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Culture Chapter 3 • I. The Basis of Culture – Culture—consists of the knowledge, language, values, customs, and physical objects that are passes down from generation to generation. – What are some things that exist within the culture of the US? Section 1 – Material vs. nonmaterial • A society—a group of people who share a common culture. – One cannot exist without the other. – Culture is learned Society • Instincts—genetically inherited patterns of behavior. – Studies of twins show that 50% of our personality is inherited. – Nature vs. nurture – Reflexes-automatic reaction Culture & to physical stimuli – Drives-impulses to reduce Heredity discomfort • Sociobiology--is the study of the biological basis of human behavior. – Combines genetics with Darwinism – Sociologists would argue that we have biological behaviors that contribute to our survival (love, affection, parental Sociobiology involvement, education, etc.) • II. Language and Culture – Symbols—things that stand for something else • Physical object, smell, or taste – Language allows us to create culture by passing on experiences and knowledge to others. Section 2 • Norms & Values – Norms—rules that define appropriate and inappropriate behavior – Examples?? – Become so ingrained we do not realize we are even dong them. – Figure 3.2 on page 82 Section 3 • Folkway—rules that lack moral significance – Examples: being quiet in a library, double-dipping • Mores—norms that have moral dimensions and should be followed – Examples: being faithful to one’s spouse, not using Folkways, drugs, Mores & • Taboos-most serious Taboos mores --Examples: rape, incest • Laws are norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials. • Many laws originate from mores folkways, and taboos. • However, not all mores become laws. Laws – Example: Cheating on your spouse • Formal Sanctions – Punishments or rewards passed down only by designated people (such as a judge) • Informal Sanctions – Punishments or rewards that can be applied by most Enforcing the Rules members of the group • Much more general • Values—broad ideas about what most people in a society consider to be desirable. • Different groups within the same society can have different values • Values form a basis for Values norms • Example: personal freedom • Cultural Diversity & Similarity • Culture changes for 3 reasons – Discovery – Invention – Diffusion Section 5 • Subculture—part of a dominant culture but differs from it in some important aspect – Example: Chinatown • Counterculture—a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or attitudes of the dominant Cultural culture. – Example: Goth Diversity • Ethnocentrism—judging others based on their own cultural standards. • Cultural Universals—traits that exist in all cultures. (sports, cooking, etc) • Cultural particulars—the way in which a culture expresses a trait.
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