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					Culture
Chapter 3
• I. The Basis of Culture
   – Culture—consists of the
     knowledge, language,
     values, customs, and
     physical objects that are
     passes down from generation
     to generation.
   – What are some things that
     exist within the culture of the
     US?
                                       Section 1
   – Material vs. nonmaterial
• A society—a group of
  people who share a
  common culture.
   – One cannot exist without the
     other.
   – Culture is learned


                                    Society
• Instincts—genetically
  inherited patterns of
  behavior.
   – Studies of twins show that
     50% of our personality is
     inherited.
   – Nature vs. nurture
   – Reflexes-automatic reaction   Culture &
     to physical stimuli
   – Drives-impulses to reduce
                                   Heredity
     discomfort
• Sociobiology--is the study
  of the biological basis of
  human behavior.
   – Combines genetics with
     Darwinism
   – Sociologists would argue that
     we have biological behaviors
     that contribute to our survival
     (love, affection, parental        Sociobiology
     involvement, education, etc.)
• II. Language and Culture
   – Symbols—things that stand
     for something else
      • Physical object, smell, or
        taste
   – Language allows us to create
     culture by passing on
     experiences and knowledge
     to others.
                                     Section 2
• Norms & Values
  – Norms—rules that define
    appropriate and inappropriate
    behavior
  – Examples??
  – Become so ingrained we do
    not realize we are even dong
    them.
  – Figure 3.2 on page 82           Section 3
• Folkway—rules that lack
  moral significance
   – Examples: being quiet in a
     library, double-dipping
• Mores—norms that have
  moral dimensions and
  should be followed
   – Examples: being faithful to
     one’s spouse, not using       Folkways,
     drugs,                        Mores &
• Taboos-most serious              Taboos
  mores
  --Examples: rape, incest
• Laws are norms that are
  formally defined and
  enforced by officials.
• Many laws originate from
  mores folkways, and
  taboos.
• However, not all mores
  become laws.                   Laws
   – Example: Cheating on your
     spouse
• Formal Sanctions
   – Punishments or rewards
     passed down only by
     designated people (such as a
     judge)


• Informal Sanctions
   – Punishments or rewards that
     can be applied by most         Enforcing the Rules
     members of the group
• Much more general
• Values—broad ideas about
  what most people in a
  society consider to be
  desirable.
• Different groups within the
  same society can have
  different values
• Values form a basis for       Values
  norms
• Example: personal freedom
• Cultural Diversity &
  Similarity
• Culture changes for 3
  reasons
   – Discovery
   – Invention
   – Diffusion
                          Section 5
• Subculture—part of a dominant
  culture but differs from it in some
  important aspect
    – Example: Chinatown


• Counterculture—a subculture
  deliberately and consciously
  opposed to certain central beliefs
  or attitudes of the dominant          Cultural
  culture.
    – Example: Goth
                                        Diversity
• Ethnocentrism—judging
  others based on their own
  cultural standards.

• Cultural Universals—traits
  that exist in all cultures.
  (sports, cooking, etc)

• Cultural particulars—the
  way in which a culture
  expresses a trait.

				
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posted:5/7/2013
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