verbs and nouns
• One problematic          Noun      Verb
  point is that of words
  that have one stress     DEsert    deSERT
  pattern if nouns and
                           IMport    imPORT
  another if verbs e.g.
                           EScort    eSCORT

                           REcord    reCORD

                           PROtest   proTEST
                                               20
                      Compounds
Compounds usually have main stress on the first, qualifying item, e.g.
• Hole
• PLUGhole
• MANhole


SMART card
CAR park
SWImming pool
AIRbag
NIGHTclub

N.b. many compounds are present in other languages as loan words.
   Italian speakers usually place the stress on the second element, e.g.
   airBAG, and do the same when speaking in English.

                                                                         21
             Notebooks (1)
• Write down the words whose stress you always
  get wrong
• e.g.
           apply
           process
           Japan
           secretary
           airbag etc.


                                                 22
              Notebooks (2)
• Write down the stress patterns of English




• Put one pattern at the top of each page
                                              23
              Notebooks (3)
• Write down the difficult words under the correct
  pattern

                 apply
                 Japan



                  secretary

                                                     24

				
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posted:5/7/2013
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