Creativity-New by gegouzhen12


									Kick-Start Your
“May the Force Be With You…Always”

         What is the Force?
   Adams: “The combination of seemingly disparate parts
    into a functioning, useful whole.”
   Picasso: “Every act of creation is an act of destruction”
    and “art is a lie that makes us realize the truth.”
   Einstein: “Imagination is more important than
        Three Creativity Perspectives
   The creative person
   The creative product
   The creative process
                   The Creative Person

   Six traits of creative people *:
    1.   Self-confidence
    2.   Unconventionality
    3.   Alertness
    4.   Ready access to unconscious processes (incubation)
    5.   Ambition
    6.   Commitment to work

    –    *Creating Minds: An Anatomy of Creativity Seen Through the Lives of
         Freud, Picasso, Stravinsky, Eliot, Graham and Gandhi. (1996).
         Howard Gardner. New York: Basic Books.
              Three Creativity Elements
1.   Expertise: In-depth knowledge about a field
2.   Creative skills: Problem-solving skills, creative
     process skills
3.   Intrinsic task motivation
     –   Intrinsic rewards: Love of the work, the process
         involved, not extrinsic reward such as money,
         awards *

         * Teresa Amabile, Creativity in Context, Westview Press, 1996
     Four Roles Of The Creative Process
                (von Oech) *
1.   The Explorer
     –     Gathers information, explores for knowledge in new
2.   The Artist
     –     Experiments with new approaches, combinations.
     –     Follows intuition, breaks rules, brainstorms, takes

         * A Kick in the Seat of the Pants, Roger von Oech, Perennial Library, New York, 1986.
     Four Roles Of The Creative Process
                (von Oech)
3.   The Judge
     –   Evaluates ideas and solutions, critically weighs
4.   The Warrior
     –   Takes the offensive, fights for implementation, sells
         the ideas, has courage.
                      The Explorer
   Know what the objective is.
   Look in other fields.
    –   Camouflage came from cubist art (Picasso & Braque).
    –   Unbreakable code in WWII came from the Navajo
   Look for lots of ideas.
   Look behind the first right answer.
    –   “How do you stop a fish from smelling?”
                        The Explorer
   Don’t overlook things right in front of you.
   Look or ideas in places you’ve been avoiding.
    –   The drunkard’s search
   The Adjacent Possible
    –   The city and the web are engines of innovation,
        created for creation, diffusion, adoption of ideas. *
   Create or find Liquid Networks. *
    –   Sharing of ideas (open, collaborative) - double-entry
        bookkeeping *
   Use forcing mechanisms.
             * Where Good Ideas Come From, Steven Johnson
                Forcing Mechanisms
   Matrix
   Trigger concepts
    –   Creative Whack Pack and Oblique Strategies apps
    –   Random words from a book
   Starbursting (Who what, where, when, why,
    –   See “Creativity Techniques” on my website.
   Brainstorming
    –   See “Better Brainstorming” on my website.
   Write everything down
                        The Artist
   Adapt
   Imagine (“What if?”)
   Reverse (backward, upside down)
   Connect
   Compare (metaphors, literature, music, art,
    sports, warfare, gardening)
   Exaptation *
    –   Gutenberg, Apple

        * Where Good Ideas Come From, Steven Johnson
   Parody
   Incubate
    –   The Slow Hunch (Darwin, Tim Berners-Lee) *
            The 10/10 Rule – Ten years to develop a platform, ten years
             to build an audience -- used to be. Google, Facebook cut it
             in half because of the web.
   Serendipity *
    –   In dreamwork.
   Error *
    –   Make mistakes.

               * Where Good Ideas Come From, Steven Johnson
                    The Judge
   Does it meet the objective?
   Positives?
   Negatives?
   Probability for success?
   Downside?
   Upside?
                   The Judge
   Timing?
   Deadlines?
   Biases? (assumptions)
   Blind Spots?
                   The Warrior
   Be bold.
   Develop a strategy.
   What are the consequences of failure?
   Get started immediately?
   Sell it.
   Persistence
   Learn from victories and defeats.
                Creativity Blocks
   Accepting conventional wisdom
   Not taking time to investigate or elaborate
   Seeking only to satisfy the perceived needs of
   Having tunnel vision, compartmentalizing
   Looking for quick, yes-no answers
   Fear of failure
                   Creativity Blocks
   Expecting others to be creative
   Being unwilling to question others
   Being unwilling to accept others’ input
   Being unwilling to collaborate
    –    Darwin: “...those who learned to collaborate and
    –   The wisdom of crowds
             Creativity Enhancers
   Assume every experience can stimulate personal
     – Look for positives, growth, opportunities:

       Chinese character, “crisis.”
   Clearly visualize a positive outcome.
   Don’t react too quickly. Give yourself time
    (incubation), have patience.
          Methods For Killing Creativity
   Evaluation
    –   Fear of evaluation kills the love of creative activity.
   Surveillance
    –   Looking over creative people’s shoulder or policing
        them de-motivates them.
          Methods For Killing Creativity
   Reward
    –   Extrinsic rewards lower motivation.
    –   Reward creative people with autonomy, the
        opportunity to learn.
   Competition
    –   Win-lose competition kills creativity.
    –   In a competitive environment, people think about
        how not to lose instead of how to win.
          Methods For Killing Creativity
   Restricted Choice
    –   Making choices for creative people or severely limiting
        their options lowers creative output.
   Extrinsic Orientation
    –   External rewards such as prizes and money hurt
    –   Creative people love the intrinsic rewards of doing the
     Pixar’s Catmull’s Rules For Collective
1.       Empower your creatives.
     -     Give your creative people control over every stage of idea
     -     Development’s job is to find people who can work together.
2.       Create a peer culture.
     –     Encourage people to help each other do their best work.
3.       Free up communication.
     –     The most efficient way to resolve the numerous problems that
           arise in any complex project is to trust people to address
           difficulties directly, without having to get permission. So, give
           everyone the freedom to communicate with anyone.
4.       Craft a learning environment.
     –     Reinforce the mind-set that you’re all learning – and it’s fun to
           learn together.
5.       Get more out of post mortems.
     –     Most people dislike post-mortems. They’d rather talk about
           what went right than what went wrong. Structure your post-
           mortems to stimulate discussion.

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